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Патент USA US2116862

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May'lO, 1938.
2,1 l 6,862
C. F. DINLEY
APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT WITH soLvENTs
Filed Nov. 28, 1934
3 Sheets-Shçet 1
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INVENTOR
Clarezwe if? Dawley,
BY
ATTORNEYS.
May l0, 1938.
C. F. DINLEY
' 2,116,862'
APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT WITH soLvENTs
Filed Nov. 28, 1934
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Clm'ezwe if? ßznZ/eg,
BY
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May 10, 1938.
’
c. F. DINIQEYÍ "
2,116,862
APPARATÚS FOR TREATMENT WITH ysoLvENTs
Filed Nov.~ 28, 1954
>_; sheets-_sheet s
ATTORNEYS. ‘
Patented May V10:19313
j ¿2,116,862
UNITED STAT-ss >'Parrslv'r omer.
ausm
APPARATUS
,
ron TREATMENT wrm
soLvsNTs
/
clarence r'. ninley, '-netrou, man., mig-nm», ~by
assignments, to Solvent Machine Com
pany,'trnstee, Detroit, Mich., a corporation oi' '
Michigan
«
`
Application Hmmm es. 1934,- serm Na». 755,246
4' claim.. (ci. s1-`-c)
My invention relates to treatment with solvents
for such purposes as cleaning andr degreasing.
and lto the use of volatile solvents. It is especially
used hot or4 even boiled during use; or .when the
adaptable and‘useful for cleaning metal"`sheets,
solvent is purposely used in the vapor state; or
when the work is allowed to drain or dry in the
upper portion of. the vessel after treatment with
plates, or other fiat articles or work. For ex
the solvent;-in all such cases. solvent vapor will
`ample, plates that have been worked or operated
on with the aid of lubricant may advantageously
be4 cleaned _according to my invention, either for
shipment
or . preparatory
to - electroplating.
10 enamelling, painting, or other finishing opera
tions. Various solvents whose vapors are heavier
than air may be used,l such as benzine. benzol,
and -chlorinated solvents like carbon 'tetrachlo
ride, j trichloromethane, 'tetracliloronnethane,` di
chlorethane, tetrachlorethane. trichlorethylene,
and. tetrachlorethylene, whose vapors are un
be present,~and will tend to accumulate to the
point of overflowing over the upper edge of the
vessel I Il.c As here shown, the vessel I9 is pro
vided with heating means, such as steam coils IIV
near the bottom of a work-treating “well" I2 in ’
its lower portion, forheating, vaporizing, or even
boiling the liquid solvent used. The escape of
solvent vapor thus or‘ otherwise present in the
vessel I0 may be prevented by suitable upward
extension of its walls, and by condensation oi.' the ‘
vapor from the upper part of the vessel.
inilammable. The work may be treated with the
^ The lower portion of the vessel In is internally
liquid solvent or with the solvent vapor, lor both;
contracted to form a deep, narrow, elongated
and in 'many cases, treatment with hot or even treating "well” I2 adapted to contain the sheets
or vplates S to be treated, above the _heating coils
20 boiling liquid solvent is desirable. In suitable
forms of embodiment, such as hereinafter de--` il.' Above the treating well I2, the interior oi 20
scribed, my invention ailords a compact and the vessel I0 expands to a greater width and
eiiicient machine, wherein large quantities of work _ affords lateral vapor space open to theA well I2
can be rapidly, thoroughly, and' economically" within the vessel. >It isfnot generally necessary
25 cleaned, with small labor costs and little >loss of that such expansion be to both sides of the well
solvent. Various other features and advantages I2: on the contrary, a single lateral chamber Il
of. the‘inventionyill appear from `the description will ordinarily answer the purpose. The cham
hereinafter of a species thereof, and from the ber I3 'ail’ords roomor space for vapor evolving
drawings.
'
and rising from the well I2 to spread out laterally
Condensation in the upper
' In the drawings, Fig. Ils an end elevation of _ and be condensed.
one preferred form of apparatus suitable for the
purposes of my invention.'
`
Fig. 1I shows the apparatus in cross-section
as indicated by the line and arrows lI-II in
Fig.
