Патент USA US2116461код для вставки
May 3,1938. H. www@ . HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSION GEAR Filed April> 4. 1934> T. - 2,116,461 " l' Patented May 3_, 1938 > 2,116,461> -UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIGN GEAR Hermann Wittingen', Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Germany - Application April 4, 1934, sensi No. 'nanos L ~ ' 1n sammy April o. ma p , s emma although it would be the most ideal design for. the use on land vehicles etc. or turbo-transformers which consist ~of pump - wheels. turbine wheels and guide wheels the speed is particularly suited for land' vehicles, lifting The speed» of the ` machinery» andthe like and shows a torque or tractive edort curve as favorable as possible, that is a torque curve which -lies >between the ideal pump wheels being kept constant, the nor'mal and the highest efficiency will be obtained tractive-effort parabola and the `straight-line in crease of torque actually prevailing in"~ the hy- lo draulic _transmission gears -already known. with `a deiim‘te torque of the turbine, viz. the so , Ü called normaî torque of the turbine wheels. When the 'f " d of the turbine is reduced, for in- _ - stance at su. 'ing or by hard braking, the torque The novel means found out for the solution of this problem and further improvements of the hydraulic transmission gear as detailedly speci ‘fied in the following description are the subject u matter of the present -invention. The accom panying drawing shows several embodiments of oi' the _turbine increases by itself and the amount of increase will ‘ne dependent on the number, the radii and the blading of the turbine wheels and the guide apparatus as well as of the type ofthe pump. As the speed of the turbine increases, the torque inversely decreases until in the case of - the invention, and in >_them ically adapted without steps to the amount at tainable. Therefore the decrease of the speed is the outlet angle. - p The hydraulic transmission gears hitherto built were as a rule intended >forships and similar pur poses where an increase of torque for starting . c ~ and r, arrows.. ~` » ,g » - In the chart, Fig. 1, the abscissae represent the ' angular speeds and the 'ordinates the torques. With a normal speed num-m the normal torque is 40 ` Mn. When the speed is decreased. the torque increases; when, however, the speed rises, the' of which coincides with the point of normal .gg \ f Fig. 6 is a section through Fig. 5 according to 35 ` the line VI-VI seen in the direction ofthe the emciency was similar to a parabola the vertex ' ’ Fig. 5 shows the right Apart of Fig. Sand illus trates another embodiment of the »guide blades, took place at starting, viz. >with theminimum of angular speed, and in such a way that the start ing torque amounted to >about double the normal 40 torque and the no-load speed to about double the normal speed of the turbine._ The curve -of ‘ ‘ of the arrows. would be unnecessary and useless. The only in - ~ Fig. 3 is a partiallsection through a hydraulic transmission gearf according to _the invention. \ Fig. 4 is a partial section through Fig. 3 accordà » ing tothe line IV-IV and seen in the direction so ._ automatically accompanied by an increase of the . A Fig. 21s a further chart and shows the circum ferential velocity at the outlet of the turbine as ' plotted against .the relative discharge velocity and 25 thus also the running speed of the car is automat speed. „ transmission’gears, this chart explaining the ob ject of the present invention. into automobiles. various tractive efforts, that is various torques mustbe successively overcome. Consequently the speed of the turbine adjusts itself according to the torque to be overcome and tention was to arrive at a maximum emciency 35 with the normal run. Of coursefalso in this in stance a corresponding increase of the torque « Figpl is a chart of the dependencies prevail lng between torque, speed and efficiency in prior 20 no-load work the torque has dropped to aero. 20 when hydraulic transmissions are built in, e. g. torque. l Now, it is an object of the present invention to provide for a hydraulic transmission gear which of the turbine wheels, viz. the secondary wheels. 