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Патент USA US2116660

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May 10, 1938.
c, HUTSON I
2,116,660
FORMATION OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, YARNS, OR THREADS
Filed July 22, 1936
PMF‘
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KO
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INVENTOR
ggnf‘ield Hu’fson
9% ATTORNEYS
MW
2,115,660
Patented May 10, 1938
UNETED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,116,660
FORMATION OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS,
‘
YARNS, OR THREADS
Can?eld Hutson, Cumberland, Md, assignor to
Celanese Corporation of America, a corpora
tion of Delaware
Application July 22, 1936, Serial No. 91,816
9 Claims. (01. 18-8)
This invention relates to arti?cial ?laments,
yarns or threads and their formation by the
extrusion of spinning solutions through jets, noz
zles or other spinning ori?ces into a solidifying
5 \ medium.
,
An object of the invention is the formation. of
linear speed for a period of time in the course of
their production and then interrupting the draw
ing action so as to stretch them uniformly at
desired intervals and effecting little or no stretch
at other intervals. The varying stretch imparted 5
to the ?laments or yarns results in. a correspond
arti?cial ?laments or yarns having a regular or
ingly varying denier, the variations occurring at
irregular change in denier. A further object of
any desired intervals and to any desired degree
while extending any desired amount along the
length of the ?laments or yarns. This variation 10
of denier is accomplished by a device which draws
the ?laments at a substantially uniform linear,
speed for a period of time, then periodically and
abruptly reduces the drawing action on the ?la
ments and then slowly lengthens the path fol- 15
lowed by the ?laments from the forming jet to
a winding, or twisting and winding device.
The portions of large denier or slub of the yarn
may appear at regular short or regular long in
tervals along the length of the yarn or at regu- 20
larly or irregularly varying intervals. Also, the
denier of the slub or large denier portion may
this invention is the formation of ?laments or
10 yarns which have an irregularity in denier, such
as a period of small denier, then. a slub of large
denier and then another period of small denier,
in which the yarn in the period of small denier
is of substantially uniform denier and contains
15 no thin places. Other objects of the invention
will appear from the following detailed descrip
tion and drawing.
In the drawing, wherein like reference nu
merals refer to the same or similar elements of
2 O the respective views;
Fig. l is a front elevation of an arti?cial yarn
spinning device with means to vary the denier of
the yarn as it is formed;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation, partly in section, of
‘,5 a part of the device shown in Fig. l, and
Fig. 3 is a plan view of a section of yarn formed
in accordance with this invention.
Arti?cial yarn having slubs of irregular denier
therein has been formed by many types of de
30 vices.
These yarns, however, have not been en
‘ tirely satisfactory as the devices heretofore used
to form such yarns produced extremely thin
places in that section of the yarn having the
small denier. These thin places so weakened the
35 yarn that interruptions, due to breakage of the
yarn, occurred during the spinning thereof or
during the subsequent textile operations. These
extremely thin places were also reflected in weak
spots or undesirable irregularities in fabrics
40 formed from the yarns. By employing my in
vention, however, there may be formed arti?cial
yarn having a substantially uniform denier in
the section of small denier with or without a vary
ing denier in the thick portion or slub. Also, by
45 employing my invention, the change from small
denier to the slub or large denier may be relatively
abrupt in comparison with prior methods of form
ing this type of yarn.
In accordance with my invention, I form ?la
50. ments or yarns of arti?cial silk or the like which
have a substantially uniform denier over a major
ity of their length, but having at regular or
irregular intervals a ‘change in denier, or slub,
creating a thick place in the ?lament or yarn
55. by drawing the yarns at a substantially uniform
vary in degree or extent or both.
