close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2116765

код для вставки
May 10, 1938.
E, H, ‘PAYNE
‘
'
2,116,765
VISCOMETER
Filed Sept. 4, 1936
25
.
,
lg“
’
_
“7'4
'
'
lNVENTO-R
@6’ Y -£Zme/?/i Payne
'
I
824mm
ATTORNEY
V
-
atentecl May 10, 1938
2,116,765
Elmer- ii. Payne, W
ver, illiL, amignor to
Standard Oil Company,
cam. Hit, a corpo
ration of India
Application Septcmr d, 1936, Serial No. 99,360
(Ci. 235-11)
This invention: relates to viscometers and in of a viscometer\tube together with the over?ow
particular to improved. means for withdrawing
cup and the modi?ed withdrawal device, a por
excess oil in the operation of viscometers such as
tion of the tube and over?ow cup being broken
Saybolt universal and Saybolt furol instruments.
away; and
It is common in viscometers for the measure
ment of the viscosities of oil or other liquids to
provide a tube to contain the liquid whose viscos
Figure 6 is an enlarged vertical section of a‘
withdrawal tube tip of my device showing a mod
ity is to be measured and to provide at the upper
end of that tube an over?ow cup or gallery. This
over?ow cup makes it possible to control with ac
curacy the amount of liquid in the viscometer
tube. The commonest instrument of this type is
the well-known Saybolt instrument used in de-.
termining the viscosities of petroleum products
15 and lubricants. This instrument and its use are
described in the A. S. T. M. Standards published
by the American Society for Testing Materials.
The A. S. T. M. designation is D88—33. My in
vention relates to an improvement in instruments
20 oi’ this type.
One of the objects of my invention is to make
possible the easier and more accurate withdrawal
of liquid from the over?ow cup. Other objects
of my invention are to provide excess oil with
drawal means which can be conveniently oper
ated, which can be installed on existing instru
ments without di?iculty, which will operate in
every instance in precisely the same way so that
the human equation is eliminated, which will'
avoid much of the mess and inconvenience inci
dent to present operations, and which will have
further advantages which will become apparent
as the description of my invention proceeds.
My invention will now be described more par
85 ticularly with reference to the accompanying
drawing in which:
Figure l is a top plan view of a Saybolt viscom
eter, of the type sold by the American Instrument
Company, provided with four viscometer tubes;
Figure 2 is a sectional elevation taken along
40
the line 2-4 of Figure 1, showing the top of one
of the viscometer tubes together with the corre
sponding over?ow cup and withdrawal device, a
' portion of the tube and over?ow cup being broken
away;
i
" Figure 2A is a fragmentary portion of my with
'
i?ed valve means.
Referring more particularly to Figure 1, it will
be seen that cover 0 l at the top of the viscometer
bath (not shown) is a?ixed to the body of the 10
bath by wing nuts H2. The viscometer shown
has four viscometer tubes it, the tops of which
are surrounded by over?ow cups M projecting
through cover H. An opening it is provided for
a bath thermometer and an opening It is pro
15
vided for stirring equipment (not shown)‘. All of
‘the foregoing parts are conventional.
' Figure 2 shows a portion of one of the viscom
eter tubes it in elevation and shows the struc
ture of over?ow cup it which projects above cov
er H. In the use of this type of viscometer, the
practice is to ?ll tube It, with the liquid whose
viscosity is to be determined, to a level well above
rim ll which forms the top of tube l3 as well as
a rim of cup 14. The thermometer is then in
serted in the liquid in tube l3 and the tempera
ture is adjusted to the proper value. The ther
mometer is then withdrawn and (according to the
prior art method) excess oil is removed from
over?ow cup H by manually inserting a pipette or
suction tube into over?ow cup H to withdraw sui
?cient liquid to bring the liquid level in over?ow
cup ll below the level of the liquid in tube IS.
