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Патент USA US2116662

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May 10, 1938.
2,1 16,662
Filed March l2, v1956
2g .1913 716
ffm ZJ @ß
Patented May _10, -1.9*38 -
` 2,116,662
4 2,116,662
' ' INSULAfrED nEr'mGEnA'ron -casino.
Harvey B. lindsay, chicago, n1., assignor romy
Zero Corporation, Chicago, Ill.,'a corporation
» of Delaware
_ Application-March 12, 1936, serial N6.„6s,s6v
(ci. 22o-_14)
The object of this invention is _toautomatically ' cold and condensation then -occurs ‘between _it
dispose,- without dripping, of the moisture that _ and the non-hygroscopic insulant, the latter re
usually gathers on the bottorn- of the insulation
space of a refrigerator more particularly if it is
fuses to get moist and such condensation ñnds its
way down the wrapper and-out of the joints of
.same,at~th`e bottom of the slab or package of _
5 insulated with substantially non-hygroscopic -or _ such insulant, andV so into the'bottomofthe re
non-absorptive insulating material. -
It has been proven that humidity in the air ' frigerator shell. vWhere vlined -with hygroscopic
vfunctions as a-‘true-gas; >that 'it is not minute insulating material, the condensation is _absorbed
'droplets of water carried directionally by the air.
in> the ~insulation to eventual saturation. .
'I'his „explains why _refrigerators insulated with- 10
It is also known that this gas of H2O is nearly'
_non-hygroscopic material' and in _use for somev
twice as tenuous .as the air mixture and under ltimewill
often show water dripping or running
the laws of gases nearly four times as penetra'-.
downthe legs. AIf the bottom of the refrigerator
As it is impossible commercially to build the Í is 'a water-tight pan-fastened tothe sides'and
walls of a refrigerator, etc., so gas-tight that they
would maintain -a vacuum> successfully, it is ob
back,.then if lthe refrigerator is -tilted the water
-runs »out in considerable quantities. As stated,
invention is for the purpose of disposing of
vious that it isimpossible to keep out this gas of. , `this
the water sol forming in the bottom of a refriger
` , H2O-commonly called water vapor-which ‘is
’ nearly four times as penetrative as air.
- ator, or substantially such, without any sign of
or running down the legs.
It is a fact, and the above explains it,>_ that- ' drip
:- I‘am aware that certain devices have been >proWater gradually but inevitably forms in the in-4 posed in the nature of air Valves designed in the
sulation space of-a refrigerator orrefrigerator
hope that they would effect the expulsion of wa
chamber under refrigeration, 'I‘his water-comes . ter
vapor by'î‘breathing”, but such efforts have
from the penetration ofwater vapor through _the proved
impractical for this purpose. The device
porositie's or cracks of the outside shell.-this wa Y of .the present invention, however, operates upon
ter vapor being under deñnite vapor pressure to an entirely diñerent principle, vas will presently
penetrate to the cold side.
At ñrst this water vapor that is penetrating
The invention _may best be understood by refer
the outside shell, condenses on the outside sur
to the accompanying drawing, in which
face of the inside liner of the- refrigerator and
1 is a vertical section of a refrigerator
in intimate contact with the usual so-called> ~~chamber
and lits insulating space through a me
“waterproof” Wrapping supposed toprotect the
plane'between front and back, and includ
insulation. As this wrapping becomes cold from , -dian
ing a moisture-disposal device constructed in ac
its moist contact with the cold line'r, however, the
With-my invention.
condensation then begins to take vplace- on the cordance
Fig. 2 Yis a horizontal detail section taken on
face of the wrapping next the insulating mate
2-2 of Fig. 1. '
rial and in intimate contact with the latter. line
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary vertical section showing
Thereupon two forces are set up on-_this water .of a modiñed form of moisture-disposal device con-condensation: The forces of absorption,.mostly
structed in accordance with my invention.
40 capillarity of the insulating material, and the
Fig. 4 is a detail section showing a still further
surface repulsion of that material for water (as modification of the form of device shown in Fig. 3.
for example, that of wax).
Referring now to details of the embodiment of
If the surface repulsion exceeds the capillary
invention illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, the re
forces, the insulating‘material Will _remain dry
frigerator casing is indicated generally at I0, and 45
45 indefinitely. But if the capill’aryforces exceed includes an outside shell I l, such as sheet steel or
the surface repulsion of the material it will grad
the like, an inner or inside lining I3, usually of_
ually become damp, moist or wet. InV the first in
stance the insulation is referred to as “non-hy
groscopic”, in the second, “hygroscopic”.
In the case of a refrigerator insulated with
non-hygroscopic insulation, while the condensa
tion described above will form on the outer sur
face of the liner, it will trickle down and eventu
ally form a poolof water at the bottom of the
55 refrigerator. If the wrapper becomes wet and
porcelain enameled steel, and insulating-.mate
rial I2 of any suitable form between the outside
shell II and inner liner I3. The insulating ma
terial l2 is preferably non-hygroscopic, although
the inner wrapper or layer only of the insulat
ing material adjacentthe inner lining I3 may be
non-hygroscopic, if desired. As shown in Fig. 1,
the four upper edges of the bottom slab of insu
lating material may bebeveled as at I2“, to assist
in directing water of condensation downwardly
evaporating surface, ingress of water vapor there
through is reduced'to a negligible amount.
along the side slabs of insulation.
