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Патент USA US2116424

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May 3, 1938,
K. BAUMANN
2,116,424
DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING TEMPERATURES IN FLUID HEATING APPARATUS
Filed Feb.‘ 1, 1955
4 Sheets-Sheet l
56.2. ‘
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Inventor
H634‘ .
‘
Karl Baumann,
by Wan/“15M
is A torney
May '3, 1933-
A
K. BAUMANN
2,116,424
DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING TEMPERATURES IN FLUID'HEATING APPARATUS
Filed Feb. 1, 1955
4 Shee'ts-Sheet 2
Inventor :
‘ Karl Baum'ann,
by
5 HuMZM/K
His Attorney.
May 3, 1938.
'
2,116,424
K. BAUMANN
DEVICE FOR CONTRQLLEING TEMPERATURES IN FLUID HEATING APPARATUS
Filed Feb. 1, 1935
.
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Invehtor :
Karl’ Baumann,
His ‘ ttorf'ney.
May 3, 1938-
K. BAUMANN
>
2,116,424
‘ DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING TEMPERATURES IN ‘FLUID HEATING APPARATUS
Filed Feb. v1, 1955
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4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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Rasponsive f H /0'
51:35:‘ of a Prime nolaver
Karl Baurnann,
by ‘71(-His Attorney.
E,
Patented no 3,1938
‘l
a
a
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‘2,116,424
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE:
DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING TEMPERATunas INFLUID HEATING Arman-laps
a
‘‘
Karl Baumann, Wilmslow, England, assignm- to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York >
p
.
’
Application February 1,1935, Serial ‘No. use
.
In Great‘ Britain February 10, 1934 " -
4 Claims. (cl. 236-20) ‘
This invention relates to ?uid ‘heating ‘plant - already explained; continue to change after it has
and has for its ‘object to provide improved means reached‘ the required value.
for automatically controlling the ‘action ‘orthe
Any change in the temperature at the outlet ‘
plant so as to maintain an operation factor may therefore cause protracted hunting of the
5 such as temperature at a predetermined level in-
dependently oi‘ the load or other imposed external
‘conditions.' The invention has particular reier-
controlling apparatus.‘
‘
‘
5
According to the present ‘ invention therefore
in order to reduce or eliminate such hunting in a
ence to plant in which ‘the point in the ?uid path
at which the‘ control action can be conveniently
l0‘ exerted is somewhat remote from the point at
?uid heating‘ plant,‘ wherein the temperature of
the ?uid at a determined ‘Point in the circuit l5
regulated by exerting a controlling action at an- 10
which the conditions are to be regulated .and in ‘ other Point in the ?uid circuit relatively remote
which the intervening plant has an appreciable from the ?rst point the control action is regu
heat capacity, For example, in the case of o, lated‘in accordance withithepstate of the ?uid
‘steam generating plant in which it is desired to at‘ a third pcintih the circuit which responds
15 maintain the‘ temperature at the outlet constant more ‘quickly to a change in the control‘ action 15
the temperature may be controlled in various ways than said ?rst point and such regulation is modi
Ior instance by controlling the‘ admission of the fled in accordance with the temperature at the
heating medium or by cooling theheated ?uid ?rst point- In applying the invention for in
by injecting‘ a ‘cold ?uid or by cooling the heated stance to the control of the outlet temperature of
20 ?uid by heat exchange with‘ a cold ?uid ‘taking a steam‘gen‘erating' plan?by means of a control 20
place in a heahexchanger. In all such cases the acticnfhavihg e?ect at a point which is located
actual point in’ the ?uid circuit at which the con- earlier‘ in the ?uid‘ circuit that is nearer to the
trol means must be located is somewhat remote , ihlet‘the control action will‘ be regulated in ac
from the outlet and consequently‘ a certain time ' cordance With the State 01 the Steam at an inter
‘ 25 is necessary ior'the ?uid to travel from the con‘- medicte Point in the ?uid circuit relatively near‘to 25
trolling means to the outlet, Intoddition the the point atwhich the control action is exerted
heating elements through whioh‘the ?uid has to
and such regulation of the control action will be
pass on itsway to the outlet may have a consider-
modi?ed in acccl‘deli'lce with the temperature of
able heat storage capacity some of. which may be
the Steam at the Outlet
so due to other parts of the installation.
1
-
'
In carrying out‘the‘invehtion ?uid let regula- 30
As a result the temperature at the ‘outlet will‘ ‘ tors may conveniently be employed. ~ A ?uid jet
not immediately respond to‘the' action of‘theicon-
regulator comprises essentially a liquid contain
‘ trol and there may be considerable delay between
ing system Supplied With liquid under. a Substan
the moment when the controlling impulses from
,
35 the temperature responsive means at the outlet is
originated and the moment when as a result‘ of
tially cchstaht head and Provided with a nozzle
through which the liquid is extruded in a let- A 35
Pad mounted on 8* pivoted arm acts as a/té‘rget
the action of the control‘means the temperature
‘ at the outlet has been brought back to the re‘
for the jet of liquid and the arm is positioned:
about its pivot by a temperature (or pressure)
quired vahm, 'During the whole time until the responsive device so that the distance of the pad
40 temperature has been brought back‘ to the re- from the nozzle is varied in accordance with the 40
quired value controlling impulses‘of the original ' temperature (or Pressman The positioning of‘
kind will continue to be transmitted to the con- the pad m'tum cfmtrols the pressure in the mud‘
‘trol means ‘from ‘the temperature responsive
systemlin the nelghbourhood of the nozzle and l
means at the‘outlet with the result that the temperature change‘at the outlet ‘will continue in
thus regulates °°nFr°1'°‘g“ns actuated by the pressure O-f the Hqmd' An example‘of 9‘ ?uid jet 4”
the same" direction after it has reached the re-
reiglatgrgigh?hkrtown if the Area’ regulator’ I
quired value until the effect oi’ the opposite kind undegtoii . rezgererfczmgs?l on magebe mare glealgy
‘ of impulses, which will‘begin to be transmitted
l
‘
v ,
50 flfom the Outlet at ‘the moment when_the tam‘
'
accompanying
drawings
now
which
ma 9
illustrate
0 t e
dia
grammatically ways of applying the invention to 5“
perature starts ‘to dl?er from the required value ‘ the regulation of the temperature of a steam
in the opposite sense is felt.
From this moment
the steam‘ temperature atthe outlet will begin to
changev in the‘ reverse direction but owing to the
l 55 inherent storage capacity of the system it will, as
generating plant,
l
l
‘
Figures 1 to 4 show the relative positioning" of.
the control components as applied respectively, to
different methods of temperature control.
'55
2
2,116,424
Fig. 5 shows the arrangement of a temperature
responsive fiuid Jet regulator.
Figs. 6 to 10 show lay-outs of various forms of
control apparatus embodying ?uid jet regulators.
Referring ?rst of all to Figs. 1 to 4, A is the
'?rst point, i. e. that at which it is desired to
regulate the temperature, and B is the point at
which the actual control action is exerted. Since
in systems to which the invention is applicable
the points A and B are relatively far apart the
control action at B is regulated by temperature
responsive means located at a third point C where
the change in the condition of the ?uid responds
more rapidly to a change in ‘the control action
15 and this regulation is in turn modi?ed by tem
ably located between the outlet from the desuper
heater and the superheater 5.
Fig. 4 shows an arrangement similar to that
shown in Fig. 3 but in which the steam passing
between superheaters 4 and 5 passes through a
chamber 1 into which cold water is sprayed from
a nozzle 8. Here the control B may as shown
comprise a cock controlling the flow to the nozzle.
Fig. 5 illustrates diagrammatically the mode
of operation of a ?uid let regulator of the well 10
known-Area type which is adapted for tempera
ture regulation. The device essentially relies
upon the action of a liquid, which is usually wa
ter, under pressure, in a conduit system 9 upon
a piston or diaphragm III of a hydraulic motor 15
connected to actuate control means. A conduit
system as shown at I in Fig. 1 is supplied with
liquid under'a constant head from a nozzle H
and is in turn provided with a nozzle I! from
which the liquid emerges in the form of a jet and 20
perature responsive means located at the point A.
It has been explained above that if the control
Organs at the point B were regulated directly by
temperature responsive means located’ at the
point A there would be a liability to hunting owing
to the time taken by the ?uid in passing from ' is projected against a pad l3. The pad I3 is
the point in the ?uid circuit at which the control ‘carried on a rocker arm I‘ which is fulcrumed
action at B has e?'ect to the point A also on ac
at l5 and-which, at the point I6 is acted upon
count oi’ the heat storage capacity of the. inter
by a rod I‘! connected at its further end with a
vening path. Regulation of the control action tube I 8 of material possessing a relatively high
in accordance with the temperature at the point co-ei?ciency of expansion. This tube will con 25
C may be arranged to eliminate the hunting but stitute the temperature means and will be located
it is necessary to modify the regulating e?'ect in at the point in the ?uid circuit from which it is
accordance ‘with the temperature at the point A desired that the controlling impulse should origi
30 since it is the temperature at this point which
it is desired to control.
a
In many cases there will be an approximately
predeterminable relationship between the tem
perature at the pdnt C and the temperature at
the point A. . This relationship will depend upon
various factors and principally upon the load and
the position of the control organs and .‘this rela
tionship may be utilized in e?’ecting the control.
According to the arrangement'shown in Fig. 1
40 the ?uid path is indicated by the reference I,
while 2 indicates the ?ue passage or heating
chamber in which the ?uid system is heated. The
point A is shown at the outlet of the fluid path
and the control organs at the point B control the
45 heating medium. As shown they consist of a
damper controlling the ?ow of hot gases to the
?uid system Alternatively in cases where gas
or oil burners are employed they might comprise
a control acting on the burner or on the gas or
oil supply. It will be appreciated that whilst the
system of control organs at B will a?'ect the
whole of the ?uid system the latter will respond
more quickly at earlier points in its path than
at later points. This is in part due to the fact
55 that points lying earlier in the ?uid path also
he earlier in the path of the hot gases. Thus the
control C is selected at a position located‘ ap
preciably earlier in the ?uid path than is the
point A.
‘
Fig. 2 shows an arrangement in which a bypass
I is provided around the earlier path of the ?uid
circuit and control organs B comprise a cock con
trolling the bypass. Here the main point at which
the control has e?'ect is that at which the bypass
65 rejoins the main ?uid path and hence the point
C is located relatively soon after this point.
Fig. 3 shows an arrangement in which the ?uid
path consists for instance of superheaters 4 and
i and the ?uidv path between these superheaters
70 comprises a desuperheater 6 the action of which
is controlled for instance as shown by throttling
the steam outlet. The throttle will hence con
stitute the control organs B and its effect will be
felt in the portion of ?uid path located in the de
superheater 6. Here again the point C is prefer
nate. Thus a rise in temperature will cause the 30
tube It to expand; this will lower the rod i1 and
hence the point of support it of the arm I‘ and
in so-doing will move the pad l3 nearer to the
nozzle ii. The pad will exert an increased reac
tion to the jet and hence raise the pressure in the
‘conduit system 9 which increased pressure will
by acting on the piston or diaphragm it cause
a regulating impulse to be transmitted to the
controlling apparatus. Conversely a fall in tem
perature will cause the support It to rise and 40
move the pad it away from the nozzle l2 and so
lower the pressure in the conduit system 9.
Obviously the relative positions of the pivot
point 15 and the point It at which the tempera
ture responsive device acts are interchangeable 45
provided the apparatus is so arranged that the _
correct control action is obtained.
Since the water is supplied to the conduit sys
tems from a source of constant head it follows
that the pressure in the conduit system is a de? 60
nite function of the distance of the pad from
the nozzle.