Or, one or
more groups of variations may appear in regular
sequence, or in any desired order or at any de- 25
sired intervals. Thus, for example, one or more
short variations may alternate with one or more
long variations, or groups of short or long varia
tions may alternate with short or long variations,
or with other groups of short and long variations. 30
Or, the regularity or sequence of the large denier
portion or slub may be broken up such that the
periods of large denier appear at random along
the length of the yarn. The latter method of
spacing the slubs, or large denier portion, minimizes the possibility of the yarns producing a
wood grain effect when woven into fabric. It
will be understood that where yarn, or thread
is formed by the association of a number of ?la
ments, all of which have a regular or irregular
change in denier and which change is similar
forall the ?laments at a cross-section of the yarn,
there will be produced a cumulative effect in the
change of denier of the yarn at that cross-section.
When yarns are formed of substantially continuous ?laments, there will obviously be the same
number of ?laments at the larger denier periods
as at the smaller denier periods.
Yarns or threads, which have received changes
in denieras above described, may be wound or
twisted and wound, for example, by means of cap
spinning‘ devices, or centrifugal boxes.
The ?laments of varying denier may be formed
35
40
45
50
into ‘yarns, either alone or twisted or doubled
with threads of other natural or arti?cial ?la- 55
2
2,116,660
ments or ?bers.
Or, they may be cut or reduced
to staple lengths either continuously with their
production or subsequently thereto, and spun into
yarns, either alone or mixed or blended with other
natural or arti?cial ?laments or ?bers, and such
spun yarns may, if desired, be twisted or doubled
with the same or other yarns to form any desired
type of threads.
Yarns or threads with irregular denier hav
10 ing a substantial twist impart a novel effect to
fabrics or articles wholly or partially formed from
them by reason of the differential effect produced
by the variation of denier and amount of twist
at the various intervals of varying denier. This
15 effect may, moreover, be enhanced when the fab
rics or articles are dyed, printed or otherwise
colored because of the differential of penetra
tion of the dyestuif or other coloring matter, and
of the differential in luster between tightly
20 twisted small denier intervals and the intervals
of large denier with little or no twist.
The yarns or threads of varying denier may be
applied to the production of fabrics or articles
either alone or in association with yarns or
25 threads of uniform denier arti?cial silk or of
other natural or other arti?cial ?laments or ?
hers and may be utilized to give any desired de
sign or pattern. They may be used, for example,
in the warp and/ or weft in weaving operations, in
30
knitting operations, for instance, in the produc
tion of warp knitted fabrics, in circular knitting
machines, in braiding or cording operations, in
net or lace-making operations, or in any other
fabric-forming or textile operation.
35
While the invention applies particularly to ?la
ments or threads of varying or irregular denier,
produced by the dry or evaporative method, and
especially to ?laments or threads having a base
of cellulose acetate or other cellulose derivatives,
40 such as cellulose formate, cellulose propionate or
cellulose butyrate, thiocarbamic or alkoxy-al
kacyl esters of cellulose, methyl, ethyl or benzyl
cellulose, or the condensation products of cellu
lose and glycols and other polyhydric alcohols, it
45 applies likewise to ?laments or yarns of varying
or irregular denier produced by the wet or co
agulation method, whether it has a base of cellu
lose or bases of reconstituted cellulose produced
by the viscose, cuprammonium or nitrate proc
esses.
-
As an aid in describing the invention, the same
will be described with reference to the drawing
wherein there is shown a device constructed in
accordance with this invention. The device co
55 operates with a spinning cabinet I which may be
equipped with any suitable number of spinning
jets, ducts for supplying and withdrawing evapo
rative atmosphere, guides, and heating or cooling
elements. The exact construction of the spinning
60 cabinet or metier is not_shown since it can be
any one of the devices used in the formation of
arti?cial silks and like materials.
The spinning
cabinet may contain any suitable number of
spinning jets, each jet having any suitable num
65 ber of ori?ces. Each spinning jet or set of spin
ning jets forms a yarn having a plurality of ?la
ments, which yarn is drawn from the cabinet or
metier.
In normal spinning on a device of the type
70 shown in the drawing, the yarn 5 leaves ‘the spin
ning cabinet or metier at a port 2 and passes
around a drawing roll or feed roll 3 through a
guide 4 and on to a take-up winding, or twist
ing and winding device, such as a cap-spinning
75 device, ring twisting device or centrifugal box.
