Патент USA US2116717код для вставки
May 10, 1938. 2,116,717 H. SCHARLAU DISTANCE AND DIRECTION DETERMINING SYSTEM Filed June 25, 1935 INVENTOR HANS SCHARLAU BY 71%.6101“ ATTORN EY Patented May 10, 1938 _ _ _ UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,110,711 DISTANCE AND DIRECTION DETERMINING - - . SYSTEMI Hans Scharlau, Berlin,. Germany, ‘ to Teleflmken Geaellschaft fiir Drahtlose Tele graphic 111. b. 11., Berlin, Germany, a corpora tion of Germany ' Application June 25, 1935, Serial No. 28,252 In Germany July 5, 1934 11 Ol?ms. (Cl. 250-11) This invention relates to distance and direction determining systems and is particularly con- base line for a system of triangulation such that the distance from a re?ecting object may also be cerned with means to be mounted on board a very accurately indicated, vessel, an-aircraft or other conveyance for pro5 jecting a radio beam against either natural or arti?cial objects from which it may be re?ected back to points adjacent the beam projector, and further means for detecting the re?ected beams and for indicating the distance and-the direction 10 of the re?ecting object. ~ My invention may be used either to avoid col- lisions between vessels or to determine the altitude at which an airplane may be ?ying. It is not, however, limited to such uses. 15 For direction ?nding with the aid of electromagnetic waves, apparatus has been provided in the past in which the intensity of the incoming signal could be measured. Although known devices have proven fairly satisfactory for direction 20 ?nding they were'not so useful for distance determination. They were usually more or less complicated and required the use of a formula in order to make a distance-calculation from any instru- ment readings that might be available, based on The two receiving antennae may be rotatively mounted so as to provide the necessary adjust- _5 ment for causing their directional axes to inter sect one another at different distances from the ship. A uni-control device may be embodied in the apparatus so that both receiving antennae maybe adjusted simultaneously and uniformly. 10 If the two receiving antennae are mounted sym metrically with reference to the axis of the vessel, then the ?eld or region which may be searched for the purpose of indicating re?ecting objects or dangerous obstacles may be held within amore 15 or less restricted angular range along the course _ to be navigated- When energy radiated by the transmitter is re?ected back by some object in the path of the vessel then the tance of that object may be mined by the angles which the signalling strength make with direction and dis accurately deter- 20 axes of maximum the base line be tween the two receiving antennae. - If my distance and direction ?nding apparatus, 25 the intensity of the incoming signal. - I have found, however, that radio energy may be so prop- is to be used as an aid to aerial navigation, then 25 the transmitter may be mounted so as 110 project a ‘ agated and re?ected that, when received at two di?erent points simultaneously, a simple calculation could be made based upon principles of 30 triangulation. It is, therefore, among the objects of my invention to provide mechanical means whereby the desired distance determinations may be easily read on indicators suitably calibrated beam downwardly and the receiving antennae may also be mounted, say, near the wing tips and with their directional axes aimed toward the ground thereby to give indication of altitude at so which the airplane may be ?ying. As an alter native arrangement the receiving antennae may be mounted one near the bow and the other near in units of distance. the stern of an airship- ' v 35 It is another object of my invention to provide According to one embodiment of my invention 35 apparatus for distance and direction determina- it is preferable to Provide separate receiving indi tion which may be conveniently mounted on cator means in connection with each receiving board a. vessel for giving warning of the ap- antenna where great altitudes are to be deter proach of another vessel, the presence of an ice- mined. A uniform angular adjustment of the 40 berg, reef, or any dangerous object. - directional receivers is possible and both instru- 40 In carrying out my invention I preferably ments will exhibit like re?ections or audible re ' mount on board a vessel a suitable transmitter having an antenna system which is combined sponse. Where the altitude is low it may be de sirable to show di?erences between the signal-re with means for directing a beam- within the limits 45 of an acute angle. To one side and to the other of this beam projecting antenna system I also mount a pair of receivers each having sharply sponsive indications or readings of instruments separately operated from the two antennae and 45 thus to obtain an indication of the lateral posi tion, or the dip, or the inclination of the airplane focussed antenna systems or energy collecting devices. The directional characteristic of each 5,0 of these receiving antennae is coordinated with that of the other in such manner that a de?nite when making alanding. This feature may have particular utility in the operation of bringing down heavy hydroplanes on the water, or when 50 landing a Zeppelin. The utmost advantage is, of indication may be made as to the distance at course, to be obtained when my invention is so which their directional axes meet. Since the distance between these two receiving antennae utilized under conditions of poor visibility. My invention as regards the details of its con 55 may be very accurately determined, it forms the struction and operation may be best understood 55 2 2,116,717 upon reference to the accompanying drawing in which ‘ I Figure 1 represents diagrammatically an ar rangement‘of the essential units ‘of mydistance and direction ?nding system as when mounted aboard a ship for scanning an object along side‘; Fig. 2 shows an alternative arrangement in tion of the_ antenna axes. At one end of the member i2 1’ may provide a pointer i3 cooper atively positioned in respect to a scale II which’ may be calibrated either in terms of distance or of the angles which the receiving antenna axes make with a base line. The details of the receiv ing system which may be employed in connec tion with the receiving antennae have not been ahead of the bow of the ship; . shown in Fig. 2, as they may be well understood Fig. 3 shows diagrammatically one arrange-. from the showing of Fig. 1, or, possibly, from 10 10 ment for. controlling the directional effects ob Fig. 4 presently to be described. tained by rotatively adjusting two re?ectors si Referring now to Fig. 3, I show another modi which the ?eld to be scanned lies .immediately multaneously in relation to a receiving antenna system; and 15 i . Fig. 4 shows diagrammatically how my inven tion may be used for making altitude deter minations. ' - Referring now to Fig. 1, I show, mounted aboard a vessel V, a suitable radio transmitter T upon which oscillations from an oscillator 2 may be impressed. These oscillations may, if desired, be modulated or interrupted in any well known manner by means of the modulator 3. ' The output energy from the transmitter T is 25 preferably impressed upon an antenna system having a suitable re?ector i whereby a beam of energy may be projected within the limits of any desired acute angle such as de?ned by the broken lines 4. Within the scope of this beam 30 any existing object R having re?ective proper ties may be caused to re?ect back beams of en ergy 5 and 6 which can be intercepted by the receiving antennae ‘i and 8. The energy so col lected by the receiving antennae may then be 35 utilized in a radio receiver l5, or a pair of such receivers, and indications may then be impressed upon any suitable responsive device, such as the earphones P. The distance of the object R from the vessel 40 V may be accurately determined upon reference to the angles which the beams 5 and 6 make with a base line joining the foci of the two energy col lectors ‘I and 8. The means for measuring these angles may be as shown in the other ?gures of 45 the drawing. When the energy collectors are so adjusted as to obtain a maximum'signalling en ergy response, it is then that angular determina tions may be made for showing the distance as well as the direction of the re?ecting object R. It is known that the object R need not be ar 50 ti?cial in order to possess re?ecting properties. Natural objects like rocks, icebergs, derelicts, other vessels, and, in fact, any dangerous ob stacles in the path of a vessel may, and usually 55 do, have re?ecting properties. Fig. 2 illustrates an alternative arrangement of my invention for providing protection against collision. Here the transmitter with its radiat ing antenna system I is so mounted, preferably 60 near the bow of -a ship, that a beam of radio en ergy may be directed within the limits of lines I. If, then, any portion of the beam is re?ected back along the lines 5 and 6 on account of the pres ence of a re?ecting object R, then the re?ected 65 energy may be received upon the directional an tennae ‘i and 8. These antennae are preferably of the type which has parabolic re?ectors so that the directional axis may be well de?ned. In or der to vary the directional axis of each re?ector 70 I preferably mount the antenna and re?ector on ?cation in which the transmitter T may be the same as shown in Fig. 1. The transmitting an tenna system includes a re?ector I and the beam 15 projected therefrom may be con?ned within the zone between the lines 4. The axis of such a beam is indicated as 4'. The presence of a re ?ecting object in the path of the beam l-will be denoted by the re?ection of energy along the 20 lines 5 and 6, which energy is caused to impinge upon two re?ectors 3 and again re?ected toward a receiving antenna system it having parabolic energy collectors. The re?ectors 3 may be mounted upon pivots 9 and their. directional characteristics may be adjusted by means of the lever arms iii, the linkages ii and the adjusting member I! upon the end of which is also mount ed a pointer or other indicator I 3 in cooperative association with a scale it. The adjustment of the re?ectors 3, as shown in Fig; 3, may be caused to double the signi?cant angles and hence to in crease the accuracy of the scale . The receiving apparatus to which‘the receiving an tennae i6 may be connected is shown at II. 35 Fig. 4 shows an aircraft or airplane having a fuselage A and wings W. The equipment of my invention may be installed with a transmitting antenna and directional re?ector I for project ing a beam within the limits of the lines i1 and 40 i1’. Some of the energy so projected may be re?ected back by the surface of the ground G along the lines l8 and i8’ respectively. Auxiliary re?ectors i9 may be mounted near the wing tips. The directional effect of these auxiliary re?ec tors i9 may be varied by pivoting the same at i. The control arms III are shown in this ?gure as mechanically coupled by the linkages Ii to the control member i2. This member abo has a pointer l3 arranged to move along the scale ll. The energy impinging upon the re?ectors ll may again be directed against the energy collectors 20 and thence lead to suitable receivers 2i. In this case I preferably employ a separate indicat ing device or instrument 22 in connection with each receiver 2 I. Banking of the airplane would be indicated by an unequal intensity of the received signal on the two receiving antennae 20 so that the readings on the two instruments 22 would not then be the same. If the re?ectors l9 were to be mounted fore and aft, then a difference between the indi cations as provided on the two indicators 22 would be of assistance in determining the dip. The altitude may simultaneously be indicated by calibrating the scale il in terms of height. Among the applications of my invention may be mentioned its practical use on vessels which navigate extensively along coastal regions and the mouths of rivers or where there are numer pivots 9. I then provide control arms III which . ous beacons and lighthouses. If such beacons 70 may be swung on thepivots 9. At the end of are provided with radio energy transmitters, the each control arm I provide linkages ii connect transmitter aboard the vessel may be dispensed ing with a member I! which may be suitably ro with. _ . 