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Патент USA US2116548

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‘May 10, 1938.
w. WHITEHEAD_ET m,
2,116,543
MANUFACTURE OF‘ ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, ‘YARNS, OR THREADS
Filed Aug‘. 14, 1936
INVENTORS
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A .
WILLIAM WHITEHEAD
_ BCANFIELD HUTSON
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57
-
ORNEYS
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‘2,116,548
Patented May 10, 1938
UNlTED STATES"
PATENT
OFFICE
. ‘
2,116,548
MANUFACTURE OF ‘ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS,
YARNS, OR THREADS
‘
William Whitehead and Can?eld Hutson, Cum
berland, Md., assignors. to C‘elanese Corpora
tion of America, a corporation of Delaware‘
Application August 14, 1936, Serial No. 95,972
9‘ Claims.
This invention relates to arti?cial ?laments,
yarns or threads and their formation by the ex
3:
trusion of spinning solutions through jets, noz
zles or other spinning ori?ces into a solidifying
medium.
An object of the invention is the formation of
arti?cial ?laments or yarns having a regular or
an irregular change in denier. A further object
of this, invention is the formation of ?laments
in or yarns which have an irregularity in denier,
such as a period of small denier, then a slub of
large denier and then another period of small
denier. Other objects of the invention will ap“
pear from the following detailed description and
w
drawing.
In the drawing, wherein like reference numer
als refer to the same or similar elements of the
respective views,
.
Fig. l is an end elevation of an arti?cial yarn;
20 spinning device with means to vary the denier
of the yarn as it is formed.
Fig. 2 is a front elevation of a part of the device
shown in Fig. 1.
Yarns and fabrics have been produced with
25 desirable effects which comprise unevenness in
diameter or yarn size by several means; for in
stance, from real silk ?laments wound from tan
gled cocoons and containing slubs of considerable
size. Similar effects have been obtained in yarns
30 of synthetic ?laments by variousv methods. In
yarn built from discontinuous lengths of ?la
ments, for example, this has been obtained by
periodically changing the draft between the
front and back rolls on a spinning frame which
35 may be, for example, a spinning frame employed
normally in the spinning of cotton yarns. Fur
thermore, similar effects have been obtained in
yarns of substantially continuous ?laments by
twisting, plying or otherwise associating threads.
40 By employing our invention there may be formed
arti?cial yarn having pronounced thick portions
or slubs by thickening each ?lament of the yarn
at that portion. This is accomplished during the
formation of the yarn and by a device which is
45 automatic and adjustable to produce slubs vary
ing in lengths and varying in spacing.
In accordance with our invention, we form
?laments or yarns of arti?cial silk or the like
which have a substantially uniform denier over
50 a majority of their length, but which have at
regular or irregular intervals a ‘change in denier,
or slub, creating a thick place in the ?lament or
yarn, by interrupting the stretching of the yarns
in the course of their production and allowing
55 the ?laments to be extruded from the spinning
(Cl. 18-8)
jets with little or no stretch at desired intervals.
The varying stretch imparted to the ?laments or
yarns results in a correspondingly varying denier,
the variations occurring at any desired intervals
and to any desired degree while extending any '5
desired amount along the length of the ?laments
or yarns.
This variation of denier is accom
plished by a device which draws the ?laments at
a substantially uniform linear speed for a period
of time, then periodically reduces drawing ac- 10
tion on the ?laments as they travel from the
forming jet to a winding, or twisting and winding
device.
'
' The portions of large denier or slub of the yarn
may appear at regular short or regular long in 15
tervals along the length of the yarn .or at regu
larly ‘or irregularly varying intervals. Also, the
denier of the slub of large denier portion may
vary in degree or extent or both. Or, one or more
groups of variations may appear in regular se- "
quence, or in any desired order or at any desired
intervals. Thus, for example, one or more short
variations may alternate with one or more long
variations, or groups of short or long variations
may alternate with short or long variations, or
with other groups of short and long variations.
