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Патент USA US2116509

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May 10, 1938.
2,1 16,509
F. G. coTTRELL
ELECTRIC FILTRATION SYSTEM
Filed oct. 2. 195s
2 Sheets-Smet 1
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14 frog/v5.1
May 10, 1938.
F. G. coTTRELL
2,1 16,509
ELECTRIC FILTRATION SYSTEM
Filed Oct.' 2, 1953
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,116,509
Patented May> 10, ‘i938 i
UNITED STATE S»VY PATENT
‘OFFICE -
2,116,509
ELECTRIC FILTRATION SYSTEM
, Frederick Gardner Cottrell, washington, D. c.,
asdgnor to Petroleum Rectifying Company of
California, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of
California
'Application october 2, 193s, serial No. 691,806
`
22 Claims. (c1. 2114-24)
This invention relates to Aa method and appa
ratus for removing foreign material from a liquid
by the use of an electric field which is preferably
of a unidirectional character. More particular
5 ly, the invention 'comprehends the application of
cataphoretic principles in a novel manner.
.'I'he~ problem of separating foreign material
from a liquid phase has been long recognized.
Attempts have been made to move such foreign
material from the liquid by applicationl of a uni
directional elect'ric field so that the foreign parti
cles migrate toward one or the other of the elec
trodes where they are deposited. However, it is
seldom possible to remove al1 traces of this foreign
material. For this'reason l’. have found it desir
able to utilize aiilter material in conjunction with
an electric field, and such a system is included
among the objects of the present invention.
Another feature of the invention is to maintain
' an electric field adjacent a filter surface so that
comes desirable to remove this concentrated ma
terial therefrom.
\
-
-
By proper design of the system it becomes pos
sible to maintain in the electric field foreign par
ticles which are both positively and negatively ta
charged, as will be hereinafter set forth, and one
of the features of the present invention is to sub
ject the incoming mixture to such a field whereby
the oppositely charged particles not only tend to
themselves neutralize and thus form` .larger 10
masses, but-also tend to contact the dispersed
particles of the incoming mixture to unlte'there
with in forming masses of larger size.
One process with which the present invention
finds particular utility is the electrical dehydra
tion of petroleum emulsions.
Such a conven
tional dehydrating process includes the building
up » of an velect-ric field, usually of alternating
character and of hi-gh intensity, so as to coalesce
dispersed water droplets of the petroleum emul
20
sion- into masses of sufficient size to gravitate
2o at least a portion of the foreign material is moved from the oil. The meeting of present commer
away from this surface through cataphoretic Vac
cial standards requires that such a dehydration
tion, thus preventing accumulation' of a large system_ reduce the water content of the oil to at
quantity of the foreign material on `the filter least 3%. In many instances, however, it is de
itself. In this way it is possible to' eliminate
25 much of the frequent cleaning of a filter surface sirable to remove even a. greater proportion of
the water, and it is in this capacity that the pres
such as is necessary in existing processes where . ent invention can be utilized, the emulsion being
in filtration alone is utilized for separating the first subjected to an alternating current field
foreign material.
'
and later subjected to a unidirectional field after
Another feature of the present invention is to a certain amount of settling has taken place.
move the mixture through a distributing mem
The above and still `further features and ob
ber, and to set up an electric field into .which the jects of the invention will be evident to those
mixture moves, this field acting to stop or com
skilled in the art from the following description.
` `pletely reverse the direction of movement of the
Referring to the drawings:
The
field
can
l
foreign material in the mixture.
Fig. ll diagrammatically illustrates the simple
be so designed as to return this foreign material form of treater capable of carrying out the proc
to the distributing member from which it came.
Another feature of the present invention re
Fig. 2 illustrates the treating system in con-sides in the use of a movable member on which
40
junction with an electric dehydrator.
40 the a foreign material ' is deposited so that this
Fig. 3 is an alternative form of combined treater
member can be removed from the fluid either and dehydrator.
'
continuously or intermittently so that a cleaning
Figs. 4 and 5 are alternative forms of the treater
thereof can be effected and so as to present new shownin Fig. l.
Referring particularly to Fig. 1, I have ‘dia 45
surfaces to the fluid.