75 tated to produce a variable distance 0i’ intersec Although I have shown mechanical means for 3 2,116,717 obtaining simultaneous and joint control of the directional effect of the receiving antennae 1 and 8 or of the re?ectors 3 or I9, it,will be readily understood by those skilled in the art that this uni-control may also be obtained through the use of electrical means, if desired. Many modi?cations of my invention not here— in said intensity indicating device. ceiver having two separated radio energy collect to those skilled in the art in view of the basic idea ing antennae so mounted on said aircraft as to The particular embodiments herein shown are, therefore, to be considered as til '7. In an altitude meter, means for projecting a radio beam downwardly from an aircraft, a re in speci?cally described will suggest themselves herein disclosed. 10 6. A system in accordance with claim 5 and having a uni-control device for simultaneously rotating said energy collecting devices into suit able position for obtaining a maximum response receive ground re?ections of said energy, uni 10 control means for simultaneously varying the di rective characteristics of said antennae to obtain merely examples of apparatus which may be otherwise varied without departing from the a maximum response in said receiver, and- a ‘scale-and-pointer indicating device operatively spirit and scope of my invention. associated with said uni-control means and call I claim: brated in units of altitude measurement. 1. In a distance and direction determining sys 8. Apparatus in accordance with claim 7 and 4 tem, a radio beam projector mounted aboard a vessel and adapted to transmit energy suitable having means for indicating a di?erence between for re?ection by natural and arti?cial objects, a the respective responses to energy collected by 20 pair or energy collectors mounted aboard the one said antenna in relation to the energy col lected by the other said antenna. same vessel and having sharply focussed direc 9. In a distance determining system, a radio tional characteristics, means for varying the an gular relationship between the directional axes beam projector mounted aboard a vessel and of said collectors, energy translating means for adapted to transmit a modulated or interrupted carrier wave suitable for re?ection by natural or 25 indicating the intensities of the energy picked up by said collectors when said energy emanates arti?cial objects, a pair of re?ectors mounted from said projector and is re?ected back to said aboard said vessel and so positioned as to receive co1lectors,and means for indicating the angular re-radiated energy from said natural or arti?cial relationship between the directional axes of said objects, a radio receiver having an antenna sys 30 collectors when said axes are adjustedcto give tem suitably disposed to receive energy re?ected maximum response in said energy translating by said pair of re?ectors, means for simultane ously adjusting said re?ectors so as to produce means ' 2. A system in accordance with claim 1 and a maximum response in said receiver, and means having means for- directly indicating the distance for causing an indication to be given by the ad 35 -35 between said projector and one of said re?ecting justment of said re?ectors at the time of maxi objects as a function of the angular relationship mum receiver-response, said indication being in between the directional axes of said collectors terms of distance separating said projector from said natural or arti?cial objects. when the latter are adjusted to give maximum re 10. A distance determining system comprising sponse in said energy translating means. a radio enezzgy projector mounted aboard a ves 40 3. A system in accordance with claim 1 and 40 having means for indicating the direction of one ' sel and adapted to transmit a wave suitable for of said re?ecting objects as a function of the re?ection by an intercepted object, a pair of di angle between the directional axis of one of said rectional energy collectors mounted aboard said energy collectors and a base line joining the foci vessel and spaced apart by a distance such as to form the base line in a. system of triangulation 45 45 of the two said energy collectors. 4. A system in accordance with claim 1 and where the other two sides or the triangle are con stituted by the directional axes 01' said energy further characterized in that said energy collec tors are symmetrically mounted in reference to collectors respectively, receiving means connected the axis or radiation of said radio beam projector. to said energy collectors and means for varying 5. In a system for warning 2. navigator of the the angles subtended between said base line and .50 15 dangerous proximity of an object with which his vessel might collide, a transmitter mounted aboard said vessel and having a directional radio beam projector adapted to be aimed along the 55 vessel's course, receiving apparatus having two sharply focussed energy collecting devices con nected thereto, said devices being rotatively ad; iustable so that the axes of their directional char acteristics may meet at a variable distance from 60 the vessel, means for indicating the intensity of the radio energy collected by said devices, and means operable, when said collected energy is a said other lines of the triangle while causing said receiving means to respond to the energies col lected, thereby to indicate the directional setting of said energy collectors suitable for maximum re ceiver response to energy re?ected by said object. 55 11. A distance determining system in accord ance with claim 10, and having a pointer-and scale mechanism connected to said directional energy collectors and arranged to indicate the distance separating said intercepted object from 60 the base line or the triangulation‘system as a function of the angles respectively subtended be maximum, for indicating the distance from said ? tween each of said directional axes of said energy collectors and said base line. vessel of an object by which said energy is re 65 ?ected upon said collecting devices after propaga tion from said projector. ms sc'naamo.