5 changes within wide limits in accordance with the ‘ - 30 . (ci. ca_-54) , In the well-known hydraulic'transmission gears resistance to be overcome. . torque drops. ` ' , ' l In the well-known earlier constructions of the > - g5 `In the case of land vehicles, lifting machinery yinventor the latter used turbines with an etc. it is desirable that the tractive effort. viz. the sion directed to the interior (Francis type) with three to ñve turbinestages or there were used ` torque be increased at starting as muchas possi ble by a suitable design 'of the hydraulic system. The ideal shape of the speed curve would be the two or three complete turbine circuits with the same direction of rotation. ~This arrangement «1. so-called “ideal tractive-eiïort hyperbole," which, ' resulted in torque curve M designated by l2 in so Fig. l, viz. infa straight line. At the start the however, could ‘be arrived at only in the case oi gears free of lossv and would result at an infin itely _large tractive effort in the sta-rt. f The ideal tractive-eifort hyperbolel can, of course, not 'be gg attained in a transmission gear practically built, .torque was about double as high as the normal torque Mn and when running without load the speed m. was about double as high as .the normal , Speed. . - v ss' 2,116,461 Another well-known transmission gear (the The addition hitherto usual of centripetal tur bines of the Francis type (inlet radius larger Rieseler gear U. B. Patent No. 1,727,903) has a torque line designated by III in Fig. 1, when run ning in the hydraulic circuit with a two-stage than outlet radius) to the pump vwhich works here with very variable delivery heads (and lquantities of water) sensibly impairs e. g. the in crease of torque of turbines showingthe features turbine and a guide device alternately immobi lized by hard braking or running free. In this instance the starting torque is even~ lower so that this arrangement is still less suitable for land vehicles, lifting machinery etc. , 10 (a) or (b)+(c). Y In the other transmission gears known, for in stance the Lysholm-Ljungström gears (U.>S. Pat ent No. 1,900,120)- a great many turbine steps, but at least three stages with radial blading are thickened. se known in water turbines, serve here the spe cial purpose of sumciently safely providing for the highly increased torque (particularly during the start) by means oi' preferably one single turbine rim, in a way which is satisfactory hy» ’ of the absolute velocity of flow prior to the re turn of the water into the pump (so-called ver tical admission). 'I'his resulted in a curve like 20 that designated by II in Fig. 1 and which is much more advantageous than curve I. It lies between draulically and with respect to mechanical strength. whereas this _torque was distributed over 2 or 3l turbine rims in the earlier types (U. S. P'atent 1,900,120). the latter and the dotted “ideal tractive-effort hyperbola” as plotted in Fig. 1 which also com prises the parabolic curve of the emciency »7. 25 In order to obtain torques similar to those rep resented by curve II, Coats (U. S. Patent 1,760,397) further made use of a guide apparatus which comprised one fixed guide blade rim- and four movable guide blade rims, which are either 80 allowed to freely revolve or the -blades of which can> freely turn. This turbine was of the Francis . f ` 2,0 The invention is further based on the following important ilndingz`-0ccasionally it had been observed'on the old Fourneyron turbines (outlet radius larger than inlet radius) that the torque characteristic was slightly curved upward to wards the hard-braking point (see Escher-Dubs “Die 'I'heorie der Wasserturbinen”, 3rd edition, page 2_and pages 171-174). These. turbines built into rivers, however, work under other hydraulic 30 conditions than the present transmission gears (torque transformers) :_In ‘s -ite of the angular ty‘lâle with a small inlet radius and a large outlet . us. v ' The substantially thickened blade heads, per used and particularly steep outlet angles are pro vided for. Also in that instance the intention was to fully remove the tangential component cu r l The great increase'of the momentum intended by` the invention cannot be attained with gears having steep blade angles or blades insuiliciently 10 speed varying between nor al and zero the It is obvious lfrom this that as far as it was ` height of fall of the river remains constant. In 35 possible to arrive at a torque curve lying be the self-contained transmission gear, however, tween the straight torque> line I and the. ideal not only the. head oi' the turbine but also the hyperbola, it was necessary to make use of‘very quantity of Water change sensibly, since in the intricate designs. short-circuited circuit a reaction directly takes Now, the inventor has found out that degrees place on the pump which does not furnish any of increase oi' the tractive eil’ort, viz. torque constanthead of water but a head which`very sen curves like those shown by II and which were - sibly'varies with the quantity of Water delivered attained, so-far, only with at least three turbine (cf. the Q-H characteristic). The quantity of stages (six wheels) or with one ilxed and four water, however, adjusts itself in such a Way that revoluble guide blade rims (seven wheels), can the total vresistances