4 il
It should not be understood, however, that it grammatically shown a tank I0 across which al
is in all instances necessary to utilize an electric porous member Il extends to define-an intake
chamber I2 to which the incoming mixture is
field of sufficient intensity to cause foreign ma
supplied through a pipe i3. This porous member
terial to deposit on one or the other of the elec
is preferably one having relatively good electrical 50
trodes. The invention also comprehends a proc
50
insulating properties `and is relatively coarse
ess wherein the electric field maintains thefor
eign material suspended therein while the liquid grained toprovide interstices which are of great
er size than the dispersed particles of the in
phase -can now therethrough, this forel-gn ma
terial remaining in the field and increasing the . coming mixture. This mixture may thus move 55
through the porous member H and into a treat
concentration
therein until such time as it be
56
ess.
'
,
'
> 2
f 2,11e,5o9'
_
v
.I >ing space I5 without substantial yaccumulation Vstances return the foreign particlestowardA the
. of the foreign material on the intake surface of "
'porous member
¿ this porous member. _So also. the'foreignV-ma
terial is in _the form of a dispersed liquid, the
provision of-intersticesin the porous-member II
of larger size than the dispersed droplets -will
emerged. y. The iield can be made suiiiciently in
' prevent any further subdivision 0f these drop-.
lets as the mixture moves through this member.
II
from which -they- have
tense to actually deposit the foreign material on
the porous member II, allowing.v substantially
pure liquid to move rlghtward and through the
filter plate. 22. Any remaining foreign particles
not separated by the electric field will ofcourse
` An electric iield is set up in the treating space ' be deposited on the filter plate 22.
10 I5 by any suitable means. »In the form shown
One of the primary advantages accruing from
_- the porous member-` Il supports an"interstitial
electrode vI5 which extendsonly partially acrossthis member‘so that theend portions of this
such a process is that the foreign- material is
deposited‘upon' the porous member II as `dis
tinguished from the ñlter plate 22 which would
’ porous member act to insulatethe'electrode from become quickly clogged by such a deposit. The '
It is~ possible to form this elect-rode pores of -the member- II `are relatively large and
. by various means. Thus,- the porous surface of _v are not'easìly. Vclosedby a deposit of the foreignv
_Y the member IIl can 'be sprayedvor. otherwise
material, even if this foreign material is in the
coated with a metallic substance to form the . _form of a solid substance. If the foreign mate
interstitial electrode'V I6, care being. exercised not rial is- in the form of a liquid, at least a por
to deposit suiiicient conducting material to'close tion of this liquid will come into contact with
` - the interstices of this porous'member. In other
.the porous member Il or the electrode and may
15 the tank.
_instancesit is possible to mount a metallic- screen move downward therealong by gravitational force
or perforated plate along this. surface of the. po- __ if the liquid thus accumulated is of greater den
rous member II, as diagrammatically shown in
sity'than
and will- move
the continuous
upward if of
phase
-less ofthe
density».Y
25 Fig.. 1. In any event_-aconductor I`I supplies a
potential to this electrode 'I6 and extends through
‘I‘he electrodes I6 and 25 do not form iields
' _a suitable» bushing I B and to one ‘terminal of a of uniform gradient thereadjaoent. Instead, the
lgenerator I9 >»preferably _off the direct-current field is concentrated at sections along the me
tallic members of the screen,-or adjacent the
.30. »A iilter plate 22 extends- across the tank- VII! crests or minute edges of the electrodes. Thus.
.and separates the treating space_I5-from a dis
while some of the foreign material will' be de
charge _chamber '2_3 communicating with a pipe posited on the porous member _II or the elec
24.» This ñlter plate is'pre'ferably formed of a trode I6, 'other of the- foreign particles will be
i "filter material'having only very minute pores.
35_ -Usually it is desirable'to utilize a filter plate
‘ -which would in itself _ iiiter from the mixture
subjected to a somewhat different action as they
move >leftward against the rlghtward flowing. 35
stream of liquid.- When these particles come into
some or all of the _foreign material of the mix
thevicinity of one of the high field-intensity
ture. The -material Aforming this iilter plate may
portions of the iield adjacent the electrode I5,
^ , . vbe one having Agood electrical insulating proper- -` they appear> to come into electrical contact there
40 ties so as to' itself act as an insulated support
with, thereby' receiving the charge of -the elec
for an interstitial`- electrode 25 extending there- ' trode, -and are then repelled from the electrode
along but spaced from th'e- tank III.> This inter -in the-direction of ilow of the mixture through
stitial electrode may be formed in a manner sim-î the treating space I5.- Apparently, the ileld con
ilar to the -electrode liso -` that the liquid of the ditions adjacent the electrode I5 control thisV ac
45 Amixture -can readily pass therethrough.
A oo_n
ductor 21 energizœ this electrode; and extends
vthrough a bushing 28 andis also connected to '
the generator I9. "I'his generatorv may be of the.
