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Патент USA US2116878

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Patented May 10, 1938
Willi Brun ‘and James E. Burns. Bridgeport,
Conn, assignors to Remington Arms Company,
Inc., a corporation of Delaware
No Drawing. Application April 25, 1934,
Serial No. 722,240
4 Claims. ((71. 52-4)
‘This invention relates to priming mixtures for ic and salicylic acids. Other oxidizingingredients,
ammunition, and contemplates the use of in
such as potassium chlorate, barium nitrate and/or
gredients whichare substantially double com
lead peroxide, and other fuel ingredients, such as
pounds, including in a single molecule both an
lead sulphocyanate, antimony sulphide and/or
5 .oxidizer and a fuel.
calcium silicide, may also be included.
The usual ammunition priming mixture in— '
In preparing the mixture, the lead nitrate and
cludes a reaction initiating explosive, a fuel, and a
separate substance which yields oxygen for the
combustion of the fuel. The fuel and the oxygen
10 carrier are distinct and different materials, and
are separated by distances which while actually
of small magnitude become of importance when
materials must react chemically through them.
Theoretically, the ?ner the granulation of the
' reacting ingredients the more rapid would be
their combustion, but actually separate reacting
ingredients cannot be granulated below a certain
?neness, say 150 or 200 mesh. One reason for
this is that the ?ner particles do not set up suf
20 ?cient friction to initiate the reaction.
The ideal priming mixture is one in which the
reacting ingredients lie in close proximity to each _
other in the same crystal. In the past some ef
forts have been made to produce priming com
positions consisting solely of such crystals, but
the product has invariably failed to satisfy other
requirements of successful priming.
The present invention contemplates'thé use,
in a priming mixture including a combustion‘ini
30 tiator and/or a frictionator, of a material in
which an oxidizer and a fuel are both present in a
single crystal. This material is a reaction prod
uct of lead nitrate and lead hypophosphite. Lead
nitrate is a compound which is rich in oxygen
and yields its oxygen with considerable facility
at a comparatively low temperature. Lead hypo
phosphite is de?cient in oxygen. When these
substances are brought together in the presence
of moisture a reaction takes place which results
40 ' in a compound apparently having the composition
Pb(NO3)2'Pb(HzPO2)2. This compound will be
called “lead nitrato-hypophosphite”. While lead
nitrato-hypophosphite alone is quite sensitive to
blow, its explosion cannot be depended upon to
ignite powder. Its de?ciency appears to be due
to the fact that its decomposition is accompanied
by only a comparatively short ?ame, and the
evolution of a comparatively small volume of gas.
For these reasons, it has been found necessary to
include in priming mixtures madetherefrom an
- explosive combustion initiating ingredient,suchas
normal or basic lead styphnate, basic lead picrate,
normal or basic lead azide, diazodinitrophenol,
mercury fulminate, tetrazole derivatives and their
salts,the salts of di- and tri-nitro benzoic,phthal
lead hypophosphite are preferably added sepa
rately, the reaction between them occurring in the
mixture. The several ingredients are brought
together and thoroughly ‘mixed while. dry, the 10
mixture is then moistened and mixing is con
tinued until the reaction between lead nitrate
and lead hypophosphite is complete.
A typical mixture which has been found to be
especially useful in brass rim?re shells comprises 15
lead styphnate, lead hypophosphite, lead nitrate,
lead sulphocyanate, and glass, in substantially the
following proportions:
Per cent per cent IO 0
Lead styphnate ___________ __ 20 to 40 _____ __ 33
Lead hypophosphite _______ __ ‘8 to 30 _____ __ 10
Lead nitrate ______________ __ 10 to50___..___ 12
Lead sulphocyanate _______ __
6to 12 _____ __ 10
Glass _________ __'_ ________ __ 12 to 25 _____ .. 20
The lead styphnate in any of the above mixtures
may be replaced by basic lead styphnate.
Basic lead picrate has likewise been found a
very desirable explosive, a typical mixture being
as follows:
Per cent
Basic lead picrate ________________________ __ 30
Lead hypophosphite _____________________ __ 12
Lead nitrate ---.( ________________________ __ 33
Glass ___________________________________ __ 25
. Other explosives or combinations of explosives
may likewise be used, as above-indicated.
ium nitrate has been‘added in amounts up to
40%, yielding mixtures which for some purposes
are very desirable. Lead peroxide has-likewise
been found useful as a supplemental oxidizing in
gredient. The presence of lead sulphocyanate is
unnecessary, many successful mixtures having
been made without' any supplemental fuel.
The foregoing are merely typical of the wide
variety of mixtures coming within the scope of
the invention, the invention being directed br'oad
ly to mixtures utilizing an explosive ingredient in
conjunction with lead nitrato-hypophosphite, 60
and the appended claims are to be broadly con
What is claimed is:
1. A priming mixturecontaining lead nitrato
hypophosphite and an explosive ingredient se 55
Eected from the class consisting of lead styphnate,
basic lead styphnate, lead azide, basic lead azide,
basic lead picrate, diazodinitrophenol, mercury
fulminate, tetrazole derivatives and their salts,
the salts of di- and tri-nitro benzoic, phthalic and
salicylic acids.
2. A priming mixture containing lead nitrate:
hypophosphite, lead styphnate, and a supplemen
tal oxidizing ingredient.
3. A priming mixture containing lead nitrato
hypophosphite, basic lead styphnate, and.a sup
plemental oxidizing ingredient.
4. A priming mixture containing lead nitrato
hypophosphite, basic lead picrate, and a supple
mental oxidizing ingredient.
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