Патент USA US2116660код для вставки
May 10, 1938. c, HUTSON I 2,116,660 FORMATION OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, YARNS, OR THREADS Filed July 22, 1936 PMF‘ ‘ KO L b" INVENTOR ggnf‘ield Hu’fson 9% ATTORNEYS MW 2,115,660 Patented May 10, 1938 UNETED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,116,660 FORMATION OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, ‘ YARNS, OR THREADS Can?eld Hutson, Cumberland, Md, assignor to Celanese Corporation of America, a corpora tion of Delaware Application July 22, 1936, Serial No. 91,816 9 Claims. (01. 18-8) This invention relates to arti?cial ?laments, yarns or threads and their formation by the extrusion of spinning solutions through jets, noz zles or other spinning ori?ces into a solidifying 5 \ medium. , An object of the invention is the formation. of linear speed for a period of time in the course of their production and then interrupting the draw ing action so as to stretch them uniformly at desired intervals and effecting little or no stretch at other intervals. The varying stretch imparted 5 to the ?laments or yarns results in. a correspond arti?cial ?laments or yarns having a regular or ingly varying denier, the variations occurring at irregular change in denier. A further object of any desired intervals and to any desired degree while extending any desired amount along the length of the ?laments or yarns. This variation 10 of denier is accomplished by a device which draws the ?laments at a substantially uniform linear, speed for a period of time, then periodically and abruptly reduces the drawing action on the ?la ments and then slowly lengthens the path fol- 15 lowed by the ?laments from the forming jet to a winding, or twisting and winding device. The portions of large denier or slub of the yarn may appear at regular short or regular long in tervals along the length of the yarn or at regu- 20 larly or irregularly varying intervals. Also, the denier of the slub or large denier portion may this invention is the formation of ?laments or 10 yarns which have an irregularity in denier, such as a period of small denier, then. a slub of large denier and then another period of small denier, in which the yarn in the period of small denier is of substantially uniform denier and contains 15 no thin places. Other objects of the invention will appear from the following detailed descrip tion and drawing. In the drawing, wherein like reference nu merals refer to the same or similar elements of 2 O the respective views; Fig. l is a front elevation of an arti?cial yarn spinning device with means to vary the denier of the yarn as it is formed; Fig. 2 is a side elevation, partly in section, of ‘,5 a part of the device shown in Fig. l, and Fig. 3 is a plan view of a section of yarn formed in accordance with this invention. Arti?cial yarn having slubs of irregular denier therein has been formed by many types of de 30 vices. These yarns, however, have not been en ‘ tirely satisfactory as the devices heretofore used to form such yarns produced extremely thin places in that section of the yarn having the small denier. These thin places so weakened the 35 yarn that interruptions, due to breakage of the yarn, occurred during the spinning thereof or during the subsequent textile operations. These extremely thin places were also reflected in weak spots or undesirable irregularities in fabrics 40 formed from the yarns. By employing my in vention, however, there may be formed arti?cial yarn having a substantially uniform denier in the section of small denier with or without a vary ing denier in the thick portion or slub. Also, by 45 employing my invention, the change from small denier to the slub or large denier may be relatively abrupt in comparison with prior methods of form ing this type of yarn. In accordance with my invention, I form ?la 50. ments or yarns of arti?cial silk or the like which have a substantially uniform denier over a major ity of their length, but having at regular or irregular intervals a ‘change in denier, or slub, creating a thick place in the ?lament or yarn 55. by drawing the yarns at a substantially uniform vary in degree or extent or both. Or, one or more groups of variations may appear in regular sequence, or in any desired order or at any de- 25 sired intervals. Thus, for example, one or more short variations may alternate with one or more long variations, or groups of short or long varia tions may alternate with short or long variations, or with other groups of short and long variations. 30 Or, the regularity or sequence of the large denier portion or slub may be broken up such that the periods of large denier appear at random along the length of the yarn. The latter method of spacing the slubs, or large denier portion, minimizes the possibility of the yarns producing a wood grain effect when woven into fabric. It will be understood that where yarn, or thread is formed by the association of a number of ?la ments, all of which have a regular or irregular change in denier and which change is similar forall the ?laments at a cross-section of the yarn, there will be produced a cumulative effect in the change of denier of the yarn at that cross-section. When yarns are formed of substantially continuous ?laments, there will obviously be the same number of ?laments at the larger denier periods as at the smaller denier periods. Yarns or threads, which have received changes in denieras above described, may be wound or twisted and wound, for example, by means of cap spinning‘ devices, or centrifugal boxes. The ?laments of varying denier may be formed 35 40 45 50 into ‘yarns, either alone or twisted or doubled with threads of other natural or arti?cial ?la- 55 2 2,116,660 ments or ?bers. Or, they may be cut or reduced to staple lengths either continuously with their production or subsequently thereto, and spun into yarns, either alone or mixed or blended with other