III.l
l
»
’
4
portion of the vessel III may be eiiected by the
external atmospheric/cooling of the walls, if they
are of suñicient height; though generally it is
preferable to supplement or (largely) replace at
mospheric cooling with more eiIective cooling 35
'
Fig. III is a side view of the apparatus from the
right of Fig. I, with certain portions broken away
and in vertical longitudinal section.
means, so that the vesselI III need not be so deep
as inere atmospheric cooling would require. '.l‘he
The apparatus shown _in Figs. I, 1I, and III
means-'whether internal cr external, ' and
whether on one side, two or more sides, or all
40 comprises a `sheet metal treating> vessel or en
particular type and arrangement of cooling
>
closure Il that contains the solvent, whether> around' the vessel I_II--is broadly immaterial, ex
cept that the greater the extent ofthe cooling
used as liquid or as vapor, and 'is closed to ex
clude air and retain any solvent vapor that may
45
_be present,-purposely or ‘incidentally-but is
preferably open upward, at the top, for the in
troduction and removal of work. In general.
worinA is treated with liquid or vaporousv solvent
(or both) in the lower part of the vessel", while
its upper portion servesv mainly to prevent or
minimize loss of solvent vapor from the vessel,
especially in drying thework after treatment
with the solvent; For-when the solvent employed
is highlyl volatile light gasoline or bensine:. or
when the work is immersed in the solvent „while
itseli‘still hot or warm; or when theìolvent is _
means perimetrlcally of the vessel, the less its
extent vertically need be to give adequate exposed
cooling area. The solvent vapor, being heavier 45
than air, will always lìow by gravity toward the
region or area where _it is most rapidly 'cooled
and condensedi--iust as ii there were anvactual
outlet for the vapor at such region. As' here
shown, the uppervessel walls are (externally)
water jacketed at Il, preferably aroundV three
sides of the chamber I3, f om a little above the
top of the well I2, almost to
other cooling medium) at its lower
. 1
n
topjof the vessel
Il. The Jacket Il has inlets II,
for water (or
e on the
aisance
In
l right-hand side oi' the chamber i3, and has water
outlets i'i. I1, i‘i at its upper edge, at the middle
of the right-hand side and at its 'upper corners
on the ends of chamber i3. Thus a cool condens
ing zone or region is maintained in the chamber
i3, which draws the vapor rising from the well i2
aside into the chamber.
'
The pure liquid solvent condensed in the cham- y
bers t3 welded to the upper sides of the bottom
cross-bars of the. iJ’s. The top of each U-frame
di is closed by an (inverted) U-yoke 34 whose
side arms rit inside the yoke arms and are se
cured to them by bolts 95. The cross bars of the
two outside yokes 3Q carry short (inverted)
grooved channel-like members 36 welded to the
lower sides off these cross bars. ,The upper and
ber it by the cooling jacket i5 falls or runs down lower edges of the plates or sheets S are engaged
10 the chamber walls, and is collected and used to and held in the grooves oi' the members 33 and 10
treat the work S in well I2. As one means of 36,-the plates S being inserted and removed
collecting this condensate, thechamber i3 may be `from either end of the rack 30. The rack l0
provided with a sump, well, or reservoir it at its may be supported by bails 3l, 3i connected to eyes f
bottom, here shown as separated from the upper 39 attached to the upper ends of two intermedi
part of the weil I2 by a dam i9 consisting4 of a ate U-frames 3i, 3i. The rack may be raised
partition-like upward fold of the sheet metal - and lowered by a cable lliiwith a hook 4I for en
forming the wall of the vessel it. .As shown, the
top of dam i9 slopes rather gently upward away
from reservoir I8 toward the crest of the dam,
20 to facilitate overñcw of drops of water ñoating
gaging a link 42 interconnecting the bails 31, 21,
at the surface of the solvent in reservoir I8.
Such water-drops ñoat partly submerged in the
solvent in reservoir 18,-'something like ice
by an enclosing framework _comprising uprights
bergs.-and the comparatively gentle slope of
25 the top of the dam I9 allows solvent at any time
overflowing the latter to roll these water-drops
up the slope and over the crest. The atmos
pheric exposure of the solvent in the open vessel
III naturally results in the presence of some water
30 in the solvent in wells i2 and I8.
As here shown, provision is made for spraying
the work S in the well i2 with liquid solvent,
preferablyinstreams or sprays directed length
wise of the well, or parallel with the surfaces of
35 the plates. More even distribution of the sprayed
liquid may be assured by directing the sprays on
the work S from both ends of the vessel I0 and
well I2. For this purpose, spray devices 29, 29
may be mounted on the end walls about at the
40 top of the well I2,--with sufficient space between
them, however, to leave the top of the vessel I9
open for the introduction and removal of sheets
S substantially unimpeded. Each of the spray
by means of overhead crane, derrick. tackle, or .
any .other convenient means.
.
As shown; the walls of the vessel I0 are braced 20
44 which are attached to the sides of the vessel,
and also form supporting legs for it. The lower
ends of the legs 94 are attached to a base frame
45 of angle section.V The pump 26 and the motor
2l are mounted on an intermediate horizontal
frame composed of cross angles 46 and longitudi
nal angles Il. The upper edge of the vessel Il
has an external rim of angles 48, and the water
jacket i5 rests on horizontal angles 49 that ex-A 30
tend all the way around one side and the ends
of the vessel, and brace its walls. The heating
coils II are shown mounted on a side plate 5l
which is removably secured over an opening in
the end wall of the vessel I0, so that the coils can 35
be taken out by simply detaching this plate Il.
As shown in Figs. II and III, the bottom of the
well I2 slopes'downward to one end. where
valved drainage outlet 5I is provided.
'
Preferably the vapor and condensing chamber 40
il may normally be covered over with a cover i2.
shown as a. plate secured to the rim 4l at its ends
>and at >its right-hand side: this narrows the top
-devices 20 comprises a. suilìcient number of spray ’ opening of the vessel I0 to an aperture directly
45 nozzles 2i (four being here shown) arranged to over the-well I2 (and of substantially correspond 45
distribute the spray fairly uniformly amongst a
ing width)v permitting easy introduction andbwith- ^
batch of upright sheets slightly spaced apart, and
drawal of work S. Means- of closure for 'this top
opening over the well I2 may preferably be pro
vided, such as a cover plate ll having its ends
supported by internal angles 55 across the ends
thus wash their sides thoroughly. As here shown,
there are openings with removable covers 22 in
50 the end walls of the vessel I0, aiïording more con
venient access to the nozzles 2i for the purpose of the vessel I0, so that it is adapted to slide.
of aiming themand adjusting them to give the f under the cover $2 when not in use, as shownexact throw, spread, and flneness of spray de
in Fig. II. 'Ihere is a longitudinal angle 56 under
sired. For supplying purified solvent to the spray the cover plate 54, with its ends suitably secured
55. devices 20, 20, there are pipe connections 22, 24,
2l from the well or reservoir I9 to the nozzles
2i. A (rotary) pump 26, which may be driven by
an (electric) motor 21, is preferably interposed
between pipes 23 and 2B. A valve 28 is shown
interposed in the pipe 23 leading from well Il to
the suction of pump 26, to prevent undesired
leakage or pumping away of solvent from the
weil I8. A valved connection 29 is shown from
to the ends of the vessel Il: this a`ngle 56 serves 55
to support the cover M and prevent it from sag
ging, especiallywhen closed.- The cover 54 may
be, normally left open as in Fig, II when the ap
paratus is in use to clean work, but m‘ay be tem
porarily closed at other times to minimize loss ot coI
solvent vapor from the vessel Il. ~
In Figs. I and II, a narrow, deep, open-top
sheet metal tank 89 is shown close alongside the
vessel Il; it may contain hot oil for annealing
as a meansfor keeping down the solvent level
zinc,
brass, copper, or other metal sheets after
in well I8 if desired.
v
Work may be introduced into vessel Il! and well rolling. This tank S0 has electrical heating units
K the well I8 through the darn I9 into the well I2,
I2', and withdrawn, by any suitable means, here .
shown as including a rack 39 for holding a multi
plicity of plates or sheets upright and slightly
spaced apart. This rack 30' is shown as includ
ing a. rectangular framework including U-frames
3| of channel section interconnected at their up
per ends by longitudinal angle bars 22, Aand at
75 their lower ends bygrooved channel-like mem
SI in its lower portion st each end, to heat the
oil to _the necessary temperature-some 600° F.
for annealing zinc, for example. The general
construction and mounting of tank 6I resembles 70
that of/_vessel I9. Its base frame l2 is shown as
including or attached to lateral extensions “of
the end anglesof the base frame Il of tank Ii;
and the end angles of its top angie-rim 94 have 75
3
2,1 16,862 «
lateral extensions 65 which are welded to the ad
jacent carrier uprights 44 of vessel III.
One mode of use and operation of the appa
ratus shown in Figs. I-III is as follows:
,
'I'he well I2 is ñlled with trichlorethylene >or
other volatile solvent about to the level L shown
in Fig. II, or somewhat higher, and sheets or
other work S are placed in the well above the
"liquid solvent. The solvent is continually heated
II
and boiled by steam supplied to the heating coils
II,`and its vapor continually rises amongst and
through the sheets S, and spreads out into the
chamber I3. Cooling water being all the while
circulated through the jacket' I5, the solvent va-.
reservoir with the pure condensate; and nozzle
means at a wall of said well for receiving con
densate from said reservoir and spraying the
work in the well therewith.