variable-voltage type whereby the potential be
40
tion. Thus the system may be» so designed and
operated that" -some ofA the foreign particles
reaching the most intense portions of the ileld
are subsequently discharged from the vicinity of
the electrode I6 rather than clinging thereto,
tween the electrodes I 6 and 25 may be varied. these particles thus discharged of course moving
If- desired, a variable. resistance.”l may be yin- f toward the electrode 25 which is ‘of opposite sign.
serted in series with this generator to4 control this In fact, they move through _the treating space
j potential. ‘
I5 at a velocity controlled both >by the electric
In the' operatic-rn- of this form voi' vthe invention iield and the stream .of mixture, these particles
v55 ~the mixture to be treated enters the intake cham
thushaving a net velocity which is higher than ber I2 through the pipe I3, and the porous mexn-v ‘ the mixture. Some of these particles may come
into contact with the electrode 25 and be there
_ ber I I acts as a distributing means for discharg
ing this mixture into thetreating space I5. In
the .absence of any electric field in thistreating
space, thismixture will move rightwardther'e--
on deposited. Other of these particles will be
repelled from the electrode _25 after they have
come into electrical contact therewith and have 60
across-lat -a uniform velocity and the> foreign thus received a chargewhich is opposite in sign
material .will be deposited on the surface _of the _ to the charge which they possess when moving
«ñlter plate~22_, the liquid'iiowing therethrough rlghtward. _ The net eil'ect is that the treating
~and being. withdrawn through the pipe 2l. 'If
an electric _ileld is impressed between' the elec
_ trodes I5 and 25'._"the.action on- the foreign_`par- ticles will depend-upon the inherent charge there
space I5 contains particles of foreign material
some of which are charged' positively and some
of which are charged negatively.. There is a
force tending to bring such oppositely charged
on. a The neld canv vbe ,built up so as to either particles into contact‘with each other if they
-increase ‘or retard the normal movement of these are suñiciently close. 'i‘he result is o_f course
foreign particles as they are carried along with that such particles join together and the charges
the liquid'. Usually I iind it preferable to utilize thereon are substantially neutralized. 'If the
an -electric iield- which acts not only to retard
`the forward Amovement of theseioreign'parti-j
cles toward the iilter plate 22, but actually to
-prevent such forward movement and in most in
particles comprise liquid droplets they coalesce
and thus tend to ldrop in the treating space Il.
being possibly contacted during their downward
movement by other charged particles of the 15
arranca
foreign material moving between the electrodes.
8o also, the charged particles thus moving in the
iield tend to come into contact with the. particles
of foreign material newly introduced into the
field, thus tending to facilitate separation thereof.
0n the other hand, the field will contain
charged particles which move therein without
becoming neutralized> and which particles will
travel back and forth in the field. This is shown
by the fact that the material in the treating
'
Y
’
3
I5 previously described, is shown as being placed
immediately inside the porous member Il. A cen
tral electrode il of relatively small sine extends
therein. Any suitable means may be utilized for
setting upa unidirectionalileldinthespacebe
tween electrodes l2 and 53. In the form shown
I have illustrated a transformer Il as su
alternating current to the electrodes 5I andjl.
and a vaculnntube or other reciifying device 'Il
connected to the incoming line and delivering 10
unidirectional current vto the electrodes 52 and
all of the foreign material is vdeposited on the 53. If desired a suitable choke and filter system
electrodes. but in other instances a portion of _ may be used in conjunction with the rectifying
this foreign material remains suspended in the device 'il so as to eliminate some or all of the
treating spaœ so that eventually 'it is desirable ripples which would otherwise appear in the po 15
space Il increases in concentration as treatment
. Thus, in some instances substantially
to remove the concentrated material therefrom.
This may be done intermittently. the material
being moved through a pipe 3| communicating
-'«\ :witha funnel I2 of the tank Il. In other in
stances it is possible to continuously remove a
small portion of the liquid in the treating space
Il through the pipe ll.
