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Патент USA US2116818

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May 10, 1938.
El w_ AUSTLN
2,116,818
. PROPELLER
Filed June 6. 1956
.
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3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR‘.
May 10, 1938.
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E. w. AUSTIN
PROPELLER
_Filed June 6, 1956
2,116,818
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I5 Sheets-Sheet 2
IN
may m, 1938.
E. W. AUSTIN
2,116,818
PROPELLER
Filed June e, 1956
3 smeg-sheet 3
INVENTOR,
Patènled May l0, 1938
- 2,116,818
UNITED STATES .PATENT OFFICE
V
2,116,818
PROPELLER
4
Ellsworth W.> Austin, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Application June 6, 1936, Serial No. 83,912
14 Claims.
This invention relates to automatic variable
pitch propellers and more particularly to the type
wherein the blades may be retained at any se
U!
lected position of adjustment.
Heretofore, automatic variable pitch propeller-s
have been found to be lacking in advantages
which are present in propellers that may be con
trolled by the operator. There is a distinct ad
vantage in many instances. in having the blades
lo remaining fixed in their adjustment rather than
to have them constantly changing as in the case
with most types of automatic propellers. ' In op
erating a device constructed in accordance with
my latest invention, the engine may be acceler
llö ated to any desired speed and by a simple con
trol means the blades retained in the adjusted
position acquired when operating as an auto
matic adjustable propeller. Likewise if a low
pitch adjustment of the propeller blades is de
20 sired even though the engine may be accelerated
to a relatively high speed, such as might be the
case in taking oiî, this low pitch may be retained
by the simple hydraulic valve control.
Hence, one of the objects of my invention is to
25 provide an automatic propeller constructed for
the purpose of applying control means to retain
any selected position of adjustment.
Another object ‘of the invention is to provide
a simple positive lever device to turn the pro
30 pellerblades by centrifugal force.
.
Another object is to provide a suitable resist
ing spring to balance the net force tending to
advance the pitch.
n _
Another object of the invention is to provide an
hydraulic cylinder with piston arranged to secure
any desired adjustment of the blades when an
operating valve is closed.
. An object is also to provide an automatic va
L riable pitch propeller that is safe, durable, light
in weight, and easilyrnanufactured at a relatively
iov! cost.
These and further objects will 'oe more fully
.videnced from a study of the following descrip
im. and accompanying drawings, wherein like
1acters represent like parts throughout the
._ .. l „ral Views:
Fig. l is a rear View7 of a propeller embodying
one form of the present invention, the blades
. .ing partially broken away.
(ci. 17o-_163)
Fig. 4 is a top view of one of the three point
levers.
Fig.
shown
Fig.
of the
Fig.
_
5 is an end view of the annular member
in Fig. 2.
6 is a fragmental view showing a portion
annular member and lock ring.
7 is a top plan view of one of the blades.
Referring to the drawings, and more particular
ly to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, wherein a three bladed
propeller is shown in general to comprise a hub
I0 with stub portions II upon which are mounted
shell blades I2. Conventional thrust and radial
bearings I4 and I5 are respectively secured to
the stubs Il by threaded Spanner nuts I6, and
lock nuls I1 and I8. Locks I9 are positioned
between nuts I1 and IB in the usual method, en
gagement of the locks being made with l-:eyways
20 cut in the stubs. One of these keyways is
shown in
2. An intermediate collar. 2l is
provided to retain the rollers of thrust bearing N0
I4. Also a shoulder collar 22 is provided outside
the radial bearing I5 for the purpose of definitely
locating the end of propeller blade I2 during'the
assembly of the same within the >blade sleeve I3.
'I'he latter being scallopped along its outer edge
for depositing an electrically welded bead at 23
to unite the blade I2 with sleeve I3 as a solid as
sembly. A sealing Washer 24 is provided at the
base of each blade and further, packing 25 is
added to retain the grease in and around the 30
bearings.
A seal 26 is incorporated within radial
bearing l5 and conventional pressure grease f1t
tings 2l are provided in the usual manner being
tapped into the cylindrical surface of the blade
sleeves
I3.
_
_
Referring to hub l0 it will be understood that
the usual splines |09 are provided for mating with
corresponding splines on an engine shaft, a por
tion of which is shown in Fig. 2 as IûI and con
Ventional conc Ill2 is used to space the propeller 40
on the engine shaft while the usual split cone
|03 and Spanner nut |64 provide means for draw
ing the hub snugly into place on the engine
shaft
IUI.
,
Further> referring to hub I0 it will be noted 45
that an axially extended portion provides a
smooth cylindrical bore at |05 into which is fitted
piston IUE. with cup packings I0' and 1I pro
vided back to back in a manner conventional for
two. way hydraulically operated cylinders.
