Патент USA US2116765код для вставки
May 10, 1938. E, H, ‘PAYNE ‘ ' 2,116,765 VISCOMETER Filed Sept. 4, 1936 25 . , lg“ ’ _ “7'4 ' ' lNVENTO-R @6’ Y -£Zme/?/i Payne ' I 824mm ATTORNEY V - atentecl May 10, 1938 2,116,765 Elmer- ii. Payne, W ver, illiL, amignor to Standard Oil Company, cam. Hit, a corpo ration of India Application Septcmr d, 1936, Serial No. 99,360 (Ci. 235-11) This invention: relates to viscometers and in of a viscometer\tube together with the over?ow particular to improved. means for withdrawing cup and the modi?ed withdrawal device, a por excess oil in the operation of viscometers such as tion of the tube and over?ow cup being broken Saybolt universal and Saybolt furol instruments. away; and It is common in viscometers for the measure ment of the viscosities of oil or other liquids to provide a tube to contain the liquid whose viscos Figure 6 is an enlarged vertical section of a‘ withdrawal tube tip of my device showing a mod ity is to be measured and to provide at the upper end of that tube an over?ow cup or gallery. This over?ow cup makes it possible to control with ac curacy the amount of liquid in the viscometer tube. The commonest instrument of this type is the well-known Saybolt instrument used in de-. termining the viscosities of petroleum products 15 and lubricants. This instrument and its use are described in the A. S. T. M. Standards published by the American Society for Testing Materials. The A. S. T. M. designation is D88—33. My in vention relates to an improvement in instruments 20 oi’ this type. One of the objects of my invention is to make possible the easier and more accurate withdrawal of liquid from the over?ow cup. Other objects of my invention are to provide excess oil with drawal means which can be conveniently oper ated, which can be installed on existing instru ments without di?iculty, which will operate in every instance in precisely the same way so that the human equation is eliminated, which will' avoid much of the mess and inconvenience inci dent to present operations, and which will have further advantages which will become apparent as the description of my invention proceeds. My invention will now be described more par 85 ticularly with reference to the accompanying drawing in which: Figure l is a top plan view of a Saybolt viscom eter, of the type sold by the American Instrument Company, provided with four viscometer tubes; Figure 2 is a sectional elevation taken along 40 the line 2-4 of Figure 1, showing the top of one of the viscometer tubes together with the corre sponding over?ow cup and withdrawal device, a ' portion of the tube and over?ow cup being broken away; i " Figure 2A is a fragmentary portion of my with ' i?ed valve means. Referring more particularly to Figure 1, it will be seen that cover 0 l at the top of the viscometer bath (not shown) is a?ixed to the body of the 10 bath by wing nuts H2. The viscometer shown has four viscometer tubes it, the tops of which are surrounded by over?ow cups M projecting through cover H. An opening it is provided for a bath thermometer and an opening It is pro 15 vided for stirring equipment (not shown)‘. All of ‘the foregoing parts are conventional. ' Figure 2 shows a portion of one of the viscom eter tubes it in elevation and shows the struc ture of over?ow cup it which projects above cov er H. In the use of this type of viscometer, the practice is to ?ll tube It, with the liquid whose viscosity is to be determined, to a level well above rim ll which forms the top of tube l3 as well as a rim of cup 14. The thermometer is then in serted in the liquid in tube l3 and the tempera ture is adjusted to the proper value. The ther mometer is then withdrawn and (according to the prior art method) excess oil is removed from over?ow cup H by manually inserting a pipette or suction tube into over?ow cup H to withdraw sui ?cient liquid to bring the liquid level in over?ow cup ll below the level of the liquid in tube IS. The test is then conducted by opening the bot .tom of tube 13 (not shown) and determining the time required for a speci?ed volume to drain from 20 25 30 35 tube ll. The equipment for accomplishing this is conventional and the procedure is extremely well-known. It is most important that the greatest care be 40 used in withdrawing the excess liquid from the over?ow cup since if the pipette or other with drawal device is allowed to touch overflow rim II, the over?ow rim may be damaged and the liquid meniscus at the top of tube It! will in 45 evitably be altered. I have found that this cre Figure 4 is ‘a transverse sectional elevation through the pivot and valve portion of my de ates very important errors in the readings ob tained from the viscometer. Furthermore, appa= ratus of this type is usually operated by rather low grade operators and it is practically inevitable 50 that the pipette or withdrawal device will be used carelessly, for instance by running it around vice; the over?ow cup in such way as to damage rim drawal device ‘showing a. modi?ed withdrawal tube tip; Figure 3 is a vertical elevation showing the 50 valve and pivot portion of my withdrawal device; . Figure 5 is a sectional elevation of a modi?ed l1 and alter the oil surface at the top of tube l3. 