`
Referring to Fig. 2 Iv have illustrated a treat
- ing apparatus similar to that shown in Fig. 1 as
used in conjunction with an electric dehydrator
tential delivered to these electrodes. ,
In this form of the invention the oil,v together
with a minute amount of water carried therewith,
moves through the porous member and’through
the electrode i2 and into the electric ileld. This
ßeld is preferably designed to move the dispemed
particles of water toward the electrode fl so that '
this water can coalesce around this electrode and
drop from the lower end thereof and into a
funnel 12 which discharges above a distributor
plate 13„ thus preventing direct return of this
3l. This dehydrator may be of conventional con
water to the treating space 55 but delivering same
struction including a tank 36 in which live and
grounded electrodes Il and 3l are respectively to the ileld around the electrode 54. In other
instances, however, it is possible to reverse the
positioned to define a treating space 39. 'I'he in
connections on the electrode so that the water 30
coming emulsion is delivered through a pipe Il - particles
will‘be moiled toward the outer elec
to a pump Il which forces it into the treating
space I! where it is subjected to an electric ?eld trode 52, flowing therealong and into the funnel
12. In any event the dry oil is removed through
set up by a `transformer I2 connected to supply a pipe 14 and delivered to a suitable storage.
< ‘lines ß as shown. 'I'his ñeld acts to coalesce
This form of the invention utilizes a ileld which 35
the ‘dispersed water particles of the incoming
more intense adjacent the central electrode Il
emulsion, and the coalesced masses settle in the is
than
adjacent the electrode 62, this ñeld being
tank I5 and are withdrawn through a pipe M. thus of non-uniform intensity. Such an elec
The 011 rises in the tank 3i and is withdrawn trode structure is often advantageous when cer
through a pipe l5. 'I‘his oil is not, however, us
tain types of mixtures are being treated, regard 40'
ually in a pure state, but carries a small percent
less of whether these mixtures comprise water
age oi' water therewith.
particles or solids suspended in an`oil phase.
A treater similar to that shown in Fig. 1 is
In Fig. 4 I have illustrated a Systemfwherein
illustrated as being connected to the pipe 45 so
at least a portion of the, foreign material is de
- that this mixture oi' oil and water ilows there
through as previously described. The pipe 3| - posited on a moving member and then withdrawn 45
oi' this treater preferably communicates with the from the treating space. A tank Il is illustrated,
intake oi' the pump Il and includes a valve 46 one portion of the tank'comprising an intake
controlling the flow therethrough. The pump Il chamber 8| bounded by a porous member I2 and
a wall 83. The mixture may be delivered to this
»0 thin can be used to draw the Awater or other mix
intake chamber through al pipel » Il. and» flow
ture from the treater and return this to the through the porous member and into a treating
electric held of the dehydrator for further treat
ment or disposal. The dry oil moves through the space l5. An electrode II similar to that pre
pipe 2l of the treater to a suitable storage means. viously described is mounted on the porous mem
82. Similarly, a discharge chamber l1 is
In this form of the invention I have illustrated ber
formed in. the opposite end of the tank Il being 55
a motor-generator set I1 connected to the sup
ply lines I3 and supplying the potential to the bounded by a ñlter plate 8l and a wall Il. This
filter plate preferably mounts an electrode Il
electrodes Il and 25.
>
In the form of the invention shown in Fig. 3, , similar to the electrode 25 previously described.
v
A roller 9| is ’shown as being rotatably' mounted
both treaters are enclosed in a single tank 5D.
. Here the incoming emulsion moves through a pipe below the filter plate 8l and a corresponding roller
Il and through a nozzle'52 surrounding a rod 92 is positioned thereabove and outside -the tank
electrode 5I maintained at ground potential. A 80. A movable member, preferably in the form
of a continuous belt 53, extends ltherearound.
live electrode in the form of a shield 54 is posi
One of the rollers is suitably driven so that the
tioned therearound, cooperating therewith in de
lining a treating space 55 in which coalescence belt 93 moves upward adjacent the electrode Il.
