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May 3, 1938, K. BAUMANN 2,116,424 DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING TEMPERATURES IN FLUID HEATING APPARATUS Filed Feb.‘ 1, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet l 56.2. ‘ ‘5 > Inventor H634‘ . ‘ Karl Baumann, by Wan/“15M is A torney May '3, 1933- A K. BAUMANN 2,116,424 DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING TEMPERATURES IN FLUID'HEATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 1, 1955 4 Shee'ts-Sheet 2 Inventor : ‘ Karl Baum'ann, by 5 HuMZM/K His Attorney. May 3, 1938. ' 2,116,424 K. BAUMANN DEVICE FOR CONTRQLLEING TEMPERATURES IN FLUID HEATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 1, 1935 . 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 ‘114M 0/5 3Y5 0/4 2/\ 20 C/ . a I 22 ' \c/ 2, / Invehtor : Karl’ Baumann, His ‘ ttorf'ney. May 3, 1938- K. BAUMANN > 2,116,424 ‘ DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING TEMPERATURES IN ‘FLUID HEATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. v1, 1955 _ ‘ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ \ _ _ _ _ _ 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 __ Rasponsive f H /0' 51:35:‘ of a Prime nolaver Karl Baurnann, by ‘71(-His Attorney. E, Patented no 3,1938 ‘l a a ‘ ‘2,116,424 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE: DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING TEMPERATunas INFLUID HEATING Arman-laps a ‘‘ Karl Baumann, Wilmslow, England, assignm- to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York > p . ’ Application February 1,1935, Serial ‘No. use . In Great‘ Britain February 10, 1934 " - 4 Claims. (cl. 236-20) ‘ This invention relates to ?uid ‘heating ‘plant - already explained; continue to change after it has and has for its ‘object to provide improved means reached‘ the required value. for automatically controlling the ‘action ‘orthe Any change in the temperature at the outlet ‘ plant so as to maintain an operation factor may therefore cause protracted hunting of the 5 such as temperature at a predetermined level in- dependently oi‘ the load or other imposed external ‘conditions.' The invention has particular reier- controlling apparatus.‘ ‘ ‘ 5 According to the present ‘ invention therefore in order to reduce or eliminate such hunting in a ence to plant in which ‘the point in the ?uid path at which the‘ control action can be conveniently l0‘ exerted is somewhat remote from the point at ?uid heating‘ plant,‘ wherein the temperature of the ?uid at a determined ‘Point in the circuit l5 regulated by exerting a controlling action at an- 10 which the conditions are to be regulated .and in ‘ other Point in the ?uid circuit relatively remote which the intervening plant has an appreciable from the ?rst point the control action is regu heat capacity, For example, in the case of o, lated‘in accordance withithepstate of the ?uid ‘steam generating plant in which it is desired to at‘ a third pcintih the circuit which responds 15 maintain the‘ temperature at the outlet constant more ‘quickly to a change in the control‘ action 15 the temperature may be controlled in various ways than said ?rst point and such regulation is modi Ior instance by controlling the‘ admission of the fled in accordance with the temperature at the heating medium or by cooling theheated ?uid ?rst point- In applying the invention for in by injecting‘ a ‘cold ?uid or by cooling the heated stance to the control of the outlet temperature of 20 ?uid by heat exchange with‘ a cold ?uid ‘taking a steam‘gen‘erating' plan?by means of a control 20 place in a heahexchanger. In all such cases the acticnfhavihg e?ect at a point which is located actual point in’ the ?uid circuit at which the con- earlier‘ in the ?uid‘ circuit that is nearer to the trol means must be located is somewhat remote , ihlet‘the control action will‘ be regulated in ac from the outlet and consequently‘ a certain time ' cordance With the State 01 the Steam at an inter ‘ 25 is necessary ior'the ?uid to travel from the con‘- medicte Point in the ?uid circuit relatively near‘to 25 trolling means to the outlet, Intoddition the the point atwhich the control action is exerted heating elements through whioh‘the ?uid has to and such regulation of the control action will be pass on itsway to the outlet may have a consider- modi?ed in acccl‘deli'lce with the temperature of able heat storage capacity some of. which may be the Steam at the Outlet so due to other parts of the installation. 