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Патент USA US2116461

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May 3,1938.
H. www@ .
Filed April> 4. 1934>
- 2,116,461
" l' Patented May 3_, 1938
> 2,116,461>
Hermann Wittingen', Berlin-Wilmersdorf,
Application April 4, 1934, sensi No. 'nanos
1n sammy April o. ma p
, s emma
although it would be the most ideal design for.
the use on land vehicles etc.
or turbo-transformers which consist ~of pump
- wheels. turbine wheels and guide wheels the speed
is particularly suited for land' vehicles, lifting
The speed» of the ` machinery» andthe like and shows a torque or
tractive edort curve as favorable as possible, that
is a torque curve which -lies >between the ideal
pump wheels being kept constant, the nor'mal
and the highest efficiency will be obtained
tractive-effort parabola and the `straight-line in
crease of torque actually prevailing in"~ the hy- lo
draulic _transmission gears -already known.
with `a deiim‘te torque of the turbine, viz. the so
, Ü called normaî torque of the turbine wheels.
When the 'f " d of the turbine is reduced, for in- _
- stance at su. 'ing or by hard braking, the torque
The novel means found out for the solution of
this problem and further improvements of the
hydraulic transmission gear as detailedly speci
‘fied in the following description are the subject u
matter of the present -invention. The accom
panying drawing shows several embodiments of
oi' the _turbine increases by itself and the amount
of increase will ‘ne dependent on the number, the
radii and the blading of the turbine wheels and
the guide apparatus as well as of the type ofthe
pump. As the speed of the turbine increases, the
torque inversely decreases until in the case of -
the invention, and in >_them
ically adapted without steps to the amount at
tainable. Therefore the decrease of the speed is
the outlet angle.
p The hydraulic transmission gears hitherto built
were as a rule intended >forships and similar pur
poses where an increase of torque for starting
c ~
In the chart, Fig. 1, the abscissae represent the '
angular speeds and the 'ordinates the torques.
With a normal speed num-m the normal torque is 40 `
Mn. When the speed is decreased. the torque
increases; when, however, the speed rises, the'
of which coincides with the point of normal
f Fig. 6 is a section through Fig. 5 according to 35 `
the line VI-VI seen in the direction ofthe
the emciency was similar to a parabola the vertex
Fig. 5 shows the right Apart of Fig. Sand illus
trates another embodiment of the »guide blades,
took place at starting, viz. >with theminimum of
angular speed, and in such a way that the start
ing torque amounted to >about double the normal
40 torque and the no-load speed to about double
the normal speed of the turbine._ The curve -of
of the arrows.
would be unnecessary and useless. The only in
Fig. 3 is a partiallsection through a hydraulic
transmission gearf according to _the invention. \
Fig. 4 is a partial section through Fig. 3 accordà »
ing tothe line IV-IV and seen in the direction so
._ automatically accompanied by an increase of the
Fig. 21s a further chart and shows the circum
ferential velocity at the outlet of the turbine as
' plotted against .the relative discharge velocity and 25
thus also the running speed of the car is automat
transmission’gears, this chart explaining the ob
ject of the present invention.
into automobiles. various tractive efforts, that is
various torques mustbe successively overcome.
Consequently the speed of the turbine adjusts
itself according to the torque to be overcome and
tention was to arrive at a maximum emciency
35 with the normal run. Of coursefalso in this in
stance a corresponding increase of the torque
Figpl is a chart of the dependencies prevail
lng between torque, speed and efficiency in prior 20
no-load work the torque has dropped to aero.
20 when hydraulic transmissions are built in, e. g.
Now, it is an object of the present invention to
provide for a hydraulic transmission gear which
of the turbine wheels, viz. the secondary wheels.
5 changes within wide limits in accordance with the
‘ - 30
(ci. ca_-54) ,
In the well-known hydraulic'transmission gears
resistance to be overcome.
torque drops.
In the well-known earlier constructions of the
- g5
`In the case of land vehicles, lifting machinery yinventor the latter used turbines with an
etc. it is desirable that the tractive effort. viz. the sion directed to the interior (Francis type) with
three to ñve turbinestages or there were used `
torque be increased at starting as muchas possi
ble by a suitable design 'of the hydraulic system.