This belt means is preferably interstitial in char
takes place. 'l‘he heavier constituent ofthe emul
lion ß moved from the tank 50 through a pipe acter and may be formed of metallic screen as
Il. while the substantially dry oil moves upward shown. In other instances this belt may' be of
0 into a chamber 5I defined between a dome 59 cloth, preferablyA formed of a material which is
and a porous member lll. This material then water wettable- It is not, however. necessary 70
mom through the porous member and into a that this belt be formed of conducting material
all instances, though if ever it is thus formed
heating space Il wherein a unidirectional ileld in
it will be clear that the belt can be in actual
h prderably established. In this form an inter
electrical contact with the electrode il, if de
5 stitial electrode I2. corresponding to the electrode sired. The beit would uien :n itself comprise an rs
vil»
2,116,509
electrode. .. In other instances' the belt can .be
spaced slightly therefrom as shown. In any event
any electricl field is established in the- treatingv
space 85 as by a battery or other source 9G. This
5 ñeld is of such a character as to move the foreign
material oi the incoming mixture in a direction
toward the belt 93 so that it comes into contact
therewith and is moved upward as the belt rises.
If the foreign-particles ofthe mixture are formed
-of a sol-id material, as, for instance, carbon, this
material will be> deposited en_the external sur-l
face of the belt and can be removed therefrom
,
y
- whereby the concentration of said suspended maf.`
terial in said iield increases >as treatment pro-l
gresses, the lines of forcein said field being sub- I
stantially parallel to the direction of flow; ,and
removing lsaid- suspended mattery from 'saldi-field; '
3; A method. of ltreatingv aëmixturebf aY liquid>
and a suspended materialfby the use ofl a'filter . »
plate having interstic'es of smaller size than the
particles oisaidsusp'ended: matter and by the
use of a porous¿member having interstices of 10
larger size than said- particles„`which method in-cludes the steps iik-'continuously moving a stream
by suitable means spaced above the tank 80 and , oi said mixture'throug-h said porous member and f '
shown as comprising a scraper 91 dischargingv
The liquid phase of the mix-'
ture moves through >the filter -plate 88 andv into;
the discharge chamber 81 whence it is Withdrawn j
through a pipe 99.
In the -form of the invention shown in Fig. 4
20 the downward moving portion of the- belt 93 ‘isV
shown as moving. through the chamber 81. l'If
this is undesirable a form such as `shown in. Fig. 5
-15 into a hopper 98.
may be utilized. Here the discharge chamberv is
indicated by the numeral' lill and is` formedf by
e an open-ended shell |02 closed. by a filter plate
|03 similar to that previously described.'_j A` dis
_ charge pipe |04 conducts the liquidtherefrom.
This shell is positioned directly above the -lower
30
-toward said iiltergplate; establishing an electric
field of unidirectional characterfin the-space »be-1'
vtween lsaid porous member and lsaid filter'plate
and oi'a character> to ca'taphoreti'cally move said '
particles in a direction toward said porous mem
ber therebyfpreventing deposit oi said particles I ‘
on. said ñlter plate; .and vmoving said liquid
»through said _filter plate fto remove any particles
not removed -by `said electric’field.
f
‘ fi. A methodk of treating a »mixture of a liquid
and a suspended material >by 'the use of a porous
‘ member havingjinterstices of larger size than said
suspended material, which method includes the
steps of: flowing 'said' mixture continuously
through saidporous. member; 'and establishing» ,
roller 9| and between the upward andjdownward~ an Aelectric field through which said mixture
`moving portions of the belt 93. The entire tank movesvafter passing through said porous member, l30
80 may be filled with liquid'to a level indicated said electric >field acting to cataphoretically move>
by the numeral Ililì.l Alsoin this form of -the'` the particles of ksaid suspended rmaterial in a
invention a scraper |01 may beused for remov» *direction toward' said _porous member andlinto
.
-1
y
ing any Imaterial carried-upward by the belt 93, contact therewith.v v
5. A method as'deiined in claim 4 in which said
. this material sliding down a plate |08 and into a
VhopperlliS.
'
.
Y
It is sometimes possible to reverse the direc
tion of flow through the forms shown in Figs. 4
and 5, discharging the pure liquid through the
40 pipe 8l and, if desired, reversing the position
of the porous member and ñlter plate. Usually,
VVhowever, this is not preferable in view of the fact
' that the incoming mixture must iiow through
the belt means before moving into the central
portion of the field. However, with a belt of inter
stitial character, this system can often be used
Li
porous :member forms one electrode for establish
ing said electric field thus bounding said i'leld. '
6. A method of electrically treating a mixture
to separate the constituents thereof, which meth
od includes the steps of : establishing an alternat
ing and a unidirectional electric ñeld; moving
said mixture into the alternating-held; partially
separating said constituents; moving. one of the
constituents thus partially separated into said
unidirectional field wherein vtheÍremainlng con 43
stituents are separated; and returning by'gravity'
and> the -belt `»can thus act as a porous member ` one of said constituentsthus separz'atedl in said
through »which the incoming mixture moves. unidirectional iield .to said alternating ileld.