If desired, the yarn 5 may be led from the port
2 over a wick, roller or other furnishing device
for coating the yarn with such material as lubri
cants, conditioning agents, etc., and then through
a guide and on to the feed roll 3. The forma
tion of yarn in accordance with this invention
differs from the normal method of spinning yarn
in that the yarn, after it leaves the spinning
cabinet I , passes through guide eyes 8, one of
which is provided for each port 2 of the spinning 10
metier. Each of the guide eyes 6 is fastened to
the lower end of a supporting rod 1.
The sup
porting rods ‘5, which are adapted to reciprocate,
are guided by passing through suitable bearings
8 in an angle iron 9. The rods 1 are attached to
a cross-head II which is attached to a piston
rod l2 through any suitable type of bracket such
as the one shown at l3. The piston rod I2 termi
nates in a piston Ill operating in a cylinder I5.
By operation of the piston, the cross-head II 20
with the attached supporting rods and guide
eyes is reciprocated in a vertical path.
Suitable means are provided for the purpose
of operating the piston I 4. To this end there is
provided an electric motor H5 or other suitable
power device which, through a belt or chain I1,
drives the drive wheel I8 of a speed-changing
mechanism IS. The speed-changing mechanism
may contain creeping gears, elliptical gears, or
it may consist of oppositely disposed cone pulleys
or other means of causing a variation in the speed
produced on the drive wheel of the speed-chang
ing mechanism. The power imparted by the mo
tor I6 passes through the speed-changing device
and rotates a wheel 2|. The Wheel 2! is provided
with a plurality of recesses or openings into
which may be placed pins 22. The wheel 2| is
so formed that the pins 22 may be set at any
intervals about the circumference of the wheel,
or so that any number of pins may be employed. 40
The pins 22 are adapted, upon rotation of the
wheel 2!, to move a spring arm 23 carrying the
contact point 2!! against a substantially station
ary post 25 having a contact point 26. The spring
arm 23 and the post 25 are each connected to 45
electric conductors 27 and 28 which form one
part of an electrical circuit, the other part be
ing through the electric conductor 29.
These
conductors are attached to a solenoid 3| and
upon closing of the contact points 24 and 26 the 50
solenoid 3| of the 3-way valve, 2 port valve sole
noid becomes energized and raises the valve stem
contained in the valve 33.
From any suitable source, hydraulic or air
pressure is supplied to the line 34 and passes
through a pressure-reducing or regulating device
35 to a line 36 connected to the inlet 4'! of the 3
Way valve 33. A suitable gauge 3'! may be placed
on the line 36 for indicating the pressure head on
the line. One of the outlet ports 38 of the 3-way 60
valve 33 leads through a supply into a cylinder
head 39 which is connected to the cylinder l5.
With the upward or return stroke of piston M
spent hydraulic or air pressure in cylinder I5 is
forced back through cylinder head 39, to port 65
44 and is exhausted from outlet 38. It is to be
understood that any suitable type of 3-way,
solenoid operated valve may be employed, for
instance, type “P3DX Asco valves” and related
types. Suitably retained on the stationary sup 70
port are shoulders 4| and 42 to which shoulders
and the cross-head II are connected tension
springs 43 which exert a pull on the cross-head
l l in an upward direction such that upon release
of the air pressure from the cylinder IS the cross- 75‘
3.
head II is raised. By means of an adjustable
back pressure escapement valve 44 the air or
hydraulic pressure from the cylinder l5 may be
regulated‘in such a manner that the movement
of the piston in an upward direction by the“ pull
of the springs 43 may be regulated to any desired
speed. The cylinder I5 is also provided with a
valve 45 which is placed on ‘the side of the piston
head [4 opposite to the source ‘of applied pressure
10 and acts as a dash-pot or means for controlling
the speed of the piston in a downward direction
By regulating the valves 44 and 45, the piston
may be caused, if desired, to move slowly in an
upward direction and substantially instantly in
15 a downward direction.