natural or arti?cial ?laments or ?bers, and such spun yarns may, if desired, be twisted or doubled with the same or other yarns to form any desired type of threads. Yarns or threads with irregular denier hav 10 ing a substantial twist impart a novel effect to fabrics or articles wholly or partially formed from them by reason of the differential effect produced by the variation of denier and amount of twist at the various intervals of varying denier. This 15 effect may, moreover, be enhanced when the fab rics or articles are dyed, printed or otherwise colored because of the differential of penetra tion of the dyestuif or other coloring matter, and of the differential in luster between tightly 20 twisted small denier intervals and the intervals of large denier with little or no twist. The yarns or threads of varying denier may be applied to the production of fabrics or articles either alone or in association with yarns or 25 threads of uniform denier arti?cial silk or of other natural or other arti?cial ?laments or ? hers and may be utilized to give any desired de sign or pattern. They may be used, for example, in the warp and/ or weft in weaving operations, in 30 knitting operations, for instance, in the produc tion of warp knitted fabrics, in circular knitting machines, in braiding or cording operations, in net or lace-making operations, or in any other fabric-forming or textile operation. 35 While the invention applies particularly to ?la ments or threads of varying or irregular denier, produced by the dry or evaporative method, and especially to ?laments or threads having a base of cellulose acetate or other cellulose derivatives, 40 such as cellulose formate, cellulose propionate or cellulose butyrate, thiocarbamic or alkoxy-al kacyl esters of cellulose, methyl, ethyl or benzyl cellulose, or the condensation products of cellu lose and glycols and other polyhydric alcohols, it 45 applies likewise to ?laments or yarns of varying or irregular denier produced by the wet or co agulation method, whether it has a base of cellu lose or bases of reconstituted cellulose produced by the viscose, cuprammonium or nitrate proc esses. - As an aid in describing the invention, the same will be described with reference to the drawing wherein there is shown a device constructed in accordance with this invention. The device co 55 operates with a spinning cabinet I which may be equipped with any suitable number of spinning jets, ducts for supplying and withdrawing evapo rative atmosphere, guides, and heating or cooling elements. The exact construction of the spinning 60 cabinet or metier is not_shown since it can be any one of the devices used in the formation of arti?cial silks and like materials. The spinning cabinet may contain any suitable number of spinning jets, each jet having any suitable num 65 ber of ori?ces. Each spinning jet or set of spin ning jets forms a yarn having a plurality of ?la ments, which yarn is drawn from the cabinet or metier. In normal spinning on a device of the type 70 shown in the drawing, the yarn 5 leaves ‘the spin ning cabinet or metier at a port 2 and passes around a drawing roll or feed roll 3 through a guide 4 and on to a take-up winding, or twist ing and winding device, such as a cap-spinning 75 device, ring twisting device or centrifugal box. If desired, the yarn 5 may be led from the port 2 over a wick, roller or other furnishing device for coating the yarn with such material as lubri cants, conditioning agents, etc., and then through a guide and on to the feed roll 3. The forma tion of yarn in accordance with this invention differs from the normal method of spinning yarn in that the yarn, after it leaves the spinning cabinet I , passes through guide eyes 8, one of which is provided for each port 2 of the spinning 10 metier. Each of the guide eyes 6 is fastened to the lower end of a supporting rod 1. The sup porting rods ‘5, which are adapted to reciprocate, are guided by passing through suitable bearings 8 in an angle iron 9. The rods 1 are attached to a cross-head II which is attached to a piston rod l2 through any suitable type of bracket such as the one shown at l3. The piston rod I2 termi nates in a piston Ill operating in a cylinder I5. By operation of the piston, the cross-head II 20 with the attached supporting rods and guide eyes is reciprocated in a vertical path. Suitable means are provided for the purpose of operating the piston I 4. To this end there is provided an electric motor H5 or other suitable power device which, through a belt or chain I1, drives the drive wheel I8 of a speed-changing mechanism IS. The speed-changing mechanism may contain creeping gears, elliptical gears, or it may consist of oppositely disposed cone pulleys or other means of causing a variation in the speed produced on the drive wheel of the speed-chang ing mechanism. The power imparted by the mo tor I6 passes through the speed-changing device and rotates a wheel 2|. The Wheel 2! is provided with a plurality of recesses or openings into which may be placed pins 22. The wheel 2| is so formed that the pins 22 may be set at any intervals about the circumference of the wheel, or so that any number of pins may be employed. 