The ideal shape of the speed curve would be the
two or three complete turbine circuits with the
same direction of rotation. ~This arrangement
«1. so-called “ideal tractive-eiïort hyperbole," which, ' resulted in torque curve M designated by l2 in so
Fig. l, viz. infa straight line. At the start the
however, could ‘be arrived at only in the case oi
gears free of lossv and would result at an infin
itely _large tractive effort in the sta-rt. f The ideal
tractive-eifort hyperbolel can, of course, not 'be
gg attained in a transmission gear practically built,
.torque was about double as high as the normal
torque Mn and when running without load the
speed m. was about double as high as .the normal
Another well-known transmission gear (the
The addition hitherto usual of centripetal tur
bines of the Francis type (inlet radius larger
Rieseler gear U. B. Patent No. 1,727,903) has a
torque line designated by III in Fig. 1, when run
ning in the hydraulic circuit with a two-stage
than outlet radius) to the pump vwhich works
here with very variable delivery heads (and
lquantities of water) sensibly impairs e. g. the in
crease of torque of turbines showingthe features
turbine and a guide device alternately immobi
lized by hard braking or running free. In this
instance the starting torque is even~ lower so
that this arrangement is still less suitable for land
vehicles, lifting machinery etc. ,
(a) or (b)+(c).
In the other transmission gears known, for in
stance the Lysholm-Ljungström gears (U.>S. Pat
ent No. 1,900,120)- a great many turbine steps,
but at least three stages with radial blading are
se known in water turbines, serve here the spe
cial purpose of sumciently safely providing for
the highly increased torque (particularly during
the start) by means oi' preferably one single
turbine rim, in a way which is satisfactory hy»
’ of the absolute velocity of flow prior to the re
turn of the water into the pump (so-called ver
tical admission). 'I'his resulted in a curve like
20 that designated by II in Fig. 1 and which is much
more advantageous than curve I. It lies between
draulically and with respect to mechanical
strength. whereas this _torque was distributed
over 2 or 3l turbine rims in the earlier types
(U. S. P'atent 1,900,120).
the latter and the dotted “ideal tractive-effort
hyperbola” as plotted in Fig. 1 which also com
prises the parabolic curve of the emciency »7.
In order to obtain torques similar to those rep
resented by curve II, Coats (U. S. Patent
1,760,397) further made use of a guide apparatus
which comprised one fixed guide blade rim- and
four movable guide blade rims, which are either
80 allowed to freely revolve or the -blades of which
can> freely turn. This turbine was of the Francis
The invention is further based on the following
important ilndingz`-0ccasionally it had been
observed'on the old Fourneyron turbines (outlet
radius larger than inlet radius) that the torque
characteristic was slightly curved upward to
wards the hard-braking point (see Escher-Dubs
“Die 'I'heorie der Wasserturbinen”, 3rd edition,
page 2_and pages 171-174). These. turbines built
into rivers, however, work under other hydraulic 30
conditions than the present transmission gears
(torque transformers) :_In ‘s -ite of the angular
ty‘lâle with a small inlet radius and a large outlet
us. v
The substantially thickened blade heads, per
used and particularly steep outlet angles are pro
vided for. Also in that instance the intention
was to fully remove the tangential component cu
The great increase'of the momentum intended
by` the invention cannot be attained with gears
having steep blade angles or blades insuiliciently 10
between nor
al and zero the
It is obvious lfrom this that as far as it was ` height of fall of the river remains constant. In
35 possible to arrive at a torque curve lying be
the self-contained transmission gear, however,
tween the straight torque> line I and the. ideal not only the. head oi' the turbine but also the
hyperbola, it was necessary to make use of‘very quantity of Water change sensibly, since in the
intricate designs.
short-circuited circuit a reaction directly takes
Now, the inventor has found out that degrees place on the pump which does not furnish any
of increase oi' the tractive eil’ort, viz. torque constanthead of water but a head which`very sen
curves like those shown by II and which were - sibly'varies with the quantity of Water delivered
attained, so-far, only with at least three turbine (cf. the Q-H characteristic). The quantity of
stages (six wheels) or with one ilxed and four water, however, adjusts itself in such a Way that
revoluble guide blade rims (seven wheels), can the total vresistances in the pump, turbine and .
already be arrived at with one single turbine guide apparatus friction', shocks and head uti 45
stage in one circuit comprising three fixed wheels, lized) are `overcome.
l'I‘he finding that the particular application of
accordingly with a fraction oi' the 'means' hither
to necessary for that- purpose.
smaller inlet radii with larger or, `at the most.