1 - ' In carrying out‘the‘invehtion ?uid let regula- 30 As a result the temperature at the ‘outlet will‘ ‘ tors may conveniently be employed. ~ A ?uid jet not immediately respond to‘the' action of‘theicon- regulator comprises essentially a liquid contain ‘ trol and there may be considerable delay between ing system Supplied With liquid under. a Substan the moment when the controlling impulses from , 35 the temperature responsive means at the outlet is originated and the moment when as a result‘ of tially cchstaht head and Provided with a nozzle through which the liquid is extruded in a let- A 35 Pad mounted on 8* pivoted arm acts as a/té‘rget the action of the control‘means the temperature ‘ at the outlet has been brought back to the re‘ for the jet of liquid and the arm is positioned: about its pivot by a temperature (or pressure) quired vahm, 'During the whole time until the responsive device so that the distance of the pad 40 temperature has been brought back‘ to the re- from the nozzle is varied in accordance with the 40 quired value controlling impulses‘of the original ' temperature (or Pressman The positioning of‘ kind will continue to be transmitted to the con- the pad m'tum cfmtrols the pressure in the mud‘ ‘trol means ‘from ‘the temperature responsive systemlin the nelghbourhood of the nozzle and l means at the‘outlet with the result that the temperature change‘at the outlet ‘will continue in thus regulates °°nFr°1'°‘g“ns actuated by the pressure O-f the Hqmd' An example‘of 9‘ ?uid jet 4” the same" direction after it has reached the re- reiglatgrgigh?hkrtown if the Area’ regulator’ I quired value until the effect oi’ the opposite kind undegtoii . rezgererfczmgs?l on magebe mare glealgy ‘ of impulses, which will‘begin to be transmitted l ‘ v , 50 flfom the Outlet at ‘the moment when_the tam‘ ' accompanying drawings now which ma 9 illustrate 0 t e dia grammatically ways of applying the invention to 5“ perature starts ‘to dl?er from the required value ‘ the regulation of the temperature of a steam in the opposite sense is felt. From this moment the steam‘ temperature atthe outlet will begin to changev in the‘ reverse direction but owing to the l 55 inherent storage capacity of the system it will, as generating plant, l l ‘ Figures 1 to 4 show the relative positioning" of. the control components as applied respectively, to different methods of temperature control. '55 2 2,116,424 Fig. 5 shows the arrangement of a temperature responsive fiuid Jet regulator. Figs. 6 to 10 show lay-outs of various forms of control apparatus embodying ?uid jet regulators. Referring ?rst of all to Figs. 1 to 4, A is the '?rst point, i. e. that at which it is desired to regulate the temperature, and B is the point at which the actual control action is exerted. Since in systems to which the invention is applicable the points A and B are relatively far apart the control action at B is regulated by temperature responsive means located at a third point C where the change in the condition of the ?uid responds more rapidly to a change in ‘the control action 15 and this regulation is in turn modi?ed by tem ably located between the outlet from the desuper heater and the superheater 5. Fig. 4 shows an arrangement similar to that shown in Fig. 3 but in which the steam passing between superheaters 4 and 5 passes through a chamber 1 into which cold water is sprayed from a nozzle 8. Here the control B may as shown comprise a cock controlling the flow to the nozzle. Fig. 5 illustrates diagrammatically the mode of operation of a ?uid let regulator of the well 10 known-Area type which is adapted for tempera ture regulation. The device essentially relies upon the action of a liquid, which is usually wa ter, under pressure, in a conduit system 9 upon a piston or diaphragm III of a hydraulic motor 15 connected to actuate control means. A conduit system as shown at I in Fig. 1 is supplied with liquid under'a constant head from a nozzle H and is in turn provided with a nozzle I! from which the liquid emerges in the form of a jet and 20 perature responsive means located at the point A. It has been explained above that if the control Organs at the point B were regulated directly by temperature responsive means located’ at the point A there would be a liability to hunting owing to the time taken by the ?uid in passing from ' is projected against a pad l3. The pad I3 is the point in the ?uid circuit at which the control ‘carried on