7. In combination in‘an»electriclseparating de- With such a -ñow it is usually desirable to main
50 tain the unidirectional field ‘of such character as
Yto return the foreign material to the belt 93 from
which it is removed at a position outside the
tank’ßll.
In other instances a belt means may be pro
vided adjacent the porous _member 82 as Well as
` the' filter plate 88, thus removing from the vicin
- ity of the electrode 86 any foreign> matter which
mightfotherwise deposit on this electrode' due to
» the action of the, electric iield.
to I claim as my invention:
vice for treating a mixtureoi _’a‘liquid and a sus-~
pended material: , a’ v'illter plate; Y
disposed adjacent a iorwarcf‘isurf
ter plate; a second electrode-disposed in spaced
relationship with `said first electrode and posi
tioned on the same side oi' said illterfplate as said _
iirst electrode; means for movingthe `suspended
particles in a direction awayirom said 'filter
plate and -including' means for ' establishing a' po-,-
tential ‘dliferencebetween saidelectrodes with
_the potential so »maintained _that the electric‘ileld 60
1. A method'oi' treating a mixture of a liquid thus established betweenïsaid electrodes> acts to
and a suspended material, which method includes move theV -suspended'particles to be; separated
the steps of : forming a stream of said mixture away from said iilter> plate; means for continu-.
' ously flowing said mixture in said field toward said'
moving in a given direction; setting up an elec
tric field acting to move said suspended material filter plate; and means for withdrawing said liq
in a direction opposite to said given direction and uid after it has passed through said illter plate;
8. In combination in an electric separating deat a velocity greater than the velocity of said
vice for treating a mixture of a" liquid and a sus
stream oi.' said mixture; and collecting said sus
pended material: a filter plate providing an in
pended material.
.
y2. A method of treating a mixture of a liquid terstitial surface of electrical conducting-mate
-and a. suspended material, which method includes rial and forming a first electrode; a second elec#
the steps of :' forming a. stream ol' said mixture trode disposed in spaced relationship with said
iilter plate; means for setting up an electric iield
moving in a given direction; setting up an elec
tric ñeld acting to move said suspended material between said first and said second electrodes and
-in a direction opposite to said given- direction acting to move the suspended particles to be- sep
65
i
i
70
'Il
2,116,569
arated away from said filter plate; means for con
tinuously flowing-said mixture in said field to
ward said ñlter plate; and means for withdrawing
said liquid after it has passed through said filter
‘ plate.
9. In combination in an electric separating de
vice for treating a mixture of a liquid and a sus
pended material: a porous member; a filter plate
spaced from said porous member to define a space
therebetween; means for flowing said mixture
through said porous member and toward said ?ll
ter plate: and means for establishing a unidirec
tional electric ileld in said space to attract said
suspended material and prevent deposition of the
whole of said suspended material on said filter
plate, said liquid moving through » said filter
plate.
'
' 10. In combination in a treater for separating a
mixture of a liquid and a suspended material: a
20 tank containing said mixture; a movable inter
stltial member of lelectric conducting material
and forming a first electrode, the surface of said
interstitial member being movable from sub
merged position in said mixture to a position
25 above said mixture; means for moving said inter
stitial member to move said surface from said
submerged position to said position above said
mixture; a second electrode in front of said first
electrode; means for establishing an electric field
30 between said electrodes tending to move said
'suspended material toward said first electrode of
interstitial character; 'a filter means to the rear
of said first electrode and receiving the liquid
and any unseparated suspended matter passing
through said interstitial member; and means for
withdrawing said liquid’passing through said fil
ter.
-
,
1_1. In combination in a treater for separating
a mixture of a liquid and a suspended material:
a tank containing said mixture; a movable in
terstitiar member and providing a front portion
and another portion spaced therefrom, both por
tions being in said tank; a filter means between
said portions of said movable interstitial member
and receiving any liquid and unseparated sus
material moving downward from the interiore!
said cylindrical electrode; and means for estab
llshing an electric field of alternating character
in said emulsion zone and to which field said por
tion of said material reaching the interior of
said cylindrical electrode is delivered.