This effect absolutely unexpected and dia
equal outlet radii of the turbine is, among other
metrically opposed to the notion of other special
things, decisive for surprisingly high increases of 50
ists is, according to the invention, substantially
the torque under the particularly intricate condi
obtained by the essential combination oi' the fol
tions of flow in the present transmission gears,
represents a substantial progress in transmision
engineering, epecially as it permits of doing
away with the prejudice that the Francis turbine
(with larger inlet and smaller outlet' radii),
lowing features, namely:
(a) In the cycle there is disposed in combination
55 with a pump wheel only the .one secondary wheel
the inlet radius of which does not exceed the'out
_ which is advantageous for .the maximum ei'
let radius (consequently no Francis turbines).
(b) ’I‘he blades of the secondary wheel form - ficiency, is also superior i'orÍ the spontaneous in
nat angles with the circumference at the outlet crease of the tractive effort in the start.
60 whereby the peripheral velocity u at the outlet
Fig. 2 shows one of the usual turbine triangles 60
of the turbine must be of the magnitude of the in which accordingy to the invention the circum~
relative discharge velocity w at this point which ferential velocity u and the velocity of flow (here
results in the outlet angles being smaller than the relative velocity at the channel outlet) 'are
35 degrees (Fig. 2).
(c) The blades of the secondary wheel must
be substantially thickened at the inlet and
eventually rounded'oil'.
y '
(d) 'I'he guide means or/and the secondary
wheel consist of two rims one of which carries
70 blades continually operative while the.other rim
carries’ supplementary blades used for slow angu
lar speeds and which at higher angular speed are
withdrawn from action. The totality of these
features results in the surprising progress here
of about the vsame magnitude. In the case of
hard braking w is sensibly increased. The blade 65
angles ßz are then smaller than 35 degrees, while
in the case of larger angles unsatisfactory ratios
u/w would be the result (viz. too small u as com~
pared with w). The blade may e. g. have the
rounded shape shown which is per se knownin
steam turbines, propellers, pumps and water
turbines, it may, however, also be pointed in a
suitable manner but at any rate it must have
substantially thickened .inlet ends.
In the embodiment shown by Fig. 3 the primary 75
. anaft 1 carries the> pump wheel 2, which delivers
the-water int'o the- coaxial turbine or secondary
According to a further embodiment ot the in-vention shown in Figs. 5 and 6 the supplementary
- wheel 3l, 30,’ which is coupled with the _secondary
shaft 9 by lmeans of the disc i. From here the
the thickened heads of the continually operative.
blades are so arranged asl to partially overlap '
blades 3|. They rim of these supplementary or 5
split blades 31 may be inserted and withdrawn
by an axial displacement, slots 4l being provided
for this purpose in the carrier 36.
~ Í5 -water flows through a bladeless channel I9 to the
guide rims 3i, Il' disposed opposite tothe sec
ondary wheel and finally back through the blade
less chamber 40 into the pump. _ v
The guide rim 3|. is supported by a carrier 36 i - In Fig. 3 3| is the rim continually used in the
10 which can. as desired, rotate on or with the guide device whileäi' is the- supplementary rim lo
which is adapted to disappear in the chamber l2
connected with the stationary guide device. ’I‘he
'displacement is e. g. accomplished in the well
known way by the“ hydraulic pressure in the gear
primary shaft I or may _be‘immobilized against
rotating by the brake 38.
At the maximum speed the guidedevice may be
freed by a release' of the hard braking at 38 so
15 that the circuit is converted into _a soft hydraulic ^ itself as illustrated and described in the inven- 15
clutch. At the maximum running speed the tor's Patent 1,199,361. This feature is longv
latter may even be replaced by a Vrigid coupling known and therefore not a subject matter oi _the
consisting in s_tooth- ofiriction clutch 35 so that present invention. The supplementary rim 3i’
the eiiiciency 1, is raised to practically 100% and is naturally disposed in the direction of flow in
2c all means :today available for the increase of iront ofthe outlet rim 3i continuously used, viz. an
in the present instance at a larger radius than 3i. .
tractive effort and eiilciency are combined _within
minimum of space.