Or, the regularity or sequence of the large denier
portion or slub may be broken up such that the ,
periods of large denier appear at random along
the length of the yarn. The latter method of I30
spacing the slubs or large denier portions mini
mizes the possibility of the yarns producing a
wood grain or pattern ‘effect when woven into
fabric. It will be understood that where yarn
or thread is formed by the association of a num- '
ber of ?laments, all of which have a regular or
an irregular change in denier and which change
is similar for all the ?laments at a cross-section
of the yarn, there will be produced a cumulative
effect in the change of denier of the yarn at that ‘
cross-section. When yarns are formed of sub
stantially continuous ?laments, there will obvi
ously be the same number of ?laments‘at the
larger denier periods as at the smaller denier
periods.
‘
45
Yarns or threads which have received changes
in denier as above described, may be wound, or
twisted and wound—for example-by means of
cap-spinning devices or centrifugal boxes.
The ?laments of varying “denier may be‘formed ' 0
into yarns, either alone or twisted or doubled
with threads of other natural or arti?cial ?la
ments or ?bers.‘ Or, they may be cut or reduced
to staple lengths, either continuously with their
production or subsequently thereto, and spun into 65
2
2,116,548
yarns, either alone or mixed or blended with
other natural or arti?cial ?laments or ?bers, and.
such spun yarns may, if desired, be twisted or
doubled with the same or other yarns to form any
desired type of thread.
Yarns or threads with irregular denier having
conditioning agents, etc. The formation of yarn
in accordance with this invention differs from the
normal method of spinning yarn in that the yarn,
after it leaves the spinning cabinet I, passes
through guide eyes 1, one of which is provided for
each port 2 of the spinning metier. Each of the
a twist impart a novel effect to fabrics or articles guide eyes 1 is fastened to the lower end of a sup
wholly or partially formed from them by reason “ porting rod 8. The supporting rods 8, which are
of the differential effect produced by the variation adapted to reciprocate, are guided by passing
10 of denier and amount of twist at the various
intervals of varying denier.
This effect may,
moreover, be enhanced when the fabrics or arti
cles are dyed, printed or otherwise colored be
cause of the differential of penetration of the dye
15 stu? or other coloring matter, and of the diiferen
tial in luster between tightly twisted small denier
intervals and the intervals of large denier with
little or no twist.
.
The yarns or threads of Varying denier may be
applied to the production of fabrics or articles,
either alone or in association with yarns or
threads of uniform denier arti?cial silk or of
other natural or other arti?cial ?laments or ?bers,
and may be utilized to give any desired design
25 or pattern. They may be used, for example, in
the warp and/or weft in weaving operations, in
knitting operations, for instance, in the produc
tion of warp knitted fabrics, in circular knitting
machines, in braiding or cording operations, in
50 net or lace-making operations, or in any other
fabric-forming or textile operation.
While the invention applies particularly to ?la
ments or threads of varying or irregular denier,
produced by the dry or evaporative method, and
35 especially to ?laments or thread having a base of
cellulose acetate or other cellulose derivatives,
such as cellulose formats, cellulose propionate or
cellulose butyrate, thiocarbamic or alkoxy
alkacyl esters of cellulose, methyl, ethyl or benzyl
cellulose, or the condensation products of cellu
lose and glycols and other polyhydric alcohols,
47.5
it applies likewise to ?laments or yarns of vary
ing or irregular denier produced by the Wet or
coagulation method, whether it has a base of
cellulose acetate or other organic derivatives of
cellulose or bases of reconstituted cellulose pro
duced by the viscose, cuprammonium or nitrate
processes.
As an aid in describing the invention, the same
through suitable bearings 9 in an angle iron H. 10
The rods 8 are attached to connecting rods l2
which are attached to a shaft l3 forming an ex
tension on a crank l4.
Upon a suitable upright I5 is journalled a stud
shaft 16 having mounted thereon a pulley l1
adapted to be driven by means of the belt l8 from
the shaft supporting the feed roll 3. The stud
shaft l6.is also provided with a sprocket wheel 19
which drives a sprocket wheel 2| by means of a
sprocket chain 22. The sprocket wheel 2| is 20
mounted upon a shaft 23 suitably journalled in
the upright l5 and a bracket 24 suitably fastened
to the spinning cabinet I. Mounted on the shaft
is a cam 25.
By this arrangement the cam
25 is driven through the speed-reducing mecha~
nisrn comprising the sprocket wheels 2| and i9
the pulley H’ from the shaft supporting the
feed roll 3.
