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Патент USA US2116522

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May 10,1938.
Filed Dec. 5, 1935
75:41 wry
Patented May 10, 1938
comasssromr. WAVE SENDER AND
Willy Kunze, Bremen, Germany, assignor to Sub
marine Signal OompanaBoston, Masa, a cor
poration of Maine
Application December 5. 1933, Serial No. 701,012
In Germany January'l, 1933 _
'1 Claims. _ (01. 177-386)
The present invention relates to apparatus for
the production and reception of compressional
waves, especially high-frequency waves. It has
particular application to the production and re
5 ception of high-frequency compressional waves
constructing the vibratory body of the oscillator
in such a manner that a di?erent amplitude is
‘obtained at the radiating member than the am
plitude of the magnetostrictive member. > This
may be accomplished by employing masses, of 5
different magnitudes at the opposite ends of
in a liquid medium such as water.
In the present invention use is made of the . the magnetostrictive elements. These masses are
~ magnetostrictive properties of certain metals and then connected by elastic members, namely the .
alloys. Magnetostrictive oscillators, as devices of
10 this type are conveniently called, have been made
in the past but have not been of great value on
account of their small energy output. This was
"in part due to the losses which occur in this type
of device. It has been proposed, in order to keep
15 "the losses-low, to build up the magnetostrictive
vibratory body from sheet rings or laminations.
A pile of such laminations is assembled with thin
layers of insulating material between them and
the whole pressed together so ‘that a unitary body
- 20 of definite natural frequency results.
These arrangements have the great disadvan
tage that at the high frequencies for which such
apparatus is mostly employed large frictional
_ losses are set up within the body of laminations.
25 It appears that this was due to the fact that an
whole or a portion of the magnetostrictive ele
ments. In such a structure the ends of the mag- 10
netostrictive elements having the largest mass
will vibrate with the smallmt amplitude.
. It is a known principle that a’ radiating surface
will radiate in' substantially a single direction
only if its dimensions are large compared to the 16
wavelength of the energy being sent out or re
ceivcd. This principle may be effectively em;
ployed according to the present invention by
mounting upon a radiating plate a multiplicity of
magnetostrictive elements covering substantially 20
the whole surface of the plate. Alternatively a
number of magnetostrictive vibratory bodies, each
composed of a plurality of magnetostrictive ele
ments disposed parallel to but out of contact with
each other and rigidly joined together at one 25
absolutely rigid union of the individual laminae‘ or both ends, may be constructed. A plurality of
such vibratory bodies may then be mounted upon
could not be assured.
, An object pf the present invention is to s'et a radiating plate of large dimensions compared
_' forth a magnetostrictive vibratory body in which to the wave length. If desired two such radiat
30 there is no looseness between the individual mem ‘ ing plates may be employed, one at each end of 30
bers which may give rise to undesirable frictional the vibratory bodies. _A directive e?ect may also
This is accomplished according to the present
invention by employing a multiplicity of mag
35 netostrictive members of equal length, for exam
ple, Wires, thin rods, sheet strips, thin-walled
tubes or the like. These may advantageously be
mounted parallel to 'each other without metallic
contact between them, their ends being rigidly
40 joined together in some manner so that a single'
unitary longitudinally vibrating body results
whose natural frequency can be made use of.
The joining of the ends of the individual mag
netostrictive members may be made. either by
be obtained by mounting the radiating surface
or surfaces of the magnetostrictive oscillator at
the focus of a parabolic re?ector.
The invention may be further understood by 35
reference to the accompanying drawing in which
Fig. 1 indicates schematically the construction
of a vibratory body according to the present in
vention; Fig. 2 is a cross section through the
magnetostrictive elements along the line II-—II 40
of Fig. 1; Fig. 3' shows a cross section similar to
Fig. 2 but in which the magnetostrictive elements
are in the form of sheet strips rather than rods
or tubes; Fig. 4 is a section through a complete
45 means of insulating material or by means of one high-frequency sender or receiver; and Fig. 5 45
or two metallic end masses. When insulating _ shows an alternative construction of a high-fre
quency sender or receiver and particularly one ‘
material is used for this purpose, it may be ap
plied in a liquid state or by means of suitable ad
hesive or the individual members may be pressed
50 under pressure into the insulating material. A
particularly useful construction is obtained when
the ends of the individual members are rigidly
joined to metallic masses as, for example, by
soldering, brazing or welding.