IDB 50
Fig. 2 is a side elevation partiaily in section, ‘ is a thin spring washer having its outer lip in
taizen along the irregu
r line ‘2--2 of Fig. l.
Fig. 3 is a rear View oi' a modifica
deviceshowing a two bladed propelle. a.;angeen Gl ment.
the form of extending lingers pressing outward to
insure a scaling of the inner cup packing 1I. As
a support for the cup packings IIJ‘I` and 1I and
spring washer Hi8, a flanged piston core |09 is
2
2,116,818
provided and threaded externally to receive the
inner collar ||| which is welded as a part of the
annular member assembly generally designated
as H0. A taper threaded locking bushing 2B is
causing an unwrapping or outward motion of
these in respect to the propeller hub and conse
quently annular member |||I` is moved. Thenew
positions of levers after the outward movement
mentioned, maybe such as shown by solid lines
screwed within the piston 'core |09 to bind the
inner collar ||| in a manner often. employed.
Further referring to annular member H0, it- will
on the drawings and indicated as B. Ball ends
43 provide universal connections for the levers
be noted that this is arranged concentrically
with the propeller hub and has the spider || 3
that the aforementioned unwrapping may not be
restricted within the working range.
10 securely welded to the sleeve H2.
A slightly
Ball ends 4|~ likewise connect adjacent blade 10
turned up flange on the outer end of the latter -members, one being universally connected in a
being provided for location at assembly. Sockets socket on the leading side of one blade and the
||4 are equally spaced about the outer flange of ' other in a socket on the trailing side of an ad
the spider ||3 and have locating stems 3| -pierc . jacent blade. Thus as wrapping or unwrapping
ing the outer flange of the spider.
of the levers occurs, a responsive tilting of the 15
In order to guide the annular member and re
tain it concentrically with the hub l0, an inter
nally threaded cap 32 is provided which has a
bushing 33 pressed in place as a wearing mem
20 ber. Cap 32 also provides a means to retain the
spring 34 which is of a type suitable to act under
combined torque and compression loads and is
arranged within the cylindrical portion of hub
I0 in such a manner that a compressive bearing
25 of the spring >34 is had between the piston |06
and cap 32 and torsional resistance of the spring
is obtainedwhen the end of the inner most coil
is retained in a recess at 35 of the piston |06I and
the end of the outer most co'il is retained within
30 the hub at 36 in cap 32.
The propeller blade sleeves are provided with
universal connectors or ball sockets 40 which re
ceive the balls 4| of the three point lever 42. In
the case of a three bladed propeller as shown in
35 Fig. 1 a three» point -lever is lplaced between adja
cent blades and connected thereto to cause slight
change in blade pitch, when a thirdball 43- of the
~ lever 42, is moved by a‘ction of the receiving socket
||4. Plates 44 are arranged to retain the balls
43.` Bolts and nuts at 45 secure the plates 44 in
place.
'
' An examination of the three point levers 42 >
and the method of mounting them will point out
that in service their Weight will tend to> cause
these levers to be displaced radially bycentrifugal
action, in respect to the axis of the propeller. Be
cause of the universal connections at ||4 a ro
' tation is had of annular member | | D and likewise
an axial movement, for in changing positions
50 such for instance as from “A" to “B” shown in
Fig. land Fig. 2, the ball ends 43 of levers 42 are
considerably extended in a direction axial to the
hub and away from the blade centerline. .
_ Acting as counterweights aiiectedby centrif
55 ugal force, levers 42 are constructed with rela
tively massive central portions and light end por
tions. The central portions of the levers play an
important part as weight members, however in
general they are contributary- as links or levers
60 connecting adjacent blades for simultaneous ad
justment.
In the position A shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the
central portions of the levers 42 are moved in
ward to a considerable degree and-the rotative
65 movement of the annular member | I0 in a clock
wise direction viewed from the outer end as in
Fig. 5, is responsible for a sort of -Wrapping of
the levers about the hub I0. In the position of
full retraction the massive central portions of
70 levers 42 are practically brought to bear against
levers results in movement of the blades.
Thus it may be assured that movements of the
ball ends 4|, 4| take place about the center C of
each lever as shown in Fig. 4 and in equal
amounts. Further it may be assumed that move 20
ment of the previously- mentioned ball ends 43
may also be about the center C of each of their
respective levers. The latter movements, how
ever, are not geometrically _restricted to the planes
of the former, each moving in its individual spiral
or helix about the hub. In brief, an outward
movement of the central portion of a lever results
in rotation or tilting about the central point C
which is equidistant to ball ends 4|, 4| these be
ing arranged to freely self center, in their respec 30
tive universal connectors.