In operation of the device, the yarn is led from
the spinning jets (not shown) through port 2
and guide eye 6, then around the constantly and
uniformly rotating feed roll 3 to the take-up p‘ack-_
20 age. The motor l6 causes the wheel 2! to rotate,
if desired, at a variable speed, which causes the
pin 22 to effect an opening and closing of the
switch formed by the contact points 24 and 26,
thus operating the solenoid 3| which in turn
25 operates the 3-way valve 33. The operation of
the 3-way valve effects the pressure and release
of pressure alternately in the cylinder head 39,
causing the reciprocation of the guide eyes 6.
When the guide eyes 6 are slowly raised at a
uniform speed, the drawing action effected by the
feed roll 3 produces a uniform pull or stretching
of ‘the ?laments from the spinning jets, forming
a yarn of substantially uniform denier. Upon
closing of the switch formed by the contact points
35 24 and 26 the solenoid is energized and operates
the 3-way valve, injecting an impulse of pressure
into the cylinder head 39, forcing the piston
head I4 in a downward direction. By regulating
the valve 45 and the applied pressure, the guide
eyes ‘6 may be caused to move in a ‘downward
direction at a very high speed. The fast move
ment of the guide eyes 6 in a downward direction
creates a slack in the yarn between the feed roll
formed. Furthermore, the wheel 2| may be ro
tated» by means of elliptical gears or other speed
changing mechanism such that the speed’ of the
wheel 2| is constantly or irregularly varying. The
method of driving the wheel 2| at a varying
speed and having the pins 22 spaced at varying
intervals on said wheel, produces slubs on the
yarn at random intervals.
~Where the spinning cabinet or metier is of
considerable length and equipped with a large 10
number of‘yarn-forming jets, there may be pro
vided across the length of the spinning cabinet
a plurality of solenoids, the solenoids all operate
ing through the same electrical circuit, such that
uniform reciprocation of the head H is produced 15
throughout the entire machine. By regulating
the speedof the wheel 2! and the feed roll 3,
yarn may be produced having any desired change
in denier, for instance, yarn may be formed hav
ing a ratio between thin and thick places, 1 to 20?
11/2, 1 to 2, l to 4, 1 to 20 or other ratios, while the
intervals between slubs and the length of the
slubs may beregulated by the spacing and size
of pins 22 and/or the length of the stroke of the
piston l4.
It is to be understood that any desired number
of devices may be arranged for simultaneous oper
ation on the ?laments or threads produced by a
plurality of jets or nozzles in a single metier or
spinning cabinet. Thus, in a small metier or
spinning cabinet the head Il may extend across
the full length of the metier or spinning cabinet
and be operated by a single piston, or on larger
metiers the head H may extend across the full
length of the cabinet and be driven by a piston
operating at each end of the head II.
The foregoing apparatus may be applied to
the treatment of arti?cial ?laments produced by
the dry or evaporative method as shown in the
drawing or by the wet or coagulation method by
obvious rearrangement of the parts.
3 and the spinning jet, thus reducing momentar
It is to be understood that the foregoing de
scription and the device shown in the drawing is
merely given by way of illustration and many
ily the drawing or stretching action on the yarn,
effecting a slub or heavy denier increment in the
yarn. Upon release of the spring arm‘ 23 by the
alterations or substitutions may be made without 45
departing from the spirit of my invention.
What I desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
pins 22 the solenoid is de-energized and operates
By regulating the valves 44 and 45 the guide eyes
1. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
along the length thereof, comprising a, recipro 50
cating member having a guide through which
may also be caused to make a fast up-stroke pro
ducing a very thin section of yarn and a slow
down stroke producing normal yarn.
ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a
substantially constant speed. and to be lowered
to cause the piston to move upwardly and the
50 springs 43 will slowly raise the guide eyes 6.
By employing this device, the speed of the re
ciprocating guide eyes 6 may be adjusted so that
there is a slow, steady and uniform drawing or
stretching of the yarn over that period of the
yarn which is of small denier and, unlike the re
60 sults obtained, by the use of prior devices, there
is produced no section having extremely thin
places effected by a fast pulling action after the
55
slub on the yarn has been formed.
