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Патент USA US2116903

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2,116,903
J. w M m C L A T C H m n A L
E x P A N s I B L E C U T T ER T O 0 L
Filed NOV. 30, 1936
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2,116,903
Patented May 10, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,116,903
EXPANSIBLE CUTTER TOOL
John W. MacClatchie, Los Angeles, Glenn D.
Johnson, Compton, and Carl A. Thies, Hunt
ington Park, Calif., assignors to MacClatchie
Manufacturing Company of California, Comp
ton, Calif., a corporation of California
Application November 30, 1936, Serial No. 113,298
14 Claims. (Cl. Z55-76)
This invention relates to expansible cutter tools poration in a usual drill string, preferably by
and is particularly applicable to well drilling means of a sub 2 which is threaded to the upper
tools for enlarging the bore of a well, the inven
tion being illustrated and described in connection
5
with that type of tool wherein an expansible cut
ter scrapes the wall of the well bore.
It is an object of the invention to expand a
cutter by relative longitudinal movement of a
mandrel, with a simple but eiiicient operating
connection between the mandrel and the cutter.
It is a further object of the invention to circu
late a washing medium through the bore of a
hollow mandrel, with a port in the mandrel dis
charging a part of the washing medium at the
cutter, and with said port forming a part of the
operating connection for expanding the cutter.
It is a still further object of the invention to
utilize pressure of the Washing medium in the
bore of the mandrel for expanding the cutter, by
restricting the bore of the mandrel by means of
the contracted cutter so that the pressure of the
washing medium is directed against the cutter
for expanding the same.
It is a still further object of the inventionto
actuate the mandrel by pressure of the washing
medium, and to provide simple means for initial
ly restricting ñow of the washing medium
through the bore of the mandrel so that the pres
sure of the flow is utilized for shifting the man
30 drel, with this restriction subsequently removed
so as to permit free circulation of the washing
medium.
It is a still further object of the invention to
arrest operative movement of the mandrel be
35 iore the cutter reaches its fully expanded posi
tion, with a lost motion operating connection per
mitting the cutter to then fully expand, and with
said lost motion connection eliminating wear at
the operating connection when the cutter is ex
40
panded.
Further objects of the invention will be readily
understood from the following description of the
accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the tool, partly in
45 axial section and showing its cutters contracted.
Fig. 2 is a similar View showing the cutters ex
panded.
Figs. 3 and 4 are transverse sections on the
lines 3-3 and 4-4 of Figs. 1 and 2 respectively.
The invention is illustrated in connection with
an expansible cutter tool for scraping the wall of
a well bore, and in the illustrated embodiment of
the invention the tool has three cutters equidis
tantly circumferentially spaced. The cutters are
55 mounted on a body I which is adapted for incor
end of the body I and which has a threaded con
nection 3 at its upper end, with the lower end of
the body I also having a usual threaded connec
tion (not shown).
The cutters are mounted in
radial slots 4 which are formed in the body and
which communicate with an axial bore 5 of the
body. A mandrel 6 is slidable in the bore 5 and
an operating connection is provided between the 10
mandrel and the cutters for expanding the lat
ter.
The cutters are shown adapted for swinging
movement to their expanded position, and for
this purpose cutters 'l may be pivoted on pins 8 15
which extend across the slots 4 and which may be
removably held in place as shown at 9. The cut
ters when contracted are contained within the
slots 4 as shown at Fig. 1, and when expanded
swing outwardly and upwardly to the position 20
shown at Fig. 2, with their cutting edges ‘la
adapted to scrape the wall of a well bore when
the tool is rotated.
The mandrel 6 is hollow, and the operating con
nection between the mandrel and the cutters 25
preferably includes a tubular extension 6a of the
mandrel which is ported as shown at I0 for recep
tion of lugs I I which are preferably integral with
the cutters 1. The tubular extension 6a prefer
ably has flattened surfaces I 2 alining with the 30
respective cutters, with the ports Ill formed in
said flattened surfaces; and the lower end of the
extension 6a may be of restricted diameter below
the ports I0 adapting said lower end of the ex
tension for sliding reception in the lower end of 35
the bore 5 which is preferably of restricted diam
eter as shown at 5a..
When the mandrel is elevated as shown at Fig.
1 the lugs I I are received in the ports I0 with the
cutters l swung to contracted position abutting 40
the mandrel extension 6a. In this position the
lugs II project into the bore of the tubular ex
tension 6a so as to appreciably restrict said bore
as shown at Fig. 3, and the lugs have surfaces I Ia.which when the cutters are contracted taper 45
downwardly as shown at Fig. 1, whereby down
ward pressure in the bore of the hollow mandrel
is directed against the surfaces Ila so as to tend
to swing the cutters ‘l toward their operative po
sition. The lugs Il also have surfaces IIU which 50
when the cutters are contracted engage the upper
ends of the ports I0, so that downward movement
of the mandrel shifts the lugs I I for swinging the
cutters toward- their operative position.