14. A method of treating an emulsion by the
use of a cylindrical interstitial electrode, which
method includes the steps of: setting up an elec
tric field adjacent said cylindrical electrode mov
ing a treated portion of said emulsion into the
interior of said cylindrical electrode through' the
interstices thereof ; establishing an electric‘ñeld
of alternating character below said interstitial
electrode; moving at least part of the treated por
tion of said emulsionentering said ‘interstitial
electrode downward from the interior thereof
and into said field of alternating character; andl
introducing additional emulsion to be treated into
said ñeld of alternating character.
15. A method of separating the phases of an
member, which method `includes the steps of:
first passing said emulsion through one portion
of said interstitial member whereby some of the
tcrstitial member.
-
'
and removed from the emulsion; then moving the
remaining emulsion through a illter with small
pores to remove additional emulsion particles;
moving said interstitial member to present fresh
surfaces to said emulsion; and moving the liquid
through another portion of said interstitial mem
ber after it moves through said filter means.
16. In combination in an electric separating
device: a vstationary filter means; an interstitial
electrically-conducting member in the form of a
continuous belt-like member having -one side in
front of said stationary filter means. said sta
tionary filter means being positioned between op- `
posite sides of said interstitial member; means
for movably mounting said interstitial member;
means flowing a liquid containing suspended par
ticles toward said interstitial member and thus
tending to continue on to said ñlter means;
means for establishing an electric field of uni
directional character above said field of alter
liquid moving toward said interstitial means;
and means for moving said interstitial member
to present new deposit-receiving surfaces to said
.
` ~
17. A method of separating a suspended ma
terial from a liquid by use of a filter member
providing an interstitial electrically-conducting
surface, which method includes the steps of:
moving the liquid with its suspended material
toward said interstitial electrically-conducting
nating character and into which moves at least
a part of said mixture for separation of the sus
surface; establishing an electric field adjacent
pended material therein, said unidirectional and
said alternating fields being in open communica
of sumcient intensity to charge and project at
" tion whereby the suspended material in said uni
directional fleld drops to said field of alternating
character._
_
13. In combination in an electric dehydrator:
a tank containing a dry-oil zone in the upper end
thereof. the emulsion to be treated being in a
lower emulsion zone of said tank; an interstitial
cylindrical electrode in said dry-oil zone and
bounding an electric field; means for moving
material inward through the interstices of said
75 cylindrical electrode, at least a portion of said
45
filter means, said means including electrode
means cooperating with said interstitial mem
ber and establishing an electric ileld in said
electric field.
'12. In combination in an electrical treating
system for mixtures: means setting up an elec-_
tric field of alternating character; means for cir
culating the mixture to be treated in said field;
aa'
particles of said emulsion are deposited thereon
means for electrically depositing a portion of
pended material moving through said front por
said particles on said interstitial member, the re
tion of said movablejinterstitlal'memb‘er; >means " maining liquid moving through said stationary
for moving said liquid toward said front portion'
of said movable interstitial member and thence
through said filter means and said other portion
in succession; and means for withdrawing the
puri?ed liquid which passes through said filter
means and said other portion of said movablefin
26
emulsion' by the use of a belt-like interstitial
said interstitial electrically-conducting surface
least a portion of the suspended material from
said surface in a direction away from this sur
face; and collecting the liquid after it movœ
through said filter member.
'
t
18. A method of removing suspended impuri
ties from a. liquid by-the use of a ñlter and
cataphoretic action, which includes the steps of: 70
flowing a stream of said liquid containingsaid
suspended impurities toward one side of said
filter so that said liquid ñows therethrough; set
ting up a uni-directional field of sufficient intensi
ty and proper polarity immediately adjacent said 75
2,116,509
side of said ßltery to cause cataphoretic move
ment of at least a part of said suspended impuri
ties in said liquid away from said illter in a di
rection generally opposed to the direction of flow
of said liquid through said ñlter.
`19. A method of removing suspended 'impuri
ties from oil by the use of a ñlter and catapho
21. A combination as deiined in claim 1i in
which said filter means is between and spaced
from said portions of said movable interstitial
member.
