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Патент USA US2116820

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May 10, 1938.
Filed Oct. 16, 1956
Patented May 10, 1938
2116,8202 '
Marc Birkigt, Bois-Colombes, France
Application October 16, 1936, Serial No. 106,033
In Belgium September 11, 1936
(01. mass)
7 The present invention relates to percussion
with a chamber 2 in which are housed a
fuses for projectiles adapted to turn about their rear end element
3 and-a detonator 4, this cham
axis along their trajectory, and it is more espe ' priming
her being closed toward the front by thebody of
cially, although not exclusively, concerned with
fuses'ofthisv kind for projectiles of small calibre.
I The object of the present invention is to pro
vide a fuse of this kind which is better adapted
to meet the requirements of practice than other
fuses of the same kind made up to the present
According to an essential feature of the pres:
ent invention, the striker of the fuse is provided
with a ‘locking pin or the like which locks the
striker for a certain length of time and which is
ejected from its housing by the centrifugal accel
eration resulting from the rotation of the pro,
jectile- about its'axis, and said locking element is
kept in active position, when the projectile is in
the state of rest, by elastic means the action of
which upon said locking element takes place, in
the same direction as that of the forces of inertia
developed when there are positiveaccelerations
of the projectile along its trajectory.
Another feature of the present invention con
sists in interconnecting the striker and the, cover
plate. of the fuse in such manner that said striker,
U nce it is released, is unable to come accidentally
into contact with the priming element of the fuse
under the effect of the vibrations of the projectile
along its trajectory, which might produce a, pre
mature explosion of the projectile.
Is‘ult ‘from the following detailed descriptionof a
A.preferred-embodiment of the present inven
tion willbe hereinafter described, with reference
to‘ the‘ accompanying drawing, given merely by
way of example, and in which:
l ‘The only ?gure is an axial section of ‘a per‘
cussion fuse made according to the present in
». ,
The'following description relates to the case of
a percussion fuse more especially intendedfor a
shell ‘of small calibre adapted to be ?red in a ?re
arm provided with ri?ings.
The fuse is devised in such manner that the
:striker with which it is to be provided is locked
for the desired period'of time by a locking pin or
‘the like capable of being ejected from its hous
ing, under the effect of the centrifugal accelera
tion resulting from the rotation of the projectile
about its axis.
the- nose of the fuse, so as to accommodate and
guide a striker 6.
-.The nose of the fuse is fitted _with a cover
plate 1.
" -I provide in the body of the fuse, in a direction 10
at rightangles to that of the axis of said striker
6,. a housing 8 capable of guiding the displace
ments of a safety- pin 9 the center of gravity of
which is in eccentric position with respect to the
axis-;;of--the fuse, saidjpin further including, for 15
instance, twobranches between which said striker
can lmovelin the direction of its axis, said striker
.6 being provided withia collar II), in such manner
that itsv point; is kept at a. suitable distance from
the priming element, of, the detonator.
According, to zthelessential feature of the pres- 20
ent invention, this ‘docking pin 9 is caused to ‘co
act: with an element capable of keeping it in po
sition qand ,subjectedqto the-action of an elastic
systems This elastic system keeps said element 25
in active: position when the shell is in the posi
tion ofgrest, andit is arranged to act on said ele
ment; in .the'same direction as the forces of in
ertia whenv there are positive accelerations of the
shell along its trajectory.
Although there are many possible embodiments
of such a device, I have found that it is particular
ly advantageous to make use of that illustrated by
IHQther features of the present invention will re
,sp'eci?c embodiment thereof.
the fuse itself, in whichare provided cylindrical
bores 5,- preferably of ‘increasing diameter toward 5
For this purpose, according, for instance to
known arrangements, the body of the fuse con
v‘sists of a metallic piece I which is provided at the
the; drawing. ; _
-.'I'he element for keeping the locking pin 9 in 35
position consists of a sliding part II, for instance
of cylindrical shape, capable of moving in a bore
[2 extendingin a direction parallel to the axis of
the fuse,_in ‘the front part of body I, and opening
into, housing 8, In other words, bore I2 is located 40
in the; frontv part. oflvthe fuse, with respect to
housing 8. Member H is preferably, although
not necessarily, ?tted with an inclined portion,
for instance of conical shape, l3, capable of co
acting with a notch M, of corresponding shape, 45
provided for this purpose in pin 9.
The elastic system above referred to consists
of a spring l5, for instance of the coil type, in
terposed between element II and the bottom of
bore l2. Therefore this spring urges the locking 50
element ll toward the rear of the projectile, by
applying it into notch l4.
If desirable, I may also, eventually, provide
means for braking the displacements of said ele-.
ment I I in its housing and therefore for delaying 55
2,1 16,820
the release of pin 9, said means being preferably
adjustable. For instance I might cause element
I l to coact with a dash-pot of adjustable re
stricted section.
With the arrangement above described, I obtain
a percussion fuse the operation of which takes
place in the following manner:
1 As-long as the shell keeps, along its trajectory,
a su?icient positive, acceleration, FspringTJS and
the. forces; of ‘inertia-acting upon element "II lover
come the thrust exerted by notch l4 ‘upon the'en'd
in eccentric position with respect to the axis of
said body and having an inclined surface at the
front side thereof, an element movable in said
body in a longitudinal direction thereof adapted
to engage said member along said inclined sur
face so that an outward displacement of said
member tends to thrust said element out of the
Way, and elastic means for urging‘ said element
against .said member, saidelastic means acting
on said element in the samedirectionas the forces
of inertia developed by 'a positive acceleration of
l3 of said element I I. When, as a consequence of ;the fuse.
the resistance‘of air to the movement of the shell; ' ' “2. A percussion fuse which comprises, _in com
the acceleration of the shell drops to a lower value’ a-binati'on; a body having a longitudinal axis, a
15 and even to a negative value, this thrust overcomes v.detonator and ,a striker within said body, said
the action of the elastic systemand‘pin' 9,’ afterv
pushing back element ll, -is.;rele.ased' and
expelled, in turn releasing striker 6. 5:76";
,i \. I
‘detonator' and said striker being movable relative
:to each other-longitudinally of said body for
‘ --br'inging said ‘striker in contact with said detona- ‘
Of course, the position of the point of the ,tra.—, tor,_ said body being provided with a transverse
20 jectory of the projectile where this rele‘a'sing'aci- ' housing,’ a member slidable in said housing for
tion takes place-will-depend, amongiother things, normally‘ preventing said relative movement, ‘said
upongthe strength of spring l5fandthe-value‘of member vhaving its center‘ of gravity» located» in
the ‘angle of cone- i3.
.any case, this point is
at a certain distance fromnthe muzzleof the gun
from which .the projectilewas?red; which,‘ for
practical purposes, corresponds to a :safety of sev
eral meters.
Accordinglto another feature of the presentin
vention, which is not necessarily combined with
30 the arrangement :just above Q'describe'd, ‘the cover
plate ‘I of the fuse (which cover platelis then pref
erably given a‘concave shape) ' and striker'li are
interconnected, for instance ‘by’. 5securing one to
the other. With thisJa'rr-angemen?ihere ‘is no
35 risk, once the striker‘ \is dis'er'igaged,l ‘of the point
thereof coming accidentally into ‘contact with‘ the
priming element 3 and causing'ra ‘premature’ ex
plosion of the shell‘, since said'point-‘can come into
contactwith‘the priming element only after ‘cover
40 plate ‘I has been broken“asaic‘onsequence‘ of the
crashing of the‘ shell 'aga'in’stilanobstacle.‘ '
In a general manner,'whilellihaveg-in‘the ‘above
descriptiomdisclosed wha‘tlI deem ‘to be? practical
and efficient ‘embodiments 50f “the ‘present inven
tion, it‘should be Well understood that I ~do~not
wish to ‘be limited thereto-i =as'F-there 1- might be
changes made “in —-'the' arrangement'ydisposition and
eccentricpositionwithrespectto the-axis-of said ,
body, ‘a - bore in said .' body extending transversely
to said. housing, » said-member being provided with
aconical hole at the front surface thereof‘, a mem
ber of cylindrical: ~shapeiwhaving" ai conical end
adaptedmo slide :in said bore vand to'have its coni
cal-end engaged in said hole; said vbore extending
from said housing toward the front end of said
fuse, and a‘ coil‘ spring ?tted in said? bore so as to
urge said cylindrical membe'r‘outwardly from said
bore- and toward the 'rear of said body for keeping
said'conical end-engaged in said conical hole as
long ‘as the acceleration is above‘ a predetermined
~ 3. -A fuse for a projeetileintended'to move along
its ‘trajectory with a rotary movement'aro‘und‘its
axis, comprising in‘ combination gaifuse body, a
detonator and a striker withi-ni 'saidiibody,‘ said
striker and said detonatori being movable relative
to'each'other for bringing isaid striker, in contact
with said detonaton-‘means for‘ normally prevent
ing *s'aid‘ - movement, ' - ‘said’ means i i comprising
transverse housing said body,‘allockinlg'member
slida'ble’in said housing and'havin'g'i ‘its ‘center of
gravity ‘located’ in eccentric position’with respect
form of the parts ‘withouti-departingidrom “the to the axis ‘of said body, "an'elemeritymovame in
principle ~ of the present invention‘! {as "compre‘e 1 said body independent: ofls‘ai'd" striker and‘deto
hended within the scope
What I claimiisz"
th vappended“claims.
nator in‘ a‘ iongitaeinar directioir'of said body and
adapted to engageisaid'memberiat‘ ‘lie-front’jside
1‘. A percussion fuse which=domprises,j'~in com‘
bination; a'ibody' having a'longitudin‘al"akis; ja
detonator and a striker within said-Fbo'dyT-‘said
thereof and elastic means for urging’; said elenient
against "said niemb‘erin a'diréctiontoward the
5,5 detonator and said striker being‘movable relative
tensioned that said mei'riber'is*retairied'in1locking
to‘ each other longitudinally of i‘sa'id- bodyl'for
bringing said striker in ‘contact withsai‘d \det¥
onator, said ‘body being-providedwith a trans%
verse housing, a memberiis'lidable infsaid- housing
for normally preventing said relativeimovement',
said member having‘its centerof‘gra‘vity located
rear end of said fuseg'said'elasticnieansfbeing so
position ‘as longas theac'celeratioiiof'said p'roé
unlocking position ‘substantially- v'soon asj'the
jecti'le increases and said‘member'ri’smoved into
speed of saidprojectiledecreases.
' " '
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