Mounted on the spinning cabinet I is a suitable
bracket 26 which is provided with an arm 21. 30
Suitably fulcrumed in the arm 2'! is a lever arm
28 which terminates at one end in a cam follower
29. This cam follower may be in the form of a
roller journalled in a forked portion at the end
of the lever arm 28. The other end of the lever .
28 is provided with a hole 3| in which is attached
a spring 32, suitably fastened to the spinning
cabinet in such a manner that it exerts an upward
pull on the end of the lever arm opposite that of
the cam follower. Also attached to the lever arm 40
28 near the end opposite the cam follower is a
strap 33 which is adapted to surround the valve
34 in a pipe line 35 and to operate against a
plunger 36 in said valve.
The pipe line 35 leads from a suitable source
'of compressed air to an air motor 31, the con
struction of which has not been shown but which
may be any of the devices found on the market.
The air motor 3'! e?'ects a rotation of the sprocket
will be described with reference to the- drawing
wheel 38 which drives a sprocket wheel 39 by -
wherein there is shown a device constructed in
accordance with. this invention. The device co
operates with a. spinning cabinet which may be
means of a sprocket chain 4 i. The sprocket wheel
39 is mounted on a shaft 42 which is suitably jour
nalled in the bracket 26 extending from the
spinning cabinet I. The shaft 42 forms one arm
of the crank l4. Upon applying compressed air
to the air motor 31, the sprocket wheel 39 and the
shaft 42 are rotated, thus effecting a rotation of
the crank l4 which, in turn, produces a vertical
reciprocation of the supporting rod 8 and guide
eyes 1.
In operation of the device, the yarn is led from
equipped with any suitable number of spinning
jets, ducts for supplying and withdrawing evapo
rative atmosphere, guides, and heating or cooling
elements. The exact construction of the spin
ning cabinet er metier is not shown since it can
be any one of the devices used in the formation of
60 arti?cial silks and like materials. The spinning
cabinet may contain any suitable number of spin
ning jets, each jet having any suitable number
of ori?ces. Each spinning jet or set of spinning
jets forms a yarn having a plurality of ?laments,
which yarn is drawn from the cabinet or metier.
In normal spinning on a device of the type
shown in the drawing, the yarn 5 leaves the spin
ning cabinet or metier at a port 2 and passes
around a drawing roll or feed roll 3 through a
-70 guide 4 and on to a take-up winding, or twisting
and winding device, such as a cap-spinning de
vice, ring twisting device or centrifugal box. If
desired, the yarn 5 may be led from the port 2 over
a wick, roller or other furnishing device 6 for
coating the yarn with such material as lubricants,
the spinning jets (not shown) through port 2,
guide eye 1, then around the constantly and uni
formly rotating feed roll 3 to the take-up pack
age.
The rotation of the cam 25 effects an open
ing and closing of the valve 34, resulting in an
intermittent supply of compressed air to the air
65
motor 3'! by which means the air motor 3? pro
duces an intermittent or irregular speed of r0
tation of the sprocket wheel 38. Due to the i
weight of the shaft [3 and the depending rods, the
rods are moved in a downward direction at a
speed greater than their upward travel. When
the guide eyes 1 are raised, the drawing action
effected by the feed roll 3 produces a uniform pull
3
2,116,548
or stretching of the ?laments from the spinning
jets, forming a yarn of substantially uniform
but relatively small denier. The downward
movement of the eyes 1 creates a slack in the
yarn between the feed roll 3 and the spinning jet,
thus reducing momentarily the drawing or
stretching action on the yarn, effecting a slub
or heavy denier increment in the yarn.
By employing this device, maximum variations
10 of from 2 to 30 in denier per ?lament may be
obtained.
The periodicity of slubs in the yarn
is very uneven.
The following is an example of
what one ?nds by measurement, giving thick
places ?rst-underlined, alternating with thin
Figures given are‘ the length in inches:
15 places.
3. 19. 21/2. 3. 11/2, 16. 2. 5.11/2.181/.>.31/4. 19. 21/2.
2s1/2,11/2, 1, 1%, 19, 21/2, 19.
The thickness of the slubs varies a little also
20 so that not only their‘ length and position change
but their thickness also. For instance, in yarn
in which the maximum variation ratio is 1 to 6,
the variation in ratio will vary all the way from
1 to 3 to l to 6. These ?gures are given by way
25
of example and are not intended to limit the
application.
ber having a guide through which ?laments are
caused to pass and means for operating said re
ciprocating member, said means including a ?uid
operated motor and a cam for causing the inter
mittent operation of said motor.