Another feature of the invention consists in
which has two radiating surfaces.
In the modi?cation shown in Fig. l a plurality
of magnetostrictive elements in the form of wires, 50
rods or tubes l are arranged parallel to each other
without metallic contact with each other. They
are spaced from each other by means of two
insulating discs 2 provided with suitable holes
through which the magnetostrictive elements are 55
passed. The individual elements I can easily be
made with exactly the same length so that each
has, accordingly, the same tuning as all the
others. At the ends of these magnetostrictive.
Cl elements there are arranged two metallic masses’
3 and 4 which are rigidly joined to the elements
I by soldering, brazing or welding as indicated at
5 and 6. If desired the insulating discs 2 may
be omitted and the end masses 3 and 4 may them
selves be provided with the proper holes or slits
in which the magnetostrictive rods may be in
serted so that in this manner all contact between
the elements along their longitudinal dimension
is avoided.
An electromagnetic coil 1 is mounted in a suit
able manner around the magnetostrictive ele
~ ments.
When alternating current of the proper
frequency corresponding to the frequency of the
vibratory structure is passed through the coil 1,
20' the individual magnetostrictive elements and
thereby the entire vibratory structure will be
set into vibration. A greater effect can be ob
tained by also providing the coil 1 with a direct
current which produces an initial magnetization.
By the above construction a vibratory structure
is‘ obtained which vibrates as a whole using a
The mass 8 may be ?xed to the plate ill by
means of screw threads 35. The other end mass
ll transfers the vibratory energy to and from the
surrounding medium, for example, water. A coil
l2 surrounds the vibratory elements 3.
A cylindrical casing i3 is provided surrounding
the whole structure and closed at one end by the
plate Ill to which it is secured by means of the
‘screws 26 and‘ made watertight by a gasket II.
The outer surface of the radiating member II is 10
covered by a membrane I‘ which may be made
of thin metal pressed against the member I I and
the casing I! by means of the clamping ring l1
and the screws 31. It has also been found ad
vantageous to ?x the membrane l8 rigidly to the 15'
member II as by means of soldering, brazing or
welding. The coil I2 is connected through'con
ductors ll to a source of alternating and direct
current when the oscillator is used for producing
sound waves or with an ampli?er when used as 20
a receiver. When alternating current is passed
through the coil | 2 the end mass II is set into
energetic vibrations which are transferred to the
water as compressional wave energy.
On the
other hand, if compressional-wave energy strikes 25
the membrane ‘l6 which forms a part of the mass
de?nite natural frequency. On the other hand, ’ I I, the vibrations are transferred to the magneto
on account of the rigid connection of the indi
strictive elements I and produce an alternating
vidual magnetostrictive elements with the end
30 masses and by the elimination of insulating ma
terial between the individual elements, the losses
are reduced to a minimum.
Fig. 2 shows a cross section through the mag
netostrictive elements shown in Fig. 1 and dem
35 onstrates the manner in which substantially the
whole inner surface of the radiating member 4
‘is provided with magnetostrictive elements. The
spacing between the individual elements is made
as small as possible consistent with convenient
mechanical construction and yet large enough to
insure complete electrical and mechanical insu
lation between the individual elements. By using
a multiplicity of magnetostrictive elements cover
ing substantially the whole surface of the radiat
ing mass 4, vibration of the latter as a whole is
‘assured and no bending or diaphragm action
takes place. In order to reduce electrical losses in
the end masses 3 and 4, these may be slotted or
they may be made of a special material of high
electrical resistance.