55 form of my withdrawal device showing the top My invention overcomes these difficulties and 2 2,116,765 provides simple and convenient apparatus for withdrawing excess oil from the over?ow cup. It also avoids much of the mess and inconvenience occasioned by the use of a pipette. The withdrawal device of my invention com prises a main suction tube |8 closed at one end and connected at the other end to a source of suction not shown. When used in connection with instruments having a plurality of viscometer 10 tubes, this main suction tube acts as a manifold to which individual withdrawal devices for each vis cometer tube are attached. However, it should be understood that precisely similar equipment can be used to advantage in connection with a 15 viscometer having a single tube. A take-oil‘ suc tion tube l9 rises from main suction tube l8 in the vicinity of each viscometer tube, as best shown in Figures 2 and 3. This take-oil’ suction tube con nects with a pivot and valve device consisting of 20 a stationary member 20 and a rotatable member 2|. These two members are held together by a bolt 22 which passes through them and by a spring 23 which cooperates with bolt 22, as shown in Figure 3, to exert pressure on members 20 and 25 2| to hold them tightly together. The inner faces of these two members are, of course,1‘carefully machined so that they will ?t tightly without leakage. , As shown in Figures 3 and 4, members 28 and 30 2| each contain a channel having a right angle bend. These channels are made by drilling two holes, one parallel to the faces of members 28 and 2| and one at right angles to those faces. The two holes meet and connect to form the 35 channel. Hole 24 in stationary member 28 com municates with the interior of take-off tube l8 which is integrally attached to member 28. Hole 25 in member 28 and hole 26 in member 2| are so positioned with respect to each other that 40 they will be in alignment when movable member 2| is in one de?nite position. Figure 4 shows these two channels in alignment to form a con tinuous suction passage. / Attached to movable member 2| in alignment 45 with hole 21 therein is a curved withdrawal tube 28. When this withdrawal tube is pulled down ward to the position shown in full lines in Fig ure 2, it extends into over?ow cup I4 without touching rim |‘|. Withdrawal tube 28 contains 50 a notch 29 so that it can exert suction even though it is against the bottom of over?ow cup l4. This same result can, of course, be accom plished as shown in Figure 2A by slanting the end 28a of withdrawal tube 28 so that it will not in iii completely contact the ?oor of over?ow cup H. When withdrawal tube 28-is in the operative po sition, i. e. when it projects into over?ow cup II, the channels in valve members 28 and 2| are in alignment so that suction is exerted through 60 main suction line I8, take-oi! suction line l9, the channels in valve and pivot‘ members 28 and 2| and withdrawal tube 28. Thusyexcess oil is re moved from over?ow cup I! and this withdrawal 'is accomplished without any possibility of the withdrawal device touching the walls of over?ow cup ll (and particularly rim |'|) since the device is permanently positioned in such manner that this is impossible. The device will act in precise ly the same way when repeatedly used and thus tests can be accurately reproduced and accu rately compared to an extent not possible with the ordinary withdrawal procedure. When withdrawal tube 28 is lifted to the posi tion shown in dotted lines in Figure 2, the chan 75 nels in members 28 and 2| are out of alignment and the suction effect automatically ceases. In Figure 1 the second withdrawal device is shown in lowered or operative position and the other three are shown in raised or inoperative position. The whole withdrawal equipment can very readily be attached to existing viscometers since it is only necessary to attach withdrawal suction tube ill to the top of the viscometer by brackets 38 or otherwise. It is not necessary to use combination valve 10 and pivot devices. Thus as shown in Figure 5 the withdrawal tubes can be connected to the main suction tube by simple pivot or swing joints 30' and the suction can be controlled by spring type valves located near the free ends of the with 15 drawal tubes as shown in Figures 5 and 6. These valves can be independently opened manually against the spring pressure of valve 3| of Figure 5 or can be made to operate by the pressure of the tip of the withdrawal tube against the ?oor of the over?ow cup as the valve assembly 32 shown in Figure 6 in which a disc valve 33 provided with a projection 34. is forced against a valve seat 35 by a spring coil 36. The spring coil 36 is positioned about the valve stem 31 which reciprocates through the valve stem guide member 38. When the withdrawal tube 28 is lifted out of contact with the bottom of the over ?ow cup H the spring 38 forces the disc valve 33 against the valve seat 35 thereby shutting off 30 the suction. When the withdrawal tube 28 is brought in contact with the bottom of the over ?ow cup H the projection 34 of the disc valve 33 forces the valve 33 away from the valve seat 35 thereby opening the suction line and permit 35 ting the withdrawal of the oil from the over?ow cup l4 through the withdrawal tube 28 and suc tion line l8. ' While I have described my invention in con nection with certain speci?c embodiments there of, it is to be understood that these are by way of illustration rather than by way of limitation and I do not mean to be limited thereby but only to the scope of the appended claims which should be construed as broadly as the prior art will permit. I claim: 1. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over ?ow cup surrounding the top of said tube, a suction line, a withdrawal tube cooperating with said suction line and adapted to cooperate with said over?ow cup to withdraw excess liquid there from, said excess liquid being withdrawn through said withdrawal tube and said suction line, and valve means associated with said withdrawal tube. , ' 2. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over ?ow cup surrounding the top of said tube, the top of said tube projecting slightly into said over?ow cup, a suction line in ?xed position, a.v withdrawal tube, said withdrawal tube being movable between an operative position in‘ which one end thereof projects into said over?ow cup without touching the top of said viscometer tube and an inoperative position in which said end is remote from said cup, and means connecting said suction line and said withdrawal tube to permit relative motion of said withdrawal tube with re spect to said suction line and to control the mo tion of said withdrawal tube so that it can have 70 one and only one operative position. , 3. In combination, a viscometer-tube, an over-_ flow cup surrounding the top of said tube, a suc tion line, a pivot device attached to said suction line, said pivot device having a passage there a1 raves through communicating with said suction line, and a withdrawal tube attached at one end to said pivot device and communicating with said passage, the end of said ‘withdrawal tube oppo site the end attached to said pivot device being adapted to project into said over?ow cup at a ?xed position therein. 4. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over ?ow cup surrounding the top of said tube, the 10 top rim of said tube projecting slightly into said over?ow cup, a suction line in ?xed position, a withdrawal tube, said withdrawal tube being mov able between an operative position in which one endlthereoi’ projects into said over?ow cup with 15 out touching the top rim of said viscometer tube and an inoperative position in which said end is remote from said overflow cup, means connecting said suction line and said withdrawal tube adapt ed to permit relative motion of said withdrawal 20 tube with respect to said suction line and to con trol the motion of said withdrawal tube so that it'can have one and only one operative posi tion, said means providing a suction passage from said suction line to said withdrawal tube when 25 said withdrawal tube is in said operative posi tion and serving to interrupt said passage when vsaid withdrawal tube is in inoperative position. 5. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over flow cup surrounding the top of said tube, the 30 top rim of said tube projecting slightly into said of said combination valve and pivot device be tween an operative position in which the free end of said withdrawal tube projects into said over flow cup without touching the top rim of said viscometer tube and an inoperative position in which said free end is remote from said over?ow cup, said combination valve and pivot device be-' ing provided with a passage, a portionof which is located within said ?xed member and communi cates with the interior of said suction line, an 10 other portion of which is located within said mov able member and communicates with the in terior of said withdrawal tube, said two portions of said channel terminating at said surface of relative motion between said two members, said 15 terminals of said two portions of said channel be ing adapted to align with each other when said withdrawal tube is in said operative position, whereby a continuous suction passage is provided from said suction line to said withdrawal tube when said withdrawal tube is in said operative position, said terminals of said. two portions of said channel being adapted to be out of align ment with each other to form a closed valve be tween said suction line and said withdrawal tube 25 when said withdrawal tube is in said inoperative position. 7. In combination, a viscometer having a plu rality of viscometer tubes, each of said viscometer tubes being provided with an over?ow cup sur 30 over?ow cup, a suction line, a combination valve rounding the top of each tube, a main suction and pivot device attached to said suction line, line, an off-take suction line for each of said vis cometer tubes, a withdrawal tube cooperating with each of said off-take suction lines and adapt ed to cooperate with one of said over?ow cups to 35 withdraw excess liquid therefrom, said excess said device having a passage therethrough, one end of said passage communicating with said suc tion line, and a withdrawal tube attached at one end to said combination valve and pivot device and communicating with the other end of said ‘ =1 go. said withdrawal tube being movable by virtue of said combination valve and pivot device iii between an operative position in which the free end of said withdrawal tube projects into said over?ow cup without touching the top rim of said viscometer tube and an inoperative position in which said free end is remote from said over ?ow cup, said passage being uninterrupted when said withdrawal tube is in operative position and interrupted when said withdrawal tube is in in operative position. 6. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over 50 ?ow cup surrounding the top of said tube, the top rim of said tube projecting slightly into said over ?ow cup, a suction line, a combination valve and pivot device comprising a ?xed member and a movable member, means for holding said two members in juxtaposition at a surface of relative motion between said two members, said ?xed member being attached to said suction line, a withdrawal tube attached to said movable mem ber, said withdrawal tube being movable by virtue liquid being withdrawn through said withdrawal tube, said off-take suction lines and said main suc tion line, and valve means associated with each 40 withdrawal tube. 8. In combination a viscometer having a plu rality of viscometer tubes, said viscometer tubes each being provided with an over?ow cup sur rounding the top of said tube, a main suction line, an off-take suction line for each of said 45 viscometer tubes, a withdrawal tube cooperating with each of said o?-take suction lines, and means disposed between each of said off-take tubes and the corresponding withdrawal tube for providing relative motion therebetween, each of 5th said withdrawal tubes being adapted to cooperate with one of said over?ow cups to withdraw excess liquid therefrom, said excess liquid being with‘ drawn through said withdrawal tube, said ofi take suction line and said main suction line. 9. The combination of claim 8 in which saio means are combination valve and pivot devices ELMER H. PAYNE.