If desired, the device may be adjusted in such
65 a manner that it produces a yarn having a uni
form small denier section 46 and a large denier
section 41 with a relatively abrupt change 48 from
the small denier section to the large denier sec
tion.
The spacing of the pins 22 or the size of the
70
contacting portion of the pins 22 may be an
arrangement whereby there are produced slubs
of equal length or slubs of varying length and
whereby there are produced equal lengths or
75 varying lengths of yarn in which no slubs are
?laments are caused to pass and means for caus
abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid 55
pressure and means for controlling the opera
tion of said fluid pressure.
2. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
along the length thereof, comprising a recipro 60
cating member having a guide through which
?laments are caused to pass and means for caus
ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at
a substantially constant speed and to be lowered
abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid 65
pressure and a solenoid for controlling the opera
tion of said ?uid pressure.
3. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
along the length thereof, comprising a recipro 70
cating member having a guide through which
?laments are caused to pass and means for caus
ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at
a substantially constant speed and to be lowered
abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid‘
2,116,660
pressure, a cylinder in which said ?uid pressure
is adapted to operate and a solenoid for control
ling the entrance of said ?uid pressure into said
ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at
cylinder.
abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid
4. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
along the length thereof, comprising a recipro
cating member having a guide through which
of said ?uid pressure and means for controlling
?laments are caused to pass and means for caus
10 ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at
a substantially constant speed and to be lowered
abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid
pressure, a cylinder in which said ?uid pressure
is adapted to operate, and a valve and a solenoid
15 for controlling the entrance of said ?uid pres
sure into said cylinder, said solenoid being adapt
ed to open and close said valve.
5. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
20 along the length thereof, comprising a recipro
cating member having a guide through which
?laments are caused to pass and means for caus
ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at
a substantially constant speed and to be lowered
26 abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid
pressure, a solenoid for controlling the opera
tion of said ?uid pressure and means for open
ing and closing the circuit of said solenoid at a
predetermined rate.
6. Apparatus for the. production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
along the length thereof, comprising a recipro
cating member having a guide through which
?laments are caused to pass and means for caus
ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a
substantially constant speed and to be lowered
abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid
pressure, a solenoid for controlling the operation
of said ?uid pressure and rotary means for open
ing and closing the circuit of said solenoid.
'7. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
'along the length thereof, comprising a recipro
cating member having a guide through which
?laments are caused to pass and means for calls
a substantially constant speed and to be lowered
pressure, a solenoid for controlling the operation
the operation of said solenoid, said solenoid con
trolling means comprising a spring switch and a
rotary member having a projection thereon
adapted to contact with said spring switch at a 1O
predetermined rate to close the solenoid circuit.
8. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
along the length thereof, comprising a reciprocat
ing member having a guide through which ?la 15
ments are caused to pass and means for causing
said reciprocating member to rise slowly at a
substantially constant speed and to be lowered
abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid
pressure, a cylinder in which said ?uid pressure 20
is adapted to operate, a valve attached to said
cylinder, a solenoid for controlling the entrance
of said ?uid pressure into said cylinder through
said valve, said solenoid being adapted to open
and close said valve, and rotary means for mak 25
ing and breaking the solenoid circuit.
9. Apparatus for the production of arti?cial
?laments having appreciable variations in denier
along the length thereof, comprising a recipro
cating member having a guide through which 30
?laments are caused to pass and means for caus
ing said reciprocating member to rise slowly at
a substantially constant speed and to be lowered
abruptly, said means including a source of ?uid
pressure, a cylinder in which said ?uid pressure
is adapted to operate, a piston in said cylinder
attached to said reciprocating member, a valve
attached to said cylinder, a solenoid for con
trolling the entrance of said ?uid pressure into
said cylinder through said valve, said solenoid
being adapted to open and close said valve, and
rotary means for opening and closing the sole
noid circuit.
CANFIELD HUTSON.
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