The test is then conducted by opening the bot
.tom of tube 13 (not shown) and determining the
time required for a speci?ed volume to drain from
20
25
30
35
tube ll. The equipment for accomplishing this
is conventional and the procedure is extremely
well-known.
It is most important that the greatest care be 40
used in withdrawing the excess liquid from the
over?ow cup since if the pipette or other with
drawal device is allowed to touch overflow rim
II, the over?ow rim may be damaged and the
liquid meniscus at the top of tube It! will in 45
evitably be altered. I have found that this cre
Figure 4 is ‘a transverse sectional elevation
through the pivot and valve portion of my de
ates very important errors in the readings ob
tained from the viscometer. Furthermore, appa=
ratus of this type is usually operated by rather
low grade operators and it is practically inevitable 50
that the pipette or withdrawal device will be
used carelessly, for instance by running it around
vice;
the over?ow cup in such way as to damage rim
drawal device ‘showing a. modi?ed withdrawal
tube tip;
Figure 3 is a vertical elevation showing the
50 valve and pivot portion of my withdrawal device;
.
Figure 5 is a sectional elevation of a modi?ed
l1 and alter the oil surface at the top of tube l3.
55 form of my withdrawal device showing the top
My invention overcomes these difficulties and
2
2,116,765
provides simple and convenient apparatus for
withdrawing excess oil from the over?ow cup. It
also avoids much of the mess and inconvenience
occasioned by the use of a pipette.
The withdrawal device of my invention com
prises a main suction tube |8 closed at one end
and connected at the other end to a source of
suction not shown. When used in connection
with instruments having a plurality of viscometer
10 tubes, this main suction tube acts as a manifold to
which individual withdrawal devices for each vis
cometer tube are attached.
However, it should
be understood that precisely similar equipment
can be used to advantage in connection with a
15 viscometer having a single tube. A take-oil‘ suc
tion tube l9 rises from main suction tube l8 in the
vicinity of each viscometer tube, as best shown in
Figures 2 and 3. This take-oil’ suction tube con
nects with a pivot and valve device consisting of
20 a stationary member 20 and a rotatable member
2|. These two members are held together by a
bolt 22 which passes through them and by a
spring 23 which cooperates with bolt 22, as shown
in Figure 3, to exert pressure on members 20 and
25 2| to hold them tightly together. The inner faces
of these two members are, of course,1‘carefully
machined so that they will ?t tightly without
leakage.
,
As shown in Figures 3 and 4, members 28 and
30 2| each contain a channel having a right angle
bend. These channels are made by drilling two
holes, one parallel to the faces of members 28
and 2| and one at right angles to those faces.
The two holes meet and connect to form the
35 channel. Hole 24 in stationary member 28 com
municates with the interior of take-off tube l8
which is integrally attached to member 28. Hole
25 in member 28 and hole 26 in member 2| are
so positioned with respect to each other that
40 they will be in alignment when movable member
2| is in one de?nite position. Figure 4 shows
these two channels in alignment to form a con
tinuous suction passage.
/
Attached to movable member 2| in alignment
45 with hole 21 therein is a curved withdrawal tube
28. When this withdrawal tube is pulled down
ward to the position shown in full lines in Fig
ure 2, it extends into over?ow cup I4 without
touching rim |‘|. Withdrawal tube 28 contains
50 a notch 29 so that it can exert suction even
though it is against the bottom of over?ow cup
l4. This same result can, of course, be accom
plished as shown in Figure 2A by slanting the
end 28a of withdrawal tube 28 so that it will not
in iii completely contact the ?oor of over?ow cup H.
When withdrawal tube 28-is in the operative po
sition, i. e. when it projects into over?ow cup II,
the channels in valve members 28 and 2| are in
alignment so that suction is exerted through
60 main suction line I8, take-oi! suction line l9, the
channels in valve and pivot‘ members 28 and 2|
and withdrawal tube 28. Thusyexcess oil is re
moved from over?ow cup I! and this withdrawal
'is accomplished without any possibility of the
withdrawal device touching the walls of over?ow
cup ll (and particularly rim |'|) since the device
is permanently positioned in such manner that
this is impossible. The device will act in precise
ly the same way when repeatedly used and thus
tests can be accurately reproduced and accu
rately compared to an extent not possible with
the ordinary withdrawal procedure.