a rocker arm I‘ which is fulcrumed action at B has e?'ect to the point A also on ac at l5 and-which, at the point I6 is acted upon count oi’ the heat storage capacity of the. inter by a rod I‘! connected at its further end with a vening path. Regulation of the control action tube I 8 of material possessing a relatively high in accordance with the temperature at the point co-ei?ciency of expansion. This tube will con 25 C may be arranged to eliminate the hunting but stitute the temperature means and will be located it is necessary to modify the regulating e?'ect in at the point in the ?uid circuit from which it is accordance ‘with the temperature at the point A desired that the controlling impulse should origi 30 since it is the temperature at this point which it is desired to control. a In many cases there will be an approximately predeterminable relationship between the tem perature at the pdnt C and the temperature at the point A. . This relationship will depend upon various factors and principally upon the load and the position of the control organs and .‘this rela tionship may be utilized in e?’ecting the control. According to the arrangement'shown in Fig. 1 40 the ?uid path is indicated by the reference I, while 2 indicates the ?ue passage or heating chamber in which the ?uid system is heated. The point A is shown at the outlet of the fluid path and the control organs at the point B control the 45 heating medium. As shown they consist of a damper controlling the ?ow of hot gases to the ?uid system Alternatively in cases where gas or oil burners are employed they might comprise a control acting on the burner or on the gas or oil supply. It will be appreciated that whilst the system of control organs at B will a?'ect the whole of the ?uid system the latter will respond more quickly at earlier points in its path than at later points. This is in part due to the fact 55 that points lying earlier in the ?uid path also he earlier in the path of the hot gases. Thus the control C is selected at a position located‘ ap preciably earlier in the ?uid path than is the point A. ‘ Fig. 2 shows an arrangement in which a bypass I is provided around the earlier path of the ?uid circuit and control organs B comprise a cock con trolling the bypass. Here the main point at which the control has e?'ect is that at which the bypass 65 rejoins the main ?uid path and hence the point C is located relatively soon after this point. Fig. 3 shows an arrangement in which the ?uid path consists for instance of superheaters 4 and i and the ?uidv path between these superheaters 70 comprises a desuperheater 6 the action of which is controlled for instance as shown by throttling the steam outlet. The throttle will hence con stitute the control organs B and its effect will be felt in the portion of ?uid path located in the de superheater 6. Here again the point C is prefer nate. Thus a rise in temperature will cause the 30 tube It to expand; this will lower the rod i1 and hence the point of support it of the arm I‘ and in so-doing will move the pad l3 nearer to the nozzle ii. The pad will exert an increased reac tion to the jet and hence raise the pressure in the ‘conduit system 9 which increased pressure will by acting on the piston or diaphragm it cause a regulating impulse to be transmitted to the controlling apparatus. Conversely a fall in tem perature will cause the support It to rise and 40 move the pad it away from the nozzle l2 and so lower the pressure in the conduit system 9. Obviously the relative positions of the pivot point 15 and the point It at which the tempera ture responsive device acts are interchangeable 45 provided the apparatus is so arranged that the _ correct control action is obtained. Since the water is supplied to the conduit sys tems from a source of constant head it follows that the pressure in the conduit system is a de? 60 nite function of the distance of the pad from the nozzle. Fig. 6 shows a layout of a simple form of con trol apparatus embodying the invention in which two such regulators C andv A are employed, the 65 piston or diaphragm l?C of regulator C being connected to control organs i9 indicated as a throttle acting on the ?uid circuit, it being in tended that the control organs l9 should be lo cated at the point B referred to in Figs. 1-4 and 60 that the thermostats C and A should similarly be located at points in the fluid circuit corresponding to C and A (in Fig. 1) respectively. The conduit system A9 of the regulator A is connected to actu ate bellows 20 operating on the pivot point Cli of regulator C. In this ?gure the parts of the regulators are referred to by the same references that are employed in Fig. 2 but pre?xed by the letter A or C as the case may be. Thus the tem perature responsive device Cl8 will exert a pri 70 mary regulation on the control means by raising or lowering the pad C|3 in the manner above de scribed while this action will be modi?ed by the action of the temperature responsive device All in raising or lowering the pivot point Cli. 75 e ‘ 3,110,424 Fig. '1 shows a modi?cation of the arrangement 1 means such as are shown in 3 9 item "may shown in Fig. 6 in which the primary control i also be introduced in any of the arrangements action exerted by the regulatorC is modi?ed in “shown. Also instead oi.’ continuous operation, the first place in accordance with the operating intermittent operation may be employed by well- ‘ known means providing impulses of constant or position of the control organs is. This is e?'ect ed by placing thepivot point Cl! on a beam 2| varying magnitude and at regular or varying in one end oi.’ which is supported by a bellows ill tervals, the magnitude and/or the intervals be the pressure acting on which is controlled by the‘ ing dependent on the departure of the actual thermostat All as in the Fig. 6 arrangement, temperaturesirom the desired temperatures and 10 while the other end of the beam 2| is supported ii’ desired also on the rate oi’ change of tem 10 ‘ by a bellows 22 the pressure acting on which is peratures. that existing'in the conduit system C9. This is . V I claim: 1. In a ?uid heating plant, the'combination obtained by means of a connection 23 between the conduit system C9 and the bellows 22 the of a ?uid circuit including a coil through which ?uid to be heated is conducted during operation, 15 15 connection 23 containing an ori?ce or restric tion 24 which restricts the rate oi" movement of means including a valve for controlling the heat ?uid from the conduit 09 to the bellows 22. The ing of the ?uid, a hydraulic motor for moving control action exerted by the regulator C is then .the valve, a conduit having a discharge nozzle further modi?ed by the control device A if the for conducting operating ?uid under pressure to the hydraulic motor, and means co-operatively 20 temperature at A has not been maintained con associated with the male‘ for controlling the stant by the two earlier control actions. Fig. 8 shows an alternative arrangement to ?uid pressure in the motor, said means compris that shown in Fig. 7, in which a connection, ing a lever, a pad secured to the lever adjacent ‘ _ which may be made through a relay or may be the nozzle, a device responsive to the tempera 25 a direct mechanical connection,v as shown inthe ture in the outlet of said heating coil, a pres 25 ?gure, is made between the control organs I! sure responsive element controlled by said tem and the beam CH of the regulator C through perature responsive device and forming a mov a spring 25, the movement of the control organs able fuicrum for the lever, and another device is varies the compression of the spring 25 and responsive to the temperature at a point inter 30 hence the resistance to movement offered to the mediate the inlet and the outlet of the coil and 30 arm C“ with the result that piston ill will move forming another movable fulcrum for the lever further than it would have moved it the upper to modify the action of the ?rst temperature re support of the spring had been ?xed. Again the sponsive device. 2. In a ?uid heating plant, the combination ?nal modi?cation of the control will be obtained of a ?uid circuit including a coil through which 35 35 by means of the control devices A. In view of ?uid to be heated is conducted during operation, the over-regulation obtained by varying com pression of the spring 25 this method of control means including a valve for controlling the heat is liable to become unstable and to overcome this ing of the ?uid, a hydraulic motor for moving the valve, a conduit having a discharge nozzle instability various stabilizing means may be in for conducting operating ?uid under pressure to troduced, one of which is shown in Fig. 9, where 40 the hydraulic motor, and means co-operatively 40 a dashpot 26 and a further spring 251 is inter associated with the nozzle for controlling the posed between the spring 25 and the control le ?uid pressure in the motor, said means compris ver C“. In this arrangement spring 251 sup plies a stabilizing force for rapid movements of ing a ?rst lever, a pad secured to the first lever piston Ill and the desired over-regulation will be adjacent the nozzle, a device responsive to the‘ 45 obtained more slowly by spring 25 and dashpot , temperature in the outlet of the heating coil, a 26. " Fig. 10 shows a further arrangement in which the primary control is obtained by means of a 50 device responsive to the amount oi’ ?uid passing through the system or to the load in the system. In the case of a steam power plant this may for instance, be the output from the prime mover. If a change in the load takes place an immedi 55 ate adjustment of the control lever will take place by means'of the action of the bellows 21 oper-1 ating against a spring 30, the position of which is therefore dependent on the load. The secondary adjustment of the control will in this case be 60 obtained by means of the thermostat C and the ?nal modi?cation by means of the control or gans A. ' ' The temperature or pressure at the point A, to maintain which the control action is made. need not be an absolute temperature but may for instance be the temperature di?erence be tween two points in the ?uid circuit in which case the thermostat A might act differentially. While in the descriptions given the controls are operated by means of bellows controlled by nozzles in accordance with designs used by Area, other well known devices may be used, such as electrical contacts and motors. Further addi tional power operated devices may be introduced 75 to obtain more positive operation. Stabilizing pressure responsive element controlled by the temperature responsive device, another pressure responsive device subject to the pressure in the motor, a, second 'lever connected to both pres sure responsive elements and forming a movable‘ fulcrum for the ?rst lever, another temperature responsive device subject to the ?uid temperature at a point intermediate the inlet and the outlet of the heating coil and forming another movable 55 fulcrum for the first lever to modify the action of both pressure responsive devices. 3. In a ?uid heating plant, the combination of a ?uid circuit including a coil through which ?uid to be-heated is conducted during operation, 60 means including a valve for controlling the heat ing of the ?uid, a hydraulic motor for moving the valve, a conduit having a discharge nozzle for conducting operating ?uid under pressure to the hydraulic motor, means co-operatively associ 65 ated with the nozzle for controlling the ?uid pressure in the motor, said means comprising a lever,’ a pad secured to the lever adjacent the nozzle, a device responsive to the temperature in v the outlet of said heating coil, 8. pressure respon 70 sive element controlled by said temperature re sponsive device and forming a movable fulcrum forthe lever, and another device responsive to the temperature at a point intermediate the inlet and the outlet of the coil and forming another 75 4 movable fulcrum for the lever to modify the action of the first temperature responsive device, device responsive to the temperature in the out and means connected to the first lever for modi ment controlled by said temperature responsive let of said heating coil, a pressure responsive ele- . fying the action of both temperature responsive device and forming a movable fulcrum for the lever, and another device responsive to the tem 4. In a ?uid heating plant, the combination of perature at a point intermediate the inlet and the devices in response to movement of the motor. a ?uid circuit including a coil through which ?uid toibe heated is conducted during operation, means including a valve for controlling the heat ing oi’ the ?uid, a hydraulic motor for moving the valve, a conduit having a discharge nozzle for conducting operating ?uid under pressure to the hydraulic motor, means co-operatively associated with the nozzle for controlling the ?uid pressure in the motor, said means comprising a lever, a pad secured to the lever adjacent the nozzle, a outlet of the coil and forming another movable ' fulcrum for the lever to modify the action of the ?rst temperature responsive device, and means connected to the first lever for modifying the 10 action of both temperature responsive devices in response to movement of the motor, said last named means comprising a dashpot yieldingly connected between the ?rst lever and the motor. 15 KARL BAUMANN.