. _
In the sarne way the turbine outlet rim 30 malr
also, for the development ofthe maximum start
For increasing the tractive effort and at the
same time the emciency the guide device con
.25 sista of two rims iti, 3i’ .the one oi’ which 3i’
being adapted to be inserted into the circuit or
withdrawn into the. chamber t2 according to the
ing tractive efforts and efiiciencies, be rigidly cornI
nected with the casing 5 and the core 33 while in 25
the case of medium and‘high running speeds the '
supplementary rim til’ can disappear' into the
chamber 3d of the secondary runner. The rim
receiving chambers 32 and tt may be disposed
speed desired in an axial direction into the same
According to the invention, this measure can
as. desired either within the core -or on the out- au
be further improved by not only a second guide
side of the casing.
A further advantage of vthe invention consists
in that, if desired, it is possible to obtain an
additional braking effect byÍ means of the hy-‘
draulic gears. This eifect is particularly desir- 35
_ able in the case of long descents or when the
apparatus but also a cond turbine wheel all'
beinglinserted in'a suita le way, e.v g. also by an
axial displacement into and from the chamber 3d.
35 Then> a turbine wheel adapted to the particular
running speed will correspond' to each guide'apparatus (Fig. 3i.
f In some instances this-will, however, present
the disadvantage that the mechanical connection
,mäbetween- the casing E and the core 33 of the cir
driver encounters an unexpected osbtruction
so that braking with any possible means imposes
itself. «After‘having reached a certain speed the
.that special supporting blades leaving the twist
substantially unchanged must be used in order
hydraulic gear willas a rule be used'as a `coui- so
pling or the driver will have the car to_ run with
a direct mechanical clutch ‘engagement so that
according the above statement it would be neces
be overcome according to the invention by the
drawal frorrrthe circuit.
- cuit or other corresponding members is lost so
Sal‘y to render‘ the guide device inoperative in
to reestablish this connection.
This inconvenience by itself not essential can ‘ì the circuit either by vfree running or by a with- 45
' 45
When now withï such 'a speed the secondary
_ particular guide _blades of the-guide device and/or
vthe blades of the turbine being each divided into Y shaftis to be braked, the guide -wheel is inserted
an inlet and an outlet part the vlatter of which again' by being immobilized or> returned into the
circuit. In the lsameway in which initially a 50
y '50 -is continually used and at bthe same time con
nects the outside wall i and the internal core sensible increase of the torque was obtained in
Il oi the circuit »with one another while the inlet the start, the guide device being inserted, viz.
-part is so shaped that it completes the outlet part
suited for high and medium speeds only, to a kind
55.01' hookgtì blade which is on the contrary adapted
I to low speeds and particularly to the development
of maximum tractive' eiïorts .for starting., By
this arrangement the double or multiple branched
circuits for transmission gears as disclosed by
'60 earlier patents~ of the inventor are so to speak
combined into s. single circuit so‘that an essential
, simplification and'improvement ci the set is ob
tained, the Amore so as it was found 'out thatI the
„ pump in any instance common to the latter can >
55 show. deilnite properties which are hydraulically
advantageous for either
speed. ,
Fig. 4 shows such special blades consisting each
the transition from the coupling to the torque
transforming effect, will result in a powerfulv
braking action- on the secondary part. A par- 55
ticuiarly powerful `braking effect is obtained by
the primary shaft, for'instance the engine, being .
braked to stoppage. In either instancethe hy
draulic gear acts as,a water brake.
~ The essential features of the invention 'as 60
characterized in the claims are naturally appli
able independently of any particular features de
scribed land the embodiments shown _by the
drawing are also readily> appliable to embodi
ments of turbines, pumps and hydraulic trans-i .65
mission gears in g. general way.
of an inlet part Il' and an outlet part 3l and
1. A hydraulic transmission gear for an inten-V
which are suited for the change both of the guide sliìed automatic torque increaseat the .'stox't.