It should be note-d that in service the angularity
of the blades may alter in adjustment, nine de
g'rees or more and thus to accommodate the
slight variation in center distances between 85
sockets 40, 40 of adjacent blade members, it is
necessary to have the sockets bored cylindrical
as shown, where the balls 4|, 4| enter, such beingÍ
common ypractice and» often employed to allow a
slight slippage of the balls in the sockets to com 40
pensate for center distance variation. It should
be carefully noted from the drawings, especially
referring to Fig. 1 that universal connectors 40
are a snug ñt for the balls 4| in the directions in
which forces are applied.
'
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45
It should be noted that cap 32 provides'a
means for adjustment to vary the spring reaction
on the annular member. A locking sleeve 5| is
arranged with suitable splines to engage grooves
cut in the hub at 38. Fig. 6 best s_hows an ar 50
rangement for a projection of the locking sleeve
5| to engage suitable slots 50 in cap 32. A desired
adjustment for spring pressure may be made by
rotating the cap 32 and locking it in position as
will be readily understood. To further insure 55
the setting thus made, the headless set screw 3-'|
is provided in sleeve 5|.
Many aircraft engines are provided with hollow
propeller shafts and in this preferred embodiment
such an arrangement is made use of to conduct 60
ñuid such as oil from a reservoir not shown,
within the engine or aircraft. Likewise, a con
ventional shut-off valve not shown may be in
stalled in the fluid line to the propeller. In
service the valve normally remains open and in 85
most cases little or no fluid- pressure is applied
sumed that the device is being operated at a
speed sufficient to exert a centrifugal force on
to move piston |06, however, as the speed of ro
tation of the propeller increases the three point
links 42 will be urged outward by centrifugal force
and thus annular member H0 will be slightly 70
rotated and also forced outward in axial direc
tion which results in compressing spring 34 to a
degree where equilibrium is again established.
Now with the three point links 42 in a position
75 the massive central portions of the levers, thus
representing a relatively high speed of propeller 75
the hub.
'
Subsequently to the foregoing, it may be as--_
3
2,116,818
rotation and thus a corresponding advance in
means for moving the member comprising an
pitch adjustment of the blades I2 having been
obtained, it will be easily understood that, by
closing the fluid valve mentioned, further motion
of piston |06 will be arrested and thus the blade
adjustment retained. Obviously by varying the
speed of rotation with the valve open, the device
member to restrict the movement of the lever for
operates as a full automatic. On the other hand
when the valve is closed any desired setting may
be retained. It will be noted that pressure from
the spring to further retard the blade setting is
prevented by the non-compressible character
istic of the fluid in the cylinder, when the valve
in the line is closed.
Likewise a net force re
sulting from centrifugal action ’sufilciently great
to normally increase the blade setting, is arrested
under the same conditions, for the reversible or
two way arrangement of cup leathers |01 pre
hydraulically operated piston, a three point lever
universally connected at two of its points re
spectively to adjacent blades to adjust the pitch
thereof upon tilting of said lever, said third point
of said lever being universally connected to said
different adjustments of the blade.
.
4. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
variation, a member mounted on said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative thereto,
means for moving the member comprising an hy
draulically operated piston, a three point lever
universally connected at two of its points respec 15
tively to adjacent blades to adjust the> pitch
thereof upon tilting of said lever, said third point
of said lever being universally connected toI said
vents air passing and thus atmospheric pressure
member and to move in a helix or spiral path
is of suñlcient value to prevent movement of
piston |06.
In some instances, it is desirable to apply iluid
pressure to the piston and obtain characteristics
of operation suitable to' the needs of conditions
then encountered. It will be seen that the utility
of my propeller is considerably enhanced by being
applicable to various methods of control.
about the hub.
variation, a member mounted `on said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative thereto,
a three point lever universally connected at two 25
of its points -respectively to adjacent blades to ad
just the pitch thereof upon tilting of said lever,
said third point of said lever being universally '
connected to said member, the lever being so con
structed and arranged that centrifugal force up 30
on rotation of the hub may act on. the lever to
move the said third point of the lever in a helix
Referring to Fig. 3 wherein a two bladed pro
peller arrangement is provided, a universal con-nector socketöil is secured to the hub 6I at each
side to receive the ball connections of the three
point links 42 and obviously the functioning of
the device to alter the blade pitch and to be
operated by use of the piston |06, is for all prac
or spiral about the hub.
variation, a member mounted on said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative thereto, ’
a three point lever universally connected at two
of its points respectively to adjacent blades to ad
just the pitch thereof upon tilting of said lever, 40
said third point of said> lever being `universally
stood that the particular structures shown are
40 merely for the purpose of disclosing the develop
ment in the art and variations of the device may
be resorted to within the scope of the invention
and members shown may be omitted or others
connected to said member, the lever being so con
structed and arranged that centrifugal -force up
on rotation of the hub may act on the leversìto
added yet holding to the spirit'of the description
move the said third point of the lever.