in the pump, turbine and . already be arrived at with one single turbine guide apparatus friction', shocks and head uti 45 stage in one circuit comprising three fixed wheels, lized) are `overcome. l'I‘he finding that the particular application of accordingly with a fraction oi' the 'means' hither to necessary for that- purpose. f smaller inlet radii with larger or, `at the most. This effect absolutely unexpected and dia equal outlet radii of the turbine is, among other metrically opposed to the notion of other special things, decisive for surprisingly high increases of 50 ists is, according to the invention, substantially the torque under the particularly intricate condi obtained by the essential combination oi' the fol tions of flow in the present transmission gears, represents a substantial progress in transmision engineering, epecially as it permits of doing away with the prejudice that the Francis turbine (with larger inlet and smaller outlet' radii), lowing features, namely: ` ’ . (a) In the cycle there is disposed in combination 55 with a pump wheel only the .one secondary wheel the inlet radius of which does not exceed the'out _ which is advantageous for .the maximum ei' let radius (consequently no Francis turbines). (b) ’I‘he blades of the secondary wheel form - ficiency, is also superior i'orÍ the spontaneous in nat angles with the circumference at the outlet crease of the tractive effort in the start. 60 whereby the peripheral velocity u at the outlet Fig. 2 shows one of the usual turbine triangles 60 of the turbine must be of the magnitude of the in which accordingy to the invention the circum~ relative discharge velocity w at this point which ferential velocity u and the velocity of flow (here results in the outlet angles being smaller than the relative velocity at the channel outlet) 'are 35 degrees (Fig. 2). ' ' (c) The blades of the secondary wheel must be substantially thickened at the inlet and eventually rounded'oil'. » y ' ' (d) 'I'he guide means or/and the secondary wheel consist of two rims one of which carries 70 blades continually operative while the.other rim carries’ supplementary blades used for slow angu lar speeds and which at higher angular speed are withdrawn from action. The totality of these features results in the surprising progress here 75 disclosed. - ` of about the vsame magnitude. In the case of hard braking w is sensibly increased. The blade 65 angles ßz are then smaller than 35 degrees, while in the case of larger angles unsatisfactory ratios u/w would be the result (viz. too small u as com~ pared with w). The blade may e. g. have the rounded shape shown which is per se knownin steam turbines, propellers, pumps and water turbines, it may, however, also be pointed in a suitable manner but at any rate it must have substantially thickened .inlet ends. In the embodiment shown by Fig. 3 the primary 75 \ s,1ic,4e1 . i 3 . anaft 1 carries the> pump wheel 2, which delivers the-water int'o the- coaxial turbine or secondary According to a further embodiment ot the in-vention shown in Figs. 5 and 6 the supplementary - wheel 3l, 30,’ which is coupled with the _secondary shaft 9 by lmeans of the disc i. From here the the thickened heads of the continually operative. blades are so arranged asl to partially overlap ' blades 3|. They rim of these supplementary or 5 split blades 31 may be inserted and withdrawn by an axial displacement, slots 4l being provided for this purpose in the carrier 36. ~ Í5 -water flows through a bladeless channel I9 to the guide rims 3i, Il' disposed opposite tothe sec ondary wheel and finally back through the blade less chamber 40 into the pump. _ v . i ’ The guide rim 3|. is supported by a carrier 36 i - In Fig. 3 3| is the rim continually used in the 10 which can. as desired, rotate on or with the guide device whileäi' is the- supplementary rim lo which is adapted to disappear in the chamber l2 connected with the stationary guide device. ’I‘he 'displacement is e. g. accomplished in the well known way by the“ hydraulic pressure in the gear primary shaft I or may _be‘immobilized against rotating by the brake 38. - , . At the maximum speed the guidedevice may be freed by a release' of the hard braking at 38 so 15 that the circuit is converted into _a soft hydraulic ^ itself as illustrated and described in the inven- 15 clutch. At the maximum running speed the tor's Patent 1,199,361. This feature is longv latter may even be replaced by a Vrigid coupling known and therefore not a subject matter oi _the consisting in s_tooth- ofiriction clutch 35 so that present invention. The supplementary rim 3i’ the eiiiciency 1, is raised to practically 100% and is naturally disposed in the direction of flow in 2c all means :today available for the increase of iront ofthe outlet