Fig. 6 shows a layout of a simple form of con
trol apparatus embodying the invention in which
two such regulators C andv A are employed, the 65
piston or diaphragm l?C of regulator C being
connected to control organs i9 indicated as a
throttle acting on the ?uid circuit, it being in
tended that the control organs l9 should be lo
cated at the point B referred to in Figs. 1-4 and 60
that the thermostats C and A should similarly be
located at points in the fluid circuit corresponding
to C and A (in Fig. 1) respectively. The conduit
system A9 of the regulator A is connected to actu
ate bellows 20 operating on the pivot point Cli
of regulator C. In this ?gure the parts of the
regulators are referred to by the same references
that are employed in Fig. 2 but pre?xed by the
letter A or C as the case may be. Thus the tem
perature responsive device Cl8 will exert a pri 70
mary regulation on the control means by raising
or lowering the pad C|3 in the manner above de
scribed while this action will be modi?ed by the
action of the temperature responsive device All
in raising or lowering the pivot point Cli.
75
e
‘
3,110,424
Fig. '1 shows a modi?cation of the arrangement 1 means such as are shown in
3
9 item "may
shown in Fig. 6 in which the primary control i also be introduced in any of the arrangements
action exerted by the regulatorC is modi?ed in “shown. Also instead oi.’ continuous operation,
the first place in accordance with the operating intermittent operation may be employed by well- ‘
known means providing impulses of constant or
position of the control organs is. This is e?'ect
ed by placing thepivot point Cl! on a beam 2| varying magnitude and at regular or varying in
one end oi.’ which is supported by a bellows ill tervals, the magnitude and/or the intervals be
the pressure acting on which is controlled by the‘ ing dependent on the departure of the actual
thermostat All as in the Fig. 6 arrangement, temperaturesirom the desired temperatures and
10 while the other end of the beam 2| is supported ii’ desired also on the rate oi’ change of tem 10
‘
by a bellows 22 the pressure acting on which is peratures.
that existing'in the conduit system C9. This is . V I claim:
1. In a ?uid heating plant, the'combination
obtained by means of a connection 23 between
the conduit system C9 and the bellows 22 the of a ?uid circuit including a coil through which
?uid to be heated is conducted during operation, 15
15 connection 23 containing an ori?ce or restric
tion 24 which restricts the rate oi" movement of means including a valve for controlling the heat
?uid from the conduit 09 to the bellows 22. The ing of the ?uid, a hydraulic motor for moving
control action exerted by the regulator C is then .the valve, a conduit having a discharge nozzle
further modi?ed by the control device A if the for conducting operating ?uid under pressure to
the hydraulic motor, and means co-operatively
20 temperature at A has not been maintained con
associated with the male‘ for controlling the
stant by the two earlier control actions.
Fig. 8 shows an alternative arrangement to ?uid pressure in the motor, said means compris
that shown in Fig. 7, in which a connection, ing a lever, a pad secured to the lever adjacent
‘ _ which may be made through a relay or may be the nozzle, a device responsive to the tempera
25 a direct mechanical connection,v as shown inthe ture in the outlet of said heating coil, a pres 25
?gure, is made between the control organs I! sure responsive element controlled by said tem
and the beam CH of the regulator C through perature responsive device and forming a mov
a spring 25, the movement of the control organs able fuicrum for the lever, and another device
is varies the compression of the spring 25 and responsive to the temperature at a point inter
30 hence the resistance to movement offered to the mediate the inlet and the outlet of the coil and 30
arm C“ with the result that piston ill will move forming another movable fulcrum for the lever
further than it would have moved it the upper to modify the action of the ?rst temperature re
support of the spring had been ?xed. Again the sponsive device.
2. In a ?uid heating plant, the combination
?nal modi?cation of the control will be obtained
of a ?uid circuit including a coil through which 35
35 by means of the control devices A. In view of
?uid to be heated is conducted during operation,
the over-regulation obtained by varying com
pression of the spring 25 this method of control means including a valve for controlling the heat
is liable to become unstable and to overcome this ing of the ?uid, a hydraulic motor for moving
the valve, a conduit having a discharge nozzle
instability various stabilizing means may be in
for conducting operating ?uid under pressure to
troduced,
one
of
which
is
shown
in
Fig.