The mandrel 6 may be shifted to expand the 55
IlLIUIIl
2
2,116,903
cutters by fluid pressure in the bore of the tool,
and for this purpose the sub 2 may have a bore
|50. which forms a cylinder I5 for a piston, with
the bore of the sub open at its upper end for com
munication with the bore of the drill string in
which the tool is incorporated.
The piston is
ñxed to the upper end of the hollow mandrel for
pressure responsive downward movement in the
cylinder I5 so as to downwardly shift the man
drel, and in the illustrated embodiment of the
invention the piston is shown as including an
abutment I6 integral with the hollow mandrel 6,
with a piston rubber I1 which preferably has a
reinforcement plate I8, secured to the abutment
15 I6 by means of a follower I9.
When the cutters 'I are contracted and the hol
low mandrel 6 is elevated as shown at Fig. l, a
plug 20 which is supported by the sub 2 preferably
extends into the upper end of the bore of the
20 hollow mandrel so as to appreciably restrict flow
through said bore and thus maintain appreciably
pressure against the piston I'I for depressing the
mandrel and thereby swinging the cutters toward
their operative position; and the restricted flow
25 past the plug 20 and through the bore of the hol
low mandrel exerts pressure against the surfaces
II a of the lugs I I for aiding in swinging the cut
ters toward their operative position.
Downward movement of the mandrel 6 is pref
30 erably terminated by the abutment I6 engaging
a cooperating abutment surface 22 at the upper
end of the body I, and with the parts in this po
sition the mandrel has preferably not yet swung
the cutters to fully expanded position. However
35 the cutters are so nearly fully expanded as to
engage the wall of the well bore so that the weight
of the drill string completes the swinging move
ment of the cutters to their fully expanded posi
tion as determined by abutment of their surfaces
40 ‘Ib against the upper ends of the slots 4. This
ñnal swinging movement of the cutters after
downward movement of the mandrel has been
arrested, spaces the lugs II from the upper ends
of the ports I0 as shown at Fig. 2. and as a result
of this lost motion connection the tool may be
operated with its cutters expanded, with no wear
between the lugs I I and the ends of the ports I0.
By the time downward movement of the man
drel 6 has been arrested its bore will have shifted
clear of the plug 20 as shown at Fig. 2, so that the
entire flow through the drill string is then directed
through the bore of the mandrel, and when the
cutters have been fully expanded their lugs II
will have been swung clear of the bore of the
mandrel so as to offer no obstruction to this flow.
Flow is thus directed through the hollow mandrel
extension 6a and thence downwardly through the
lower portion of the bore 5 and through the
bore of that portion of the drill string which de
pends from the body I, so as to maintain usual
circulation through the drill string. At the same
time the lugs II of the expanded cutters are
swurg clear of the lower portions of the slots I0
which are of such appreciable length that these
unobstructed lower portions of the slots form out
lets of appreciable area through which an appre
ciable portion of the ñow in the bore of the hol
low mandrel is directed laterally outwardly
through the slots 4 and just below the expanded
cutters.
When the cutters are to be contracted the drill
string is elevated, and as a result of binding en
gagement of the expanded cutters with the wall
of the well bore the cutters are swung toward
their contracted position. Further contraction of
the cutters results if the drill string is withdrawn
through an upper portion of the well bore, such
as a casing string, which is of smaller diameter
than that ldefined by the expanded cutters, and
complete contraction of the cutters is preferably
assured by mounting a spring 3U in the bore 5
around the mandrel 6, between the abutment I6
and a supporting collar 3| which seats on a
shoulder in said bore. As soon as the force tend
ing to hold the cutters in expanded position is
relieved by elevating the drill string, the spring
30 thus tends to retract the mandrel 6 so that
the lower ends of its ports IU engage the lugs
I I for contracting the cutters.
The invention thus provides an arrangement
whereby the ports I0 cooperate with the lugs II
for expanding and contracting the cutters, with
said ports also serving as outlets for discharge of
a washing medium through the slots 4 and below
the expanded cutters, and with said ports also per
mitting projection of the lugs II into the bore
of the hollow mandrel when the cutters are con
tracted, so that flow through the hollow mandrel
and directed against the lugs may aid in expand
ing the cutters.
25
In the claims, we have use-d the word “body” to
include the body I and the sub 2, and similar
structures.
We claim:
1. In an expansible cutter tool, a body having 30
a radial slot, a hollow mandrel mounted in said
body, said mandrel having a lateral port com
municating with said radial slot, a cutter mount
ed in said radial slot having a projection coop
erating with the port for shifting the cutter by 35
movement of the mandrel, and means for direct
ingva washing medium through the hollow man
drel for discharge at the port.
2. In an expansible cutter tool, a body having
a radial slot, a hollow mandrel mounted in said
body, said mandrel having a lateral port com
municating with said radial slot, a cutter mount
ed in said radial slot having a projection cooper
ating with the port for shifting the cutter by
movement of the mandrel, and means for direct- 4
ing a washing medium against the mandrel for
moving the same, with said washing medium di
rected thence through the hollow mandrel for
discharge at the port and through said radial
slot below said cutter.
, .-
3. In anexpansible cutter tool, a hollow man-Éll
the
drel,bore
a cutter
of the
having
hollow
a projection
mandrel, and
extending
means into
for j
directing pressure in the bore of the hollow man- ç
drel and against the projection for shifting the
cutter.
CA
. l,
4. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow man- d
drel, a cutter having a projection extending into
the bore of the hollow mandrel, means for shift
ing the cutter by movement of the mandrel, and
means for exerting pressure in the bore of the
hollow mandrel and against the projection for
aiding in shifting the cutter.
5. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow man
drel, a cutter having a projection extending into
the bore of the hollow mandrel, means for shift
ing the cutter by movement of the mandrel, and
means for directing pressure against the mandrel
for moving the same, with said pressure directed
thence through the hollow mandrel and against
the projection for aiding in shifting the cutter.
6. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow man
drel having a lateral port, a cutter having a pro
jection extending through the port and into the
bore of the mandrel for shifting the cutter by 75
3
2,116,903
movement of the mandrel, and means whereby a
washing medium may be directed against the
mandrel for moving the same, with said washing
medium/ directed thence through the hollow
mandrel and against the projection for aiding in
shifting the cutter and for discharge through the
port.
ling a lateral port, and a projection on the cutter
adapted for engagement by the wall of the port
for expanding the cutter by movement of the
mandrel.
12. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow body r
having a slot, a cutter in said slot, a hollow man
drel movable in the bore of the body and having
7. In an expansible cutter tool, a body, a hol
low mandrel movable in the body, a plug ñxed
10 to the body and extending into the bore of the
hollow mandrel when the mandrel is retracted
a lateral port, and a projection on the cutter
and being clear of the bore of the mandrel when
the mandrel is projected, a cutter carried by
the body, and means for moving the cutter by
15 projection of the mandrel.
of the hollow mandrel when the cutter is con
tracted so that pressure directed through the
bore of the hollow mandrel is exerted against
8. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow man
drel having a lateral port, means for restricting
the bore of the hollow mandrel when the man
drel is retracted and for'opening the bore of the
20 hollow mandrel when the mandrel is projected,
and a cutter having a projection cooperating with
the port for shifting the cutter by projection of
the mandrel.
9. In an expansible cutter tool, a mandrel,
25 means for limiting movement of the mandrel,
a cutter, and a lost motion connection for shift
ing the cutter by movement of the mandrel and
permitting continued shifting of the cutter after
movement of the mandrel has been stopped.
30
10. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow man
drel having a lateral port, means for limiting
movement of the mandrel, and a cutter having
a projection adapted for engagement by the
wall of the port for shifting the cutter by move
ment of the mandrel and permitting continued
shifting of the cutter after movement of the
adapted for engagement by the wall of the port
for expanding the cutter by movement of the 10
mandrel, the projection extending into the bore
the projection for aiding in expanding the cutter.
13. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow body
having a slot, a cutter in said slot, a hollow man
drel movable in the bore of the body and having
a lateral port, a projection on the cutter adapted
for engagement by the wall of the port for ex 20
panding the cutter by movement of the mandrel,
and means for limiting said movement of the
mandrel, the port engaging the projection so as
to permit continued expansion of the cutter
after movement of the mandrel has been stopped,
so as to space the projection from the said wall
of the port.
14. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow body
having a slot, a cutter in said slot, a hollow
mandrel movable in the bore of the body and 30
having a lateral port, a projection on the cutter
adapted for engagement by the wall of the port
for expanding the cutter by movement of the
mandrel has been stopped so as to space the
mandrel, and a plug fixed to the body so that
it is received in the bore of the hollow mandrel
when the mandrel is retracted but clears the
bore of the hollow mandrel when the mandrel
projection from said wall of the port.
is projected.
l1. In an expansible cutter tool, a hollow body
40 having a slot, a cutter in said slot, a hollow man
drel movable in the bore of the body and hav
,
JOHN W. MACCLATCHIE.
GLENN D. JOHNSON.
CARL A. THIES.
40
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