rim 3i continuously used, viz. an in the present instance at a larger radius than 3i. . tractive effort and eiilciency are combined _within a minimum of space. . _ , , . In the sarne way the turbine outlet rim 30 malr _ also, for the development ofthe maximum start For increasing the tractive effort and at the same time the emciency the guide device con .25 sista of two rims iti, 3i’ .the one oi’ which 3i’ being adapted to be inserted into the circuit or withdrawn into the. chamber t2 according to the ing tractive efforts and efiiciencies, be rigidly cornI nected with the casing 5 and the core 33 while in 25 the case of medium and‘high running speeds the ' supplementary rim til’ can disappear' into the chamber 3d of the secondary runner. The rim receiving chambers 32 and tt may be disposed speed desired in an axial direction into the same circuit. ' f .' According to the invention, this measure can as. desired either within the core -or on the out- au be further improved by not only a second guide side of the casing. A further advantage of vthe invention consists in that, if desired, it is possible to obtain an additional braking effect byÍ means of the hy-‘ draulic gears. This eifect is particularly desir- 35 _ able in the case of long descents or when the 3@ apparatus but also a cond turbine wheel all' beinglinserted in'a suita le way, e.v g. also by an axial displacement into and from the chamber 3d. 35 Then> a turbine wheel adapted to the particular running speed will correspond' to each guide'apparatus (Fig. 3i. » f In some instances this-will, however, present the disadvantage that the mechanical connection ,mäbetween- the casing E and the core 33 of the cir driver encounters an unexpected osbtruction so that braking with any possible means imposes itself. «After‘having reached a certain speed the .that special supporting blades leaving the twist substantially unchanged must be used in order hydraulic gear willas a rule be used'as a `coui- so pling or the driver will have the car to_ run with a direct mechanical clutch ‘engagement so that according the above statement it would be neces be overcome according to the invention by the drawal frorrrthe circuit. - cuit or other corresponding members is lost so Sal‘y to render‘ the guide device inoperative in to reestablish this connection. ' This inconvenience by itself not essential can ‘ì the circuit either by vfree running or by a with- 45 ' 45 _ > _ When now withï such 'a speed the secondary _ particular guide _blades of the-guide device and/or vthe blades of the turbine being each divided into Y shaftis to be braked, the guide -wheel is inserted an inlet and an outlet part the vlatter of which again' by being immobilized or> returned into the circuit. In the lsameway in which initially a 50 y '50 -is continually used and at bthe same time con nects the outside wall i and the internal core sensible increase of the torque was obtained in Il oi the circuit »with one another while the inlet the start, the guide device being inserted, viz. -part is so shaped that it completes the outlet part suited for high and medium speeds only, to a kind 55.01' hookgtì blade which is on the contrary adapted I to low speeds and particularly to the development of maximum tractive' eiïorts .for starting., By this arrangement the double or multiple branched circuits for transmission gears as disclosed by '60 earlier patents~ of the inventor are so to speak combined into s. single circuit so‘that an essential , simplification and'improvement ci the set is ob tained, the Amore so as it was found 'out thatI the „ pump in any instance common to the latter can > 55 show. deilnite properties which are hydraulically ' advantageous for either speed. , Fig. 4 shows such special blades consisting each the transition from the coupling to the torque transforming effect, will result in a powerfulv braking action- on the secondary part. A par- 55 ticuiarly powerful `braking effect is obtained by the primary shaft, for'instance the engine, being . braked to stoppage. In either instancethe hy draulic gear acts as,a water brake. ~ The essential features of the invention 'as 60 characterized in the claims are naturally appli able independently of any particular features de scribed land the embodiments shown _by the drawing are also readily> appliable to embodi ments of turbines, pumps and hydraulic trans-i .65 mission gears in g. general way. I claim: ~ . ' _ ' ' of an inlet part Il' and an outlet part 3l and 1. A hydraulic transmission gear for an inten-V which are suited for the change both of the guide sliìed automatic torque increaseat the .'stox't. Í 70" device and of the turbine impellers..l 3| e. g. has` comprising aprimary pump wheel, only one 70 secondary wheel the inlet radius of which