45 and claims.
1. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
variation, a member mounted on said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative there
to, a spring arranged to move the member in one 50
direction and a three point lever universally
variation, `a member mounted on said hub for
50 both axial and rotary movement relative there~
to, a three point lever universally connected at
60
2. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
variation, a member mounted on said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative thereto,
a three point lever universally connected at two
65 of its points respectively to adjacent blades to
adjust the pitch thereof upon tilting of said
lever, said third point of said lever being uni
versally connected to said member, hydraulic
means for resisting action of said member to
70 give various adjusted positions of the same for
various blade adjustments.
-
3. An aircraft propeller comprisingA a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
variation, a member mounted on said hub for both
75 axial and rotary movement relative thereto,
'
'7. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
I claim as my invention:
, i
~
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch 35
tion with the three bladed arrangement.
Certain specific embodiments of my invention
have been described in detail yet it is to be under
tain different blade adjustments.
,
6. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
tical purposesthe same as described in connec
two of its points respectively to adjacent blades
-to adjust the pitch thereof upon tilting of said
lever, said third point of said lever being uni
55 versally connected to said member, means for
positioning said member at various adjusted
positions thereof to thereby maintain said third
point of said lever in different positions to main-
20
,
5. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
connected at one of its points to move the mem
ber in the other direction, said lever connected
at two of its'said points respectively to adjacent
blades to adjust the pitch thereof upon tilting 55
of the lever.
_
i
-
8. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
variation, a member mounted on ‘said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative thereto, 60
a springarranged to move the member in one di
rection and a three point lever universally con
nected at one of its points to move the member
in the other direction, said lever connected at
ytwo of its said points ‘respectively to adjacent 65
blades to adjust the pitch thereof 'upon tilting
of the lever, means for positioning said member
at various adjusted positions thereof to there
by maintain different adjustments of a blade.
9. An aircraft propeller comprising a’ hub, 70
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
variation, a member mounted on said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative there
to, a three point lever universally connected at
two of its points respectively- to a blade and to
2,116,818
4
the hub to adjust the pitch of the blade upon
tilting of said lever, said third point of said lever
being universally connected to said member,
means for positioning said member at various
adjusted positions thereof to thereby maintain
said third point of said. lever in diiîerent posi
tions to maintain different blade adjustments.
10. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
10 variation, a member mounted 'on said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative thereto,
a three point lever universally connected at two
of its points respectively to a blade and to the
hub to adjust the pitch of the blade upon tilting
15 of said lever, _said third point of said lever be
ing universally connected to said member, the
lever being so constructed and arranged that cen
trifugal force may act on the’ lever to move the
both axial and rotary movement relative there
to, a three point lever and universal connec
tions for each of the said three points of the
lever to operatively connect the lever to a blade
and to the hub and to said member, the lever
being so constructed and arranged that combined
axial and rotary movement of the member rmay
vary the pitch of the blade.
'13. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
variation, a member mounted on said hub for
both axial and rotary movement relative there
to, a three point lever and universal connections ‘
for each of the said three points .of the lever to
operatively connect the lever to a blade and to
the hub and to said member, the lever being so
constructed and `arranged that when centrifugal
force is effective on the lever an axial and rotary
movement is imparted to the member, a tilting
f of the lever Vresults and the pitch of the blade
1l.
An
aircraft
propeller
comprising
a
hub,
20
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch is varied.
14. A propeller comprising a hub, blades ad
variation, a member mounted on said hub for
just'ably mounted on said hub for pitch variation,
both axial and rotary movement relative there
to, a three point lever universally connected at a member mounted on the hub comprising con
member.
`
25 two of its points respectively to a blade and to
the hub to adjust the pitch of the blade upon
tilting of said lever, said third point of said lever
being universally connected to said member, the
lever being so constructed and arranged that
30 centrifugal force may act on the lever to move
the member, a spring means one end of which is '
arranged to bear on the member and the other
end to bear on the hub to resist the movement
35
of the member both axially and rotatively.
12. An aircraft propeller comprising a hub,
blades adjustably mounted on said hub for pitch
variation, a member mounted on said hub for
nection points to move in the path of a helix,
centrifugally responsive- three point levers nor
mally more or less Wrapped about the hub and
universally connected at two of said points re
spectively to adjacent blades to adjust the pitch
Ythereof upon tilting of said lever, said third
point of said levers being universally connected
to said member at said connection points to take
the path of the helix to actuate the member and
for centrifugal unwrapping of the lever from the
hub.
-
.
ELISWORTH W. AUSTIN.
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