Fig. 3 shows a cross section taken in a similar
manner as that ofFig. 2 but of a somewhat dif
ferent contruction. In this case the magneto
strictive elements are in the form of sheet strips
I’ which are arranged radially about the longi
tudinal' axis of the vibratory structure. In a
manner'similar to that shown in Fig. 2 two insu
current in the coil i2 which may be ampli?ed and
listened to by means of a telephone receiver, or "30
ii' the frequency is above the audible range, the
alternating currents produced in the coil l2 may
be made audible by a heterodyne ampli?er or
other known means.
It should be noted that it is important ‘to pro
vide as small a space as possible between the
housing l3 and the piston end mass II in order
to prevent any diaphragm action in the mem~
brane I 5 which is used only for the purpose of
making the inside of the oscillator watertight.
Instead of using the metallic membrane l5 other
material may be used, or the membrane may be
omitted entirely and the space between the casing
l3 and the end mass ll may be ?lled with some
material such as rubber which is impervious to
the water.
In the modi?cation shown in Fig. 5 magneto
strictive elements I! are provided with end»
masses 2!! and 2! designed to vibrate as pistons.
The vibratory structure so resulting is supported
at a vibratory node by means of a plate 24 of
insulating material. If the end members 20 and
2| are of equal mass, the node will be at the cen
ter of the elements IS. The plate 24 is secured
in a casing formed of two parts 22 and 23 clamped 55
together by means of the bolts 30 made water
tight by means of rubber gaskets 3| and 22. The
lating discs may be provided having radial slits piston radiating _members 20 and 2| project
through which the magnetostrictive strips are through the casing 22 and 23 and have their ends
passed whereby the spacing of the strips from .formed in the shape of a truncated cone. The
each other is assured. Alternatively the strips space between the members 20 and 2| and the
may ‘be mounted in radial slots cut in the end casing is made watertight by means of the rubber
masses 3 and 4 to which they are rigidly joined by rings 33 and 34. ~ Excitation of the magnetostric
soldering, brazing or welding or by means of a tive elements is provided by the coils 25 and 26.
hardened insulating material or the like. The These may be connected in series and supplied
arrangement of the magnetostrictive elements with alternating and direct current, or one coil
need not, of course, as in Figs. 2 and 3, be in a may be used for the direct polarization current
circular form, but they may be arranged in any while the other ‘coil is used for the alternating
desired con?guration to suit the purpose for current.
70 which the oscillator is to be used.
‘A further feature of the device shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 4 shows a soundsender or receiver in which is the provision of means for completing the mag-" 70
a 'magnetostrictive vibratory body 8 composed netic circuit. This consists of a yoke 21 which
of a multiplicity of magnetostrictive elements is completely surrounds the coils 25 and 28. The
joined to an end mass 9 which is, in turn, ?xed to air gaps 29 and 30 between the yoke and the
76 a metal plate I0 of relatively very large mass. members
20 and 2| are made as small possible
in order to avoid any unnecessary reluctance in
the ?ux path. To reduce losses the yoke 21 is
preferably laminated.
Magn’etostrictive oscillators constructed ac
cording to the principles of the ‘present inven
tion are particularly useful for signaling under
water between vessels, particularly submarines,‘
by means of high-frequency compressional waves.
These devices are particularly useful in systems
10 for distance measurement according to the echo
method. In this instance it is ‘desirable-to choose
the radiating surface of the oscillator so large
that a directional effect is produced in a direc
' tion perpendicular to the radiating surface, that
15 is the dimensions of the radiating surface must
be large compared to the wave length of the fre
quency employed. In order to keep the diameter
of the radiating surface within reasonable limits
' it is preferable to choose the natural frequency
20 of the oscillator in the vicinity of or above the
with reference to each other, means including in
part said casing of‘ magnetic material and said
rods and forming a completely closed magnetic
circuit through said rods and casing wall and a
coil surrounding said rods for energizing the same.