'
2. Apparatus of the character described, for
treating work with volatile solvent whose vapor
is heavier than air, comprising in combination
an air-excluding treating vessel open at~the top
for the introduction and removal of work, but in
ternally narrowed, substantially below the top,
lo
so that its narrow lower portion forms a vapor
izing and treating well for receiving the work
to be treated and for containing a body of liquid
solvent in its bottom, while its wider upper por
por is continually condensed in the chamber I3, » tion affords a chamber above and to the side of
thus continuallysupplying the sump or reservoir the well and laterally open thereto, said cham
I8 with purified liquid solvent. 'I'he valve 29 may ber being provided with a solvent reservoir at
be either open or closed at this time, but prefer
its bottom ; a cooling jacket for the chamber wall
ably open. As soon as this continual supply of maintaining in the chamber a cool condensing
solvent to sump I8 is established, the pump 28 zone for drawing vapor rising from said well
is started into operation to supply the liquid sol» aside into the chamber and there condensing it,
vent under pressure to the nozzles 2| and spray thus supplying said reservoir with the pure con
the sheets S therewith, thus washing oif all oil densate; and nozzle means at a wall of said well
'and grease from the sides of the sheets. When for receiving condensate from said reservoir and
the spray has sufficiently washed ofi' the sheets spraying the: work in the well therewith.
'
S, the pump 26 is stopped; but the boiling of theI 3. Apparatus of the character described, for
solvent in the bottom of well I2 is continued until treating work, such as plates or sheets, with vola
the sheets S warm up to the temperature of the tile solvent whose vapor is heavier than air, com
hot solvent vapor in the well,---when steam may prising in combination an air-excluding treating
30 if desired be temporarily shut off from coils II. vessel open at the top’for the introduction and
Thereupon the hot sheets S are slowly lifted out removal of work, but internally narrowed, sub
y of the vessel I0, the solvent draining and drying stantially below the top, so that its narrow lower
off from them as they rise through the upper portion forms a deep, narrow, elongated vaporlz'
part of the vessel above well I2, so that they ing and treating well for receiving sheets in up
35 come'out clean and dry, and loss of solvent is sub
right position and for containing a body o! liquid
stantially avoided. The apparatus is now ready solvent in its bottom, while its wider upper por
for another batch of sheets.
‘
tion añords a chamber above and to the side of
When the solvent in the well I2 becomes so
‘contaminated with grease and dirt that cleaning
40 is necessary, thevalves at 28 and 29 are closed,
the cover 53 is preferably closed, and steam is
supplied to the coils II and cooling water to the
jacket I5 until all (or approximately all) the sol
vent is distilled over into the well or reservoir Il.
The residue of dirt, grease, and solvent (if any)
-in the bottom of well I2 is drawn on at BI, and
the well cleaned out. The heating coils II may
even be removed‘by taking oil' the plate 50 on
which they are mounted, to facilitate thorough
cleaning of the coils and of the bottom of the
the well and laterally open thereto, said chamber
being provided with a solvent reservoir at its
bottom; cooling means for maintaining in said
chamber a cool condensing 4zone for drawing the
40
vapor rising from said well aside into the cham
ber and there condensing it, thus supplying said
reservoir with the pure condensate; and nozzle
means at a wall of said well receiving condensate 43
from said reservoir and spraying it amongst the '
upright sheets in streams directed substantially
parallel with their surfaces. ,
A
4. Apparatus of the character described, for
treating work, such as plates or sheets, with 50
volatile solventwhose vapor is heavier than air,
comprising in combination an air-excluding
treating vessel open at the top for the introduc
tion and removal of work, but internally nar
rowed, substantially below the top, so that its
well I2. After the cleaning has been completed
and the coils II, etc., replaced, the valves 2l and
29 may be opened-thus draining most of the
purliied solvent back into well I2. Thereupon
the apparatus is ready for operation as before.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. Apparatus of the character described, for
treating work with volatile solvent whose _vapor
is heavier than airgfomprising in comlâiation
gated vaporizing and treating well for receiving
sheets in upright position and for containing a`
body of liquid solvent in its bottom, while its
an air-excluding tre'
wider upper portion aifords a chamber above and 60
' g vessel open at the top
for the introduction and removal of work, but
narrow lower portion forms a deep, narrow, elon
internally narrowed, substantially below the to‘p,
to the side of the well and laterally open thereto,
said chamber being provided with a solvent reser
so that its narrow lower portion forms a Vaporiz
voir at its bottom; cooling means for maintain- _
ing and treating well for receiving the work to
be treated and for containing a body of liquid
solvent in its bottom, while its wider upper por
ing in said chamber a cool condensing zone for
drawing the vapor rising from said well aside
into the chamber and there condensing it, thus
tion affords a chamber above and to the side of supplying said reservoir with," the pure conden
the well and laterally open thereto, said chamber . sate; nozzlemeans at an end of said well for
being provided with a solvent reservoir at its spraying condensate from _'said reservoir length
70 bottom: cooling means for maintainmg in said wise of the well on the upright sheets therein: 70
chamber a cool condensing zone for drawing the and means for pumping the condensate from said
vapor rising from said well aside into the cham
reservoir under pressure to said nozzle means.
ber and there condensing it. thus Supplying said
-
CLARENCE F. DINLEY.
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