5. Apparatus for the production of ?laments
having appreciable variations in denier along the 10
length thereof, comprising a reciprocating mem
ber having a guide through which ?laments are
caused to pass and means for operating said re
ciprocating member, said means including a
motor, a source of ?uid for operating said motor 15
and means for controlling the supply of ?uid to
said motor whereby the motor is caused to op
erate intermittently.
6. Apparatus for the production of ?laments
having appreciable variations in denier along the 20
length thereof, comprising a reciprocating mem
ber having a guide through which ?laments are
caused to pass and means for operating said re
ciprocating member, said means including a
motor, a source of fluid for operating said motor 25
and means comprising a cam and a pivoted lever
operated thereby for controlling the supply of
Where the spinning cabinet or metier is of con
siderable length and equipped with a large num
ber of yarn-forming jets, there may be provided
across the length of the spinning cabinet a plu
rality of air motors each of which operates from
the shafts supporting the feed roll 3, such that
uniform reciprocation of a long shaft I?» extend
ing across the entire machine is produced. By
35
regulating the size of the raised portion and the
speed of the cam 25, yarn may be produced hav
ing any desired change in denier. For instance,
30
yarn may be formed having a ratio between thin
thick places of 1 to 11/2, 1 to 2, 1 to 4, 1 to 20
40 or other ratios; while the intervals between slubs
may also vary in length,
It is to- be understood that the foregoing de
scription and the device shown in the drawing is
merely given by way of illustration and many al
45 terations or substitutions may be made without
departing from the spirit of our invention.
What we desire to secure‘by Letters Patent is:
1. Apparatus for the production of ?laments
having appreciable variations in denier along the
50 length thereof, comprising a reciprocating mem
ber having a guide through which ?laments are
caused to pass and means for operating said re
ciprocating member, said means including a
motor and means for causing the intermittent op
55 eration of said motor.
2. Apparatus for the production of ?laments
having appreciable variations in denier along the
length thereof, comprising a reciprocating mem
ber having a guide through which ?laments are
60 caused to pass and means for operating said re
ciprocating member, said means including a
fluid-operated motor and means for causing the
intermittent operation of said motor.
3. Apparatus for the production of ?laments
65 having appreciable variations in denier along the
length thereof, comprising a reciprocating mem
ber having a guide through which ?laments are
caused to pass and means for operating said re
ciprocating member, said means including a
70 motor and a cam for causing the intermittent
operation of said motor.
4. Apparatus for the production of ?laments
having appreciable variations in denier along the
length thereof, comprising a reciprocating mem
‘
?uid to said motor whereby the motor is caused
to operate intermittently.
'7. Apparatus for the production of ?laments 30
having appreciable variations in denier along the
length thereof, comprising a reciprocating mem
ber having a guide through which ?laments are
caused to pass and means for operating said re
ciprocating member, said means including a 35
crank, a motor for operating said crank, a source
of fluid for said motor and means for controlling
the supply of ?uid to said motor whereby the
motor is caused to operate intermittently.
8. In an apparatus for the production of ?la 40
ments having appreciable variations in denier
along the length thereof, the combination with
means for spinning ?laments and a drawing roller
over which said ?laments pass on leaving the
spinning means, of a reciprocating member hav 45
ing a guide through which ?laments are caused to
pass and means for operating said reciprocating
member, said means including a motor, a source
of ?uid for operating said motor and means op
erated‘by said drawing roller for controlling the 50
supply of ?uid to said motor, the construction and
arrangement being such that the motor is caused
to operate intermittently.
9. In an apparatus for the production of ?la
ments having appreciable variations in denier 55
along the length thereof, the combination with,
means for spinning ?laments and a drawing roller
over which said ?laments pass on leaving the
spinning means, of a reciprocating member hav
ing a guide through which ?laments are caused 60
to pass and means for operating said reciprocat
ing member, said means including a motor, a
source of fluid for operating said motor and a cam
operated by said drawing roller for controlling
the supply of ?uid to said motor, the construction 65
and arrangement being such that the motor is
caused to operate intermittently.
WILLIAM WHITEHEAD.
CANFIELD HUTSON.
70
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