4. Apparatus for producing and receiving high
frequency compressional waves in water compris
ing a cylindrical casing, means providing'a' heavy
mass at one end of said casing and closing the
same, a plate, a plurality of magnetostriction rods 10
mounted in said plate and positioned normally
thereof and substantially covering the whole
plate, a mass mountedat the other end of said
rods, means attaching said plate to the n'rass at
the end of the casing, the rods running longi
tudinally thereof and the second mass being posi
tioned in the opening at the end of the casing,
means providing a web contacting said second
mass and closing the end of the casing and a
coil surrounding said rods positioned within the 20
audible limit. The excitation of the oscillator
may be provided by alternating current produced
casing for energizing the same.
by a motor-generator or a vacuum-tube oscillator
frequency compressional waves in water compris
5.v Apparatus for producing and receiving high
and may be controlled by a key.
ing a cylindrical casing having an opening at one
It has also been found useful to employ an im- , end, an assembly of parallel magnetostrictive rods
pulse excitation produced by unidirectional cur
closely spaced together but free from each other,
rent impulses from the discharge of a condenser a mass positioned at each end of they rods and
or ‘by means of the damped vibrations of an os
‘means mounting the rods in said ‘masses, said
cillatory circuit having a spark gap»
rods covering substantially the entire surface of
Having now described my invention, I claim: '
said masses, a coil surrounding said rods and com 30
1. Apparatus for producing and receiving high
pleting the magnetic circuit for the rods about
frequency compressional waves in water compris
the casing, means for attaching said assembly at
ing a casing having an opening at one end, a mass
one end of the casing and means covering the
positioned in said opening and substantially ?ll
ing the same, means supporting said mass in said
position comprising a thin web supporting said
mass, means clamping said web at the end of the
casing, a great number of magnetostrictive rods
substantially covering one surface of said mass,
40 a coil surrounding said rods and means support
ing said coil within said casing.
2. Apparatus for producing and receiving high
frequency compressional waves in water compris
ing a casing having an opening, a mass of sub
45 stantially rigid material positioned in said open
ing and ?lling the same, means freely supporting
said mass in said opening to allow motion normal
6. Apparatus for producing and receiving'high
frequency compressionaiwaves in water compris
ing a cylindrical casing, an assembly of mag
netostrictive rods arranged parallel but close to
one another, a mass positioned at each end of the 40
rods inv which the rods are mounted, said rods
covering substantially the entire surface of said
mass, means for fixing the assembly at the back
of the casing, a cover ?xed to the front end of
the casing and contacting said second mass, said
rods being arranged parallel to the axis of said 45
casing and a coil positioned within said casing -
to the surface of the mass, a great number of
surrounding said rods, ‘said casing and rods com- .
magnetostrictive rods, means mounting said rods
pleting the magnetic circuit about the coil.
7. Apparatus for producing» and receiving high
frequency compressional waves in water compris 50
ing a cylindrical casing having an opening at one
end, a mass substantially ?lling said opening and
means providing a thin web for attaching said
mass to said casing, a great number of parallel
magnetostrictive rods embedded in said mass 55
normal to the external surface thereof, said rods
being spaced free from one another but substan
so in said mass at the inside of said casing, said
rods substantially covering the entire surface of
‘the mass and a coil surrounding said rods f0
energizing the same.
3. Apparatus for producing and receiving high
55 frequency compressional waves in water compris
ing a casing having an opening at one end, a
mass substantially ?lling said opening, means
freely supporting said mass for motion transverse
to its external surface comprising a thin web
60 supporting said mass and means clamping said
web at the end of said casing, a great number of
magnetostrictive rods mounted at the end of the
mass within the casing and covering substantially
the entire surface of said massfinsulating means
other end thereof for acoustically transmitting
the vibrations to the propagating medium.
spacing said rods and securing them in position
tially so close together that no morethan another
rod of the same diameter could be inserted be
tween any two rods, a coil surrounding the whole 60
group of rods and means completing the mag
netic circuit for the magnetic ?eld produced by
the coil including said rods and the outer casing.
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