22. In combination in a treater for separating
suspended material from a liquid: a tank con
taining a body of said liquid; an interstitial
20. A method as defined in claim 1 involving
the use of >a iilter plate toward which said liquid
member movable in said body of liquid and pro
viding front and rear portions spaced from each
other; a ñlter between said portions of said
movable interstitial member and receiving any
liquid and unseparated suspended material mov
ing through said front portion of said movable
interstitial member; means for moving the liquid
containing suspended material toward said front
portion of said movable interstitial member and
thence through said iilter means; walls defin
ing a discharge chamber between said portions
of said movable interstitial member and receiv
ilows and including the step of moving said liquid
through such ñlter plate immediatelyv after sub
ing the purified liquid issuing from said nlter;
and means for`conducting said purified liquid
retic action, which includes the steps of: flowing
a stream of said oil containing said suspended
19 vimpurities toward one side oi' said filter so that
said oil flows therethrough; setting up a uni
directional ileld of suillcient intensity and proper
v polarity in said stream flowing toward said filter
to cause cataphoretic movement of at least a
portion of said suspended impurities in a direction
opposite to the direction of movementof said
stream and away from said ñlter.
-
v jection to said electric'fleld and as it continues its
from said discharge chamber.
movement toward said älter plate whereby> said
electric field moves said suspended material -in a
g5 direction away i'rom said filter plate.
FREDERICK GARDNER CO’ITREIL.
CERTIFICATE 0F QORREGTION.
Patent No. 2,116, 509.
FREDERICK GÀRDNER'COTTRELL. '
It is hereby certified that error appears inf-the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requir ing correction as follows: Page 5, second
column, line 10, claim 1h., after the 4win/fd “e1ectrode". insert asemicolon;
_and that the said Letters Patent/.should be read with this correction therein
that the'same' may conform tothe record vof the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 28th day‘of‘June, A. D. 1958.
Henry Van Arsdale ,
(Seal)
`Acting Commissioner of- Patents.
2,116,509
side of said ßltery to cause cataphoretic move
ment of at least a part of said suspended impuri
ties in said liquid away from said illter in a di
rection generally opposed to the direction of flow
of said liquid through said ñlter.
`19. A method of removing suspended 'impuri
ties from oil by the use of a ñlter and catapho
21. A combination as deiined in claim 1i in
which said filter means is between and spaced
from said portions of said movable interstitial
member.
22. In combination in a treater for separating
suspended material from a liquid: a tank con
taining a body of said liquid; an interstitial
20. A method as defined in claim 1 involving
the use of >a iilter plate toward which said liquid
member movable in said body of liquid and pro
viding front and rear portions spaced from each
other; a ñlter between said portions of said
movable interstitial member and receiving any
liquid and unseparated suspended material mov
ing through said front portion of said movable
interstitial member; means for moving the liquid
containing suspended material toward said front
portion of said movable interstitial member and
thence through said iilter means; walls defin
ing a discharge chamber between said portions
of said movable interstitial member and receiv
ilows and including the step of moving said liquid
through such ñlter plate immediatelyv after sub
ing the purified liquid issuing from said nlter;
and means for`conducting said purified liquid
retic action, which includes the steps of: flowing
a stream of said oil containing said suspended
19 vimpurities toward one side oi' said filter so that
said oil flows therethrough; setting up a uni
directional ileld of suillcient intensity and proper
v polarity in said stream flowing toward said filter
to cause cataphoretic movement of at least a
portion of said suspended impurities in a direction
opposite to the direction of movementof said
stream and away from said ñlter.
-
v jection to said electric'fleld and as it continues its
from said discharge chamber.
movement toward said älter plate whereby> said
electric field moves said suspended material -in a
g5 direction away i'rom said filter plate.
FREDERICK GARDNER CO’ITREIL.
CERTIFICATE 0F QORREGTION.
Patent No. 2,116, 509.
FREDERICK GÀRDNER'COTTRELL. '
It is hereby certified that error appears inf-the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requir ing correction as follows: Page 5, second
column, line 10, claim 1h., after the 4win/fd “e1ectrode". insert asemicolon;
_and that the said Letters Patent/.should be read with this correction therein
that the'same' may conform tothe record vof the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 28th day‘of‘June, A. D. 1958.
Henry Van Arsdale ,
(Seal)
`Acting Commissioner of- Patents.
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