does the typical shape of _the reaction blades corre 75 not lexceed the outlet radius, andthe .blades Yof spondingtó high and medium speeds of the tur binewhile the combination, oi Il' and 3| results which, substantially thickened at'the inlet. and ' in an advantageous laction or impuke turbine. eventually rounded ofi, andl formed with` dat angles, ß: with the circumference at the outlet 'II bladins. ' ’ 4 2,116,481 whereby the relative discharge velocity (ws) and comprising a primary. pump wheel, a secondary the peripheral velocity _(us) at that point are ,fwheel, the inlet radius of which does not ex of substantially the same magnitude at the nor ceed the outlet radius, and the blades of which. mal angular speed of maximal eiiiciency (nam), substantially thickened at the inlet and eventu-f. a chamber connecting the outlet of the secondary ally rounded on', form ilat angles sa with the cir wheel with the inlet oi’ the pump wheel, guide ‘l means operable in said chamber and consisting of cumference at the outlet whereby the relative discharge velocity (un) and the. peripheral two rims one of -which carries guide blades con tinually operative while the other rim carries do velocity I(un) at that point are of the substan~ tially same magnitude `at the normal angular supplementary blades for slow angular speeds speed of maximal eihciency (nam), a chamber ot the secondary wheel, and means for rendering lconnecting the outlet of the secondary wheel the supplementary blades inoperative at higher with the inlet of the pump wheel, guide means angular speeds. operable in said chamber and consisting of two 2. A hydraulic transmission-gear for an inten siiled automatic torque increase at the start, comprising a primary pump wheel, only‘one secondary wheel the inlet radius oi which does not exceed the outlet radius,4 and the blades of which, substantially thickened at the inlet and 20 eventually rounded cti, i'orm flat angles ßz with the circumference at the outlet whereby the rela rims -oneoi' which carries guide blades continually » operative while thel other‘ rim carries supple 16 mentary blades for slow angular speeds of thesecondary wheel and means for rendering the supplementary blades inoperative at higher angu lar speeds and the guide means being arranged on the side of the circuit opposite to the side ot the secondary wheel. f' tive discharge lvelocity (wz) and the peripheral6. A hydraulic transmission gear for an inten-l velocity (ua) at that point are oi' substantially the -siiled automatic torque increase at the start, same magnitude at thenormal angular speed of comprising a primary pump wheel, a secondary ler» maximal eiiiciency ~(mmm). a chamber connect wheel, the inlet radius of which does not exceed ` ing the outlet oi the secondary wheel with the ‘the outlet radius, and the blades oi' which, sub inlet oi the pump wheel, guide means operable inv stantially thickened at the inlet and eventually said chamber and consisting of two rims. the rounded oir, iorm'ilat angles s: with the circum secondary wheel one of which carries blades con ference at the outlet whereby the relative dis 30 tinually operative while the other rim carries charge velocity (wz) and the peripheral velocityv supplementary blades operative 'for slow angular speeds of the secondary wheel, and means for withdrawing the supplementary blades from ac tion at higher angular speeds. 35 >3.* A hydraulic transmission gear according to (un) at that point are of the substantially same magnitude at the normal angular speed oi' maxi mal emciency (mmm),- a chamber connecting the outlet oi' the secondary wheel with the inlet of the pump wheel, guide means operable in said claim 1, in which also the secondary wheel con ~ chamber and consisting oi two rims one oi' which sist of two rims, one of which carries blades con tinually operative while the other rim carries the other rim carries supplementary blades for carries guide blades continually operative while supplementary blades for slow angular speeds of s_low angular speeds of the secondary wheel and the secondary wheel and which at higher angular `means for rendering the supplementary blades speeds are withdrawn from action by axial dis- , inoperative at higher angular speeds and the placement. guide means being arranged on the side of the 4.- A hydraulic transmission gear according to circuit opposite to the side o_i the secondary wheel, claim 1 in which the supplementary blades being and a bladeless channel provided between the . so arranged as to overlap the thickened heads ot the continually operative blades. outlet oi' the turbine wheel and the inlet oi the supplementary guide blades. 5. A hydraulic transmission gear for an inten siiied automatic torquev increase atjthe start, HERMANN r'öfrrmenn.