Experiment has shown that this is a constant
operation. The evaporating sheet I5 can of
course be covered with perforatedl metal or with
Wire gauze, if desired, without interfering with
The bottom IIa of the shell II is provided with
a small discharge passage or hole I4, preferably
at or near its center, and preferably having a
plurality of drainage channels I5 depressed in
said bottom, said channels being arranged radial
ly of and tapering downwardly toward said hole,
10 as shown in Figs. 1_ and 2.
On the exterior of the bottom IIB and below
the discharge hole Il, is mounted a sheet I6 of
self~supporting absorptive material, such as the
board forms of insulation known in the industry
15 as “Celotex”, “Insu1ite" or the like. 'I‘he sheet
I6 is suitably supported against the bottom IIB
its evaporating functions.
While the hole Il can be quite small and yet
take care of all the moisture as it forms and
reaches the hole, the evaporating surface of evap 10
orator board I 6 must be sufficient to dispose by
evaporation of ‘all moisture reaching and soaking
into the evaporator board. Experiment has
shown that even under the `severest conditions
obtaining in a kitchen and with a very faulty 15
outside shell to the refrigerator (full of openings
as by cleats or channels I‘I welded or soldered to
and seams) an evaporating area of 30 square
said bottom wall.
In the modified form of the invention illus
20 trated in Fig. 3, a separate pan I8 is supported
above the bottom slab I2 of insulation, said pan
being slightly dished toward a center aperture I9.
'I‘he edges oi' said pan extend slightly beyond the
inches is quite suilicient. Of course, the better
the shell (the more it retards water vapor entry)
and the better the conditions (the less humidity
in the air )the less area of evaporating board is
required under those conditions.
aperture I9 and aiîording communication to the
In those forms of refrigerating devices, for ex
ample an electric domestic refrigerator, where
the machine is below the insulated food chamber
the warm air from the condenser not only accel
erates the desired evaporation from the evap
orator “board”, but thev evaporation tends to cool
discharge passage I4a in the bottom IIa of the
30 shell II. An absorptive board I6 is secured be
the condenser. However, all that is required for
" lateral sides of liner I3 so that water trickling
25 down the sides of said liner will be caught by said
A suitable hole or channel> 20 is formed in
the bottom slab of insulation I2b beneath the
neath the passage I4a as in the form of device `
the ambient air and so increase the efiiciency of
the satisfactory operation of thisvinvention is
reasonably free access of air to the evaporator
Although I have illustratedand described cer
tain embodiments of my invention, it will be un
derstood that I do not wish to be limited to the
exact construction shown and described, but that
various changes and modifications may be made
without departing from the spirit and scope of
my invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. In a refrigerating device. an outer casing
and an inner lining having insulation material
therebetween, saidouter casing having a water
discharge opening at the bottom thereof, and a
sheet of absorptive material secured to said out
' in the middle ofl the latter; or, with the pan as' er casing and covering said discharge opening.
2. In a refrigerating device, an outer casing
in Figs. 3 and 4, the moisture trickling down the
liner will be caught in the pan, led to the hole and an inner lining having insulation material
28 and thence to the discharge hole I4“ in the therebetween, said outer casing having a water
discharge opening at the bottom thereof, and a
50 bottom of the shell.'
On reaching this hole in the bottom of the sheet of absorptive material secured to said out
shell, the water will be absorbed by the sheet of er casing and covering said discharge opening,
absorptive material I6, spreading laterally but having its exterior surface evaporatively ex
through said sheet considerably, and gradually posed to the surrounding air.
3. In a refrigerating device, an outer casing
towards the bottom surface, and on reaching that
bottom surface will~evaporate _to the surrounding and an inner lining having insulation material
air. Thus the hole Il is eñectively sealed against therebetween, said outer casing having a water
passage of heat or ordinary air currents into the discharge opening at'the bottom thereof, means
below said inner lining for directing water of
insulation space, and yet the water of condensa
60 tion may escape through the sheet of absorptive
condensation from the sides of said lining to said
material by dispersion and evaporation. Further, discharge opening, and a sheet of absorptive ma
the minute channels through the material of the terial secured to the bottom of' said casing and
evaporator “board” being substantially filled with closing said discharge opening to the outer air.
the water seeping from the escape hole to the
shown in Fig. 1.
In the form shown in Fig. 4, the arrangement
is similar to that illustrated in Fig. 3, excepting
35 that a tube 2l extends through hole 20 and con-`
nects the aperture I9 of pan I8 with the dis
charge passage Il“, as shown. 'I'his arrangement
is preferable Where the bottom slab of insulation
is partially or wholly hygroscopic.
In operation, moisture condensing on the top,
sides and back of the liner and being refused by
the adjacent non-hygroscopic insulation will
trickle down the liner and either seep between the
side insulation and the bottom insulation to the
_45 bottom of the shell and there trickle to the hole
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