40 The pins 22 are adapted, upon rotation of the wheel 2!, to move a spring arm 23 carrying the contact point 2!! against a substantially station ary post 25 having a contact point 26. The spring arm 23 and the post 25 are each connected to 45 electric conductors 27 and 28 which form one part of an electrical circuit, the other part be ing through the electric conductor 29. These conductors are attached to a solenoid 3| and upon closing of the contact points 24 and 26 the 50 solenoid 3| of the 3-way valve, 2 port valve sole noid becomes energized and raises the valve stem contained in the valve 33. From any suitable source, hydraulic or air pressure is supplied to the line 34 and passes through a pressure-reducing or regulating device 35 to a line 36 connected to the inlet 4'! of the 3 Way valve 33. A suitable gauge 3'! may be placed on the line 36 for indicating the pressure head on the line. One of the outlet ports 38 of the 3-way 60 valve 33 leads through a supply into a cylinder head 39 which is connected to the cylinder l5. With the upward or return stroke of piston M spent hydraulic or air pressure in cylinder I5 is forced back through cylinder head 39, to port 65 44 and is exhausted from outlet 38. It is to be understood that any suitable type of 3-way, solenoid operated valve may be employed, for instance, type “P3DX Asco valves” and related types. Suitably retained on the stationary sup 70 port are shoulders 4| and 42 to which shoulders and the cross-head II are connected tension springs 43 which exert a pull on the cross-head l l in an upward direction such that upon release of the air pressure from the cylinder IS the cross- 75‘ 3. head II is raised. By means of an adjustable back pressure escapement valve 44 the air or hydraulic pressure from the cylinder l5 may be regulated‘in such a manner that the movement of the piston in an upward direction by the“ pull of the springs 43 may be regulated to any desired speed. The cylinder I5 is also provided with a valve 45 which is placed on ‘the side of the piston head [4 opposite to the source ‘of applied pressure 10 and acts as a dash-pot or means for controlling the speed of the piston in a downward direction By regulating the valves 44 and 45, the piston may be caused, if desired, to move slowly in an upward direction and substantially instantly in 15 a downward direction. In operation of the device, the yarn is led from the spinning jets (not shown) through port 2 and guide eye 6, then around the constantly and uniformly rotating feed roll 3 to the take-up p‘ack-_ 20 age. The motor l6 causes the wheel 2! to rotate, if desired, at a variable speed, which causes the pin 22 to effect an opening and closing of the switch formed by the contact points 24 and 26, thus operating the solenoid 3| which in turn 25 operates the 3-way valve 33. The operation of the 3-way valve effects the pressure and release of pressure alternately in the cylinder head 39, causing the reciprocation of the guide eyes 6. When the guide eyes 6 are slowly raised at a uniform speed, the drawing action effected by the feed roll 3 produces a uniform pull or stretching of ‘the ?laments from the spinning jets, forming a yarn of substantially uniform denier. Upon closing of the switch formed by the contact points 35 24 and 26 the solenoid is energized and operates the 3-way valve, injecting an impulse of pressure into the cylinder head 39, forcing the piston head I4 in a downward direction. By regulating the valve 45 and the applied pressure, the guide eyes ‘6 may be caused to move in a ‘downward direction at a very high speed. The fast move ment of the guide eyes 6 in a downward direction creates a slack in the yarn between the feed roll formed. Furthermore, the wheel 2| may be ro tated» by means of elliptical gears or other speed changing mechanism such that the speed’ of the wheel 2| is constantly or irregularly varying. The method of driving the wheel 2| at a varying speed and having the pins 22 spaced at varying intervals on said wheel, produces slubs on the yarn at random intervals. ~Where the spinning cabinet or metier is of considerable length and equipped with a large 10 number of‘yarn-forming jets, there may be pro vided across the length of the spinning cabinet a plurality of solenoids, the solenoids all operate ing through the same electrical circuit, such that uniform reciprocation of the head H is produced 15 throughout the entire machine. By regulating the speedof the wheel 2! and the feed roll 3, yarn may be produced having any desired change in denier, for instance, yarn may be formed hav ing a ratio between thin and thick places, 1 to 20? 11/2, 1 to 2, l to 4, 1 to 20 or other ratios, while the intervals between slubs and the length of the slubs may beregulated by the spacing and size of pins 22 and/or the length of the stroke of the piston l4. It is to be understood that any desired number of devices may be arranged for simultaneous oper ation on the ?laments or threads produced by a plurality of jets or nozzles in a single metier or spinning cabinet. Thus, in a small metier or spinning cabinet the head Il may extend across the full length of the metier or spinning cabinet and be operated by a single piston, or on larger metiers the head H may extend across the full length of the cabinet and be driven by a piston operating at each end of the head II. The foregoing apparatus may be applied to the treatment of arti?cial ?laments produced by the dry or evaporative method as shown in the drawing or by the wet or coagulation method by obvious rearrangement of the parts. 3 and the spinning jet, thus reducing momentar It is to be understood that the foregoing de scription and the device shown in the drawing is merely given by way of illustration and many ily the drawing or stretching action on the yarn, effecting a slub or heavy denier increment in the yarn. Upon release of the spring arm‘ 23 by the alterations or substitutions may be made without 45 departing from the spirit of my invention. What I desire to secure by Letters Patent is: pins 22 the solenoid is de-energized and operates By regulating the valves 44 and 45 the guide eyes 1. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier along the length thereof, comprising a, recipro 50 cating member having a guide through which may also be caused to make a fast up-stroke pro ducing a very thin section of yarn and a slow down stroke producing normal yarn. ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a substantially constant speed. and to be lowered to cause the piston to move upwardly and the 50 springs 43 will slowly raise the guide eyes 6. By employing this device, the speed of the re ciprocating guide eyes 6 may be adjusted so that there is a slow, steady and uniform drawing or stretching of the yarn over that period of the yarn which is of small denier and, unlike the re 60 sults obtained, by the use of prior devices, there is produced no section having extremely thin places effected by a fast pulling action after the 55 slub on the yarn has been formed. If desired, the device may be adjusted in such 65 a manner that it produces a yarn having a uni form small denier section 46 and a large denier section 41 with a relatively abrupt change 48 from the small denier section to the large denier sec tion. The spacing of the pins 22 or the size of the 70 contacting portion of the pins 22 may be an arrangement whereby there are produced slubs of equal length or slubs of varying length and whereby there are produced equal lengths or 75 varying lengths of yarn in which no slubs are ?laments are caused to pass and means for caus abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid 55 pressure and means for controlling the opera tion of said fluid pressure. 2. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier along the length thereof, comprising a recipro 60 cating member having a guide through which ?laments are caused to pass and means for caus ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a substantially constant speed and to be lowered abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid 65 pressure and a solenoid for controlling the opera tion of said ?uid pressure. 3. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier along the length thereof, comprising a recipro 70 cating member having a guide through which ?laments are caused to pass and means for caus ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a substantially constant speed and to be lowered abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid‘ 2,116,660 pressure, a cylinder in which said ?uid pressure is adapted to operate and a solenoid for control ling the entrance of said ?uid pressure into said ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at cylinder. abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid 4. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier along the length thereof, comprising a recipro cating member having a guide through which of said ?uid pressure and means for controlling ?laments are caused to pass and means for caus 10 ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a substantially constant speed and to be lowered abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid pressure, a cylinder in which said ?uid pressure is adapted to operate, and a valve and a solenoid 15 for controlling the entrance of said ?uid pres sure into said cylinder, said solenoid being adapt ed to open and close said valve. 5. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier 20 along the length thereof, comprising a recipro cating member having a guide through which ?laments are caused to pass and means for caus ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a substantially constant speed and to be lowered 26 abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid pressure, a solenoid for controlling the opera tion of said ?uid pressure and means for open ing and closing the circuit of said solenoid at a predetermined rate. 6. Apparatus for the. production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier along the length thereof, comprising a recipro cating member having a guide through which ?laments are caused to pass and means for caus ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a substantially constant speed and to be lowered abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid pressure, a solenoid for controlling the operation of said ?uid pressure and rotary means for open ing and closing the circuit of said solenoid. '7. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier 'along the length thereof, comprising a recipro cating member having a guide through which ?laments are caused to pass and means for calls a substantially constant speed and to be lowered pressure, a solenoid for controlling the operation the operation of said solenoid, said solenoid con trolling means comprising a spring switch and a rotary member having a projection thereon adapted to contact with said spring switch at a 1O predetermined rate to close the solenoid circuit. 8. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier along the length thereof, comprising a reciprocat ing member having a guide through which ?la 15 ments are caused to pass and means for causing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a substantially constant speed and to be lowered abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid pressure, a cylinder in which said ?uid pressure 20 is adapted to operate, a valve attached to said cylinder, a solenoid for controlling the entrance of said ?uid pressure into said cylinder through said valve, said solenoid being adapted to open and close said valve, and rotary means for mak 25 ing and breaking the solenoid circuit. 9. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial ?laments having appreciable variations in denier along the length thereof, comprising a recipro cating member having a guide through which 30 ?laments are caused to pass and means for caus ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a substantially constant speed and to be lowered abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid pressure, a cylinder in which said ?uid pressure is adapted to operate, a piston in said cylinder attached to said reciprocating member, a valve attached to said cylinder, a solenoid for con trolling the entrance of said ?uid pressure into said cylinder through said valve, said solenoid being adapted to open and close said valve, and rotary means for opening and closing the sole noid circuit. CANFIELD HUTSON.