9,
where
40
the hydraulic motor, and means co-operatively 40
a dashpot 26 and a further spring 251 is inter
associated with the nozzle for controlling the
posed between the spring 25 and the control le
?uid pressure in the motor, said means compris
ver C“. In this arrangement spring 251 sup
plies a stabilizing force for rapid movements of ing a ?rst lever, a pad secured to the first lever
piston Ill and the desired over-regulation will be adjacent the nozzle, a device responsive to the‘ 45
obtained more slowly by spring 25 and dashpot , temperature in the outlet of the heating coil, a
26.
"
Fig. 10 shows a further arrangement in which
the primary control is obtained by means of a
50 device responsive to the amount oi’ ?uid passing
through the system or to the load in the system.
In the case of a steam power plant this may for
instance, be the output from the prime mover.
If a change in the load takes place an immedi
55
ate adjustment of the control lever will take place
by means'of the action of the bellows 21 oper-1
ating against a spring 30, the position of which is
therefore dependent on the load. The secondary
adjustment of the control will in this case be
60 obtained by means of the thermostat C and the
?nal modi?cation by means of the control or
gans A. '
'
The temperature or pressure at the point A,
to maintain which the control action is made.
need not be an absolute temperature but may
for instance be the temperature di?erence be
tween two points in the ?uid circuit in which
case the thermostat A might act differentially.
While in the descriptions given the controls
are operated by means of bellows controlled by
nozzles in accordance with designs used by Area,
other well known devices may be used, such as
electrical contacts and motors. Further addi
tional power operated devices may be introduced
75 to obtain more positive operation. Stabilizing
pressure responsive element controlled by the
temperature responsive device, another pressure
responsive device subject to the pressure in the
motor, a, second 'lever connected to both pres
sure responsive elements and forming a movable‘
fulcrum for the ?rst lever, another temperature
responsive device subject to the ?uid temperature
at a point intermediate the inlet and the outlet
of the heating coil and forming another movable 55
fulcrum for the first lever to modify the action
of both pressure responsive devices.
3. In a ?uid heating plant, the combination of
a ?uid circuit including a coil through which
?uid to be-heated is conducted during operation, 60
means including a valve for controlling the heat
ing of the ?uid, a hydraulic motor for moving
the valve, a conduit having a discharge nozzle
for conducting operating ?uid under pressure to
the hydraulic motor, means co-operatively associ 65
ated with the nozzle for controlling the ?uid
pressure in the motor, said means comprising a
lever,’ a pad secured to the lever adjacent the
nozzle, a device responsive to the temperature in v
the outlet of said heating coil, 8. pressure respon 70
sive element controlled by said temperature re
sponsive device and forming a movable fulcrum
forthe lever, and another device responsive to
the temperature at a point intermediate the inlet
and the outlet of the coil and forming another 75
4
movable fulcrum for the lever to modify the
action of the first temperature responsive device,
device responsive to the temperature in the out
and means connected to the first lever for modi
ment controlled by said temperature responsive
let of said heating coil, a pressure responsive ele- .
fying the action of both temperature responsive device and forming a movable fulcrum for the
lever, and another device responsive to the tem
4. In a ?uid heating plant, the combination of perature at a point intermediate the inlet and the
devices in response to movement of the motor.
a ?uid circuit including a coil through which
?uid toibe heated is conducted during operation,
means including a valve for controlling the heat
ing oi’ the ?uid, a hydraulic motor for moving the
valve, a conduit having a discharge nozzle for
conducting operating ?uid under pressure to the
hydraulic motor, means co-operatively associated
with the nozzle for controlling the ?uid pressure
in the motor, said means comprising a lever, a
pad secured to the lever adjacent the nozzle, a
outlet of the coil and forming another movable
' fulcrum for the lever to modify the action of the
?rst temperature responsive device, and means
connected to the first lever for modifying the 10
action of both temperature responsive devices in
response to movement of the motor, said last
named means comprising a dashpot yieldingly
connected between the ?rst lever and the motor.
15
KARL BAUMANN.
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