Í 70" device and of the turbine impellers..l 3| e. g. has` comprising aprimary pump wheel, only one 70
secondary wheel the inlet radius of which does
the typical shape of _the reaction blades corre
not lexceed the outlet radius, andthe .blades Yof
spondingtó high and medium speeds of the tur
binewhile the combination, oi Il' and 3| results which, substantially thickened at'the inlet. and '
in an advantageous laction or impuke turbine. eventually rounded ofi, andl formed with` dat
angles, ß: with the circumference at the outlet 'II
bladins. '
whereby the relative discharge velocity (ws) and comprising a primary. pump wheel, a secondary
the peripheral velocity _(us) at that point are ,fwheel, the inlet radius of which does not ex
of substantially the same magnitude at the nor
ceed the outlet radius, and the blades of which.
mal angular speed of maximal eiiiciency (nam), substantially thickened at the inlet and eventu-f.
a chamber connecting the outlet of the secondary ally rounded on', form ilat angles sa with the cir
wheel with the inlet oi’ the pump wheel, guide
means operable in said chamber and consisting of
cumference at the outlet whereby the relative
discharge velocity (un) and the. peripheral
two rims one of -which carries guide blades con
tinually operative while the other rim carries
velocity I(un) at that point are of the substan~
tially same magnitude `at the normal angular
supplementary blades for slow angular speeds speed of maximal eihciency (nam), a chamber
ot the secondary wheel, and means for rendering lconnecting the outlet of the secondary wheel
the supplementary blades inoperative at higher with the inlet of the pump wheel, guide means
angular speeds.
operable in said chamber and consisting of two
2. A hydraulic transmission-gear for an inten
siiled automatic torque increase at the start,
comprising a primary pump wheel, only‘one
secondary wheel the inlet radius oi which does
not exceed the outlet radius,4 and the blades of
which, substantially thickened at the inlet and
20 eventually rounded cti, i'orm flat angles ßz with
the circumference at the outlet whereby the rela
rims -oneoi' which carries guide blades continually »
operative while thel other‘ rim carries supple 16
mentary blades for slow angular speeds of thesecondary wheel and means for rendering the
supplementary blades inoperative at higher angu
lar speeds and the guide means being arranged
on the side of the circuit opposite to the side ot
the secondary wheel.
tive discharge lvelocity (wz) and the peripheral6. A hydraulic transmission gear for an inten-l
velocity (ua) at that point are oi' substantially the -siiled automatic torque increase at the start,
same magnitude at thenormal angular speed of comprising a primary pump wheel, a secondary
ler» maximal eiiiciency ~(mmm). a chamber connect wheel, the inlet radius of which does not exceed
` ing the outlet oi the secondary wheel with the ‘the outlet radius, and the blades oi' which, sub
inlet oi the pump wheel, guide means operable inv stantially thickened at the inlet and eventually
said chamber and consisting of two rims. the rounded oir, iorm'ilat angles s: with the circum
secondary wheel one of which carries blades con
ference at the outlet whereby the relative dis
30 tinually operative while the other rim carries
charge velocity (wz) and the peripheral velocityv
supplementary blades operative 'for slow angular
speeds of the secondary wheel, and means for
withdrawing the supplementary blades from ac
tion at higher angular speeds.
35 >3.* A hydraulic transmission gear according to
(un) at that point are of the substantially same
magnitude at the normal angular speed oi' maxi
mal emciency (mmm),- a chamber connecting the
outlet oi' the secondary wheel with the inlet of
the pump wheel, guide means operable in said
claim 1, in which also the secondary wheel con
~ chamber and consisting oi two rims one oi' which
sist of two rims, one of which carries blades con
tinually operative while the other rim carries
the other rim carries supplementary blades for
carries guide blades continually operative while
supplementary blades for slow angular speeds of s_low angular speeds of the secondary wheel and
the secondary wheel and which at higher angular `means for rendering the supplementary blades
speeds are withdrawn from action by axial dis- , inoperative at higher angular speeds and the
guide means being arranged on the side of the
4.- A hydraulic transmission gear according to circuit opposite to the side o_i the secondary wheel,
claim 1 in which the supplementary blades being and a bladeless channel provided between the
. so arranged as to overlap the thickened heads ot
the continually operative blades.
outlet oi' the turbine wheel and the inlet oi the
supplementary guide blades.
5. A hydraulic transmission gear for an inten
siiied automatic torquev increase atjthe start,
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