When withdrawal tube 28 is lifted to the posi
tion shown in dotted lines in Figure 2, the chan
75 nels in members 28 and 2| are out of alignment
and the suction effect automatically ceases. In
Figure 1 the second withdrawal device is shown
in lowered or operative position and the other
three are shown in raised or inoperative position.
The whole withdrawal equipment can very
readily be attached to existing viscometers since
it is only necessary to attach withdrawal suction
tube ill to the top of the viscometer by brackets
38 or otherwise.
It is not necessary to use combination valve 10
and pivot devices. Thus as shown in Figure 5
the withdrawal tubes can be connected to the
main suction tube by simple pivot or swing joints
30' and the suction can be controlled by spring
type valves located near the free ends of the with 15
drawal tubes as shown in Figures 5 and 6. These
valves can be independently opened manually
against the spring pressure of valve 3| of Figure
5 or can be made to operate by the pressure
of the tip of the withdrawal tube against the
?oor of the over?ow cup as the valve assembly
32 shown in Figure 6 in which a disc valve 33
provided with a projection 34. is forced against
a valve seat 35 by a spring coil 36. The spring
coil 36 is positioned about the valve stem 31
which reciprocates through the valve stem guide
member 38. When the withdrawal tube 28 is
lifted out of contact with the bottom of the over
?ow cup H the spring 38 forces the disc valve
33 against the valve seat 35 thereby shutting off 30
the suction. When the withdrawal tube 28 is
brought in contact with the bottom of the over
?ow cup H the projection 34 of the disc valve
33 forces the valve 33 away from the valve seat
35 thereby opening the suction line and permit 35
ting the withdrawal of the oil from the over?ow
cup l4 through the withdrawal tube 28 and suc
tion line l8.
'
While I have described my invention in con
nection with certain speci?c embodiments there
of, it is to be understood that these are by way
of illustration rather than by way of limitation
and I do not mean to be limited thereby but
only to the scope of the appended claims which
should be construed as broadly as the prior art
will permit.
I claim:
1. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over
?ow cup surrounding the top of said tube, a
suction line, a withdrawal tube cooperating with
said suction line and adapted to cooperate with
said over?ow cup to withdraw excess liquid there
from, said excess liquid being withdrawn through
said withdrawal tube and said suction line, and
valve means associated with said withdrawal
tube.
,
'
2. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over
?ow cup surrounding the top of said tube, the
top of said tube projecting slightly into said
over?ow cup, a suction line in ?xed position, a.v
withdrawal tube, said withdrawal tube being
movable between an operative position in‘ which
one end thereof projects into said over?ow cup
without touching the top of said viscometer tube
and an inoperative position in which said end is
remote from said cup, and means connecting said
suction line and said withdrawal tube to permit
relative motion of said withdrawal tube with re
spect to said suction line and to control the mo
tion of said withdrawal tube so that it can have 70
one and only one operative position.
,
3. In combination, a viscometer-tube, an over-_
flow cup surrounding the top of said tube, a suc
tion line, a pivot device attached to said suction
line, said pivot device having a passage there
a1 raves
through communicating with said suction line,
and a withdrawal tube attached at one end to
said pivot device and communicating with said
passage, the end of said ‘withdrawal tube oppo
site the end attached to said pivot device being
adapted to project into said over?ow cup at a
?xed position therein.
4. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over
?ow cup surrounding the top of said tube, the
10 top rim of said tube projecting slightly into said
over?ow cup, a suction line in ?xed position, a
withdrawal tube, said withdrawal tube being mov
able between an operative position in which one
endlthereoi’ projects into said over?ow cup with
15 out touching the top rim of said viscometer tube
and an inoperative position in which said end is
remote from said overflow cup, means connecting
said suction line and said withdrawal tube adapt
ed to permit relative motion of said withdrawal
20 tube with respect to said suction line and to con
trol the motion of said withdrawal tube so that
it'can have one and only one operative posi
tion, said means providing a suction passage from
said suction line to said withdrawal tube when
25 said withdrawal tube is in said operative posi
tion and serving to interrupt said passage when
vsaid withdrawal tube is in inoperative position.
5. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over
flow cup surrounding the top of said tube, the
30 top rim of said tube projecting slightly into said
of said combination valve and pivot device be
tween an operative position in which the free end
of said withdrawal tube projects into said over
flow cup without touching the top rim of said
viscometer tube and an inoperative position in
which said free end is remote from said over?ow
cup, said combination valve and pivot device be-'
ing provided with a passage, a portionof which is
located within said ?xed member and communi
cates with the interior of said suction line, an 10
other portion of which is located within said mov
able member and communicates with the in
terior of said withdrawal tube, said two portions
of said channel terminating at said surface of
relative motion between said two members, said 15
terminals of said two portions of said channel be
ing adapted to align with each other when said
withdrawal tube is in said operative position,
whereby a continuous suction passage is provided
from said suction line to said withdrawal tube
when said withdrawal tube is in said operative
position, said terminals of said. two portions of
said channel being adapted to be out of align
ment with each other to form a closed valve be
tween said suction line and said withdrawal tube 25
when said withdrawal tube is in said inoperative
position.
7. In combination, a viscometer having a plu
rality of viscometer tubes, each of said viscometer
tubes being provided with an over?ow cup sur
30
over?ow cup, a suction line, a combination valve
rounding the top of each tube, a main suction
and pivot device attached to said suction line,
line, an off-take suction line for each of said vis
cometer tubes, a withdrawal tube cooperating
with each of said off-take suction lines and adapt
ed to cooperate with one of said over?ow cups to 35
withdraw excess liquid therefrom, said excess
said device having a passage therethrough, one
end of said passage communicating with said suc
tion line, and a withdrawal tube attached at one
end to said combination valve and pivot device
and communicating with the other end of said
‘ =1 go. said withdrawal tube being movable by
virtue of said combination valve and pivot device
iii between an operative position in which the free
end of said withdrawal tube projects into said
over?ow cup without touching the top rim of
said viscometer tube and an inoperative position
in which said free end is remote from said over
?ow cup, said passage being uninterrupted when
said withdrawal tube is in operative position and
interrupted when said withdrawal tube is in in
operative position.
6. In combination, a viscometer tube, an over
50 ?ow cup surrounding the top of said tube, the top
rim of said tube projecting slightly into said over
?ow cup, a suction line, a combination valve and
pivot device comprising a ?xed member and a
movable member, means for holding said two
members in juxtaposition at a surface of relative
motion between said two members, said ?xed
member being attached to said suction line, a
withdrawal tube attached to said movable mem
ber, said withdrawal tube being movable by virtue
liquid being withdrawn through said withdrawal
tube, said off-take suction lines and said main suc
tion line, and valve means associated with each
40
withdrawal tube.
8. In combination a viscometer having a plu
rality of viscometer tubes, said viscometer tubes
each being provided with an over?ow cup sur
rounding the top of said tube, a main suction
line, an off-take suction line for each of said 45
viscometer tubes, a withdrawal tube cooperating
with each of said o?-take suction lines, and
means disposed between each of said off-take
tubes and the corresponding withdrawal tube for
providing relative motion therebetween, each of 5th
said withdrawal tubes being adapted to cooperate
with one of said over?ow cups to withdraw excess
liquid therefrom, said excess liquid being with‘
drawn through said withdrawal tube, said ofi
take suction line and said main suction line.
9. The combination of claim 8 in which saio
means are combination valve and pivot devices
ELMER H. PAYNE.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
570 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа