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Патент USA US2117078

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May 10, 1938.
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w. BRAUER
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2,117,078
DRILLING CONTROL MECHANI SM
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WALTER BRAUER
May 10, 1938.
w. BRAUER
> 2,117,078
DRILLING. CONTROL MEGHAÑISM
>Filed Jan. 9, 1937
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WALTER ÈRAUER.
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Patented May 10, 1938
l
2,117,078
PATENT 0IA-'FICE
UNITED STATES
2,117,018
DRILLING coN'raoL MECHANISM
waiter armer, oklahoma city, Okla.
Application January 9,1937, serial No. 119,752
6 Claims.
(Cl. Z55-19) `
The invention relates to a brake control mecha
nism where the brake governs the movement of a
drum carrying a cable.
f
In many instances and particularly in well
5 drilling operations the drill bit is advanced due
to its own weight while it is being suspended by
a. block and tackle froma drum. A brake mecha
nism applied to the drum is usually controlled
' so as to pay out the cable as the drilling opera
10 tion progresses.
It is needless to say that if the
cable is released too slowly the drilling operation
will be slowed down, while on the other han l, if
the cable is paid out too fast then too much
weight will be permitted to rest upon the drill bit
15 which causes unnecessary deflection of the' drill '
bit from the vertical. It is desirable, therefore,
to pay out the cable so as to feed the drill bit
in proportion to the weight or the strain on
20
the cable due to the weight of the bit. The rate
at which the drill bit penetrates the formation
fluid piping connection to the various parts of the
device.
`
The invention ls being described in connection
with well drilling equipment, but it is to lbe under
stood that it may be applied to various devices QI
where a brake is to be operated as a function of
the load being braked.
All of the equipment has been illustrated as
being positioned upon the derrick floor 2 inside
of the confines of the derrick legs 3. 'I'he draw 10
works assembly is illustrated generally at I and
of course includes the drum 5 upon which the
cable is reeled in order to effect the raising and i
lowering of the drill stem which is shown at G
asprojecting through the rotary table 1.
of course understood that the rotary
rotated by means of the pinion shaft ß
sprocket 9, which is in turn driven by
from the sprocket i i of the drawworks
It is
table is
and the
a chain
l. The
cable which supports the string of pipe and the
20
drill bit in the well bore passes upwardly over the
of course varies with the formation being en
crown block in the top of the derrick and of
. countered and the present mechanism has there
course through the usual traveling block and
fore been devised with a view of controlling the
brake mechanism as a function of the weight „thence down to the drum 5 of the drawworks.
i5 suspended by the cable so that the mechanism will The other end of the cable known as the dead 25
line is seen at i4 in Fig. 1 and will be anchored
operate automatically to maintain a substan
tially uniform weight on the cable which is sus l at i6 to the derrick floor.
In order to control the rotation of drum ‘5 the
pending the drilling equipment.
It is one of the objects of the invention to brake bands Il are applied to each end of tne
provide an automatically operating mechanism drum and will be operated by the brake lever iB 30
for brakes which will function in proportion to seen in both Figs. l and 2.
During the drilling operation the brake lever i8
the load on the brake.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
ñuid pressure control mechanism wherein there
is a continuous circulation of pressure fluid.
Another object of the invention is to provide
a safety mechanism for fluid pressure operated
brake devices so as to apply the brake in event
the pressure in the system drops below a pre
determined value.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
diiierential pressure operated diaphragm in a
drilling control mechanism so that a variable
pressure due ‘to a fluctuating load can be bal
5 anced by a constant pressure in order to control
the drilling operation.
`
,
Other and further objects of the invention will
be readily apparent when the following descrip
tion is considered in connection with the accom
1
G panying drawings, wherein:
l
Fig. 1 is a side view of a derrick brake and
control mechanism construction illustrating the
various parts in section.
Fig. 2 is'a top plan view of the assembly by
55 » which the control is obtained; and illustrating the
will be manipulated to allow the weight of the
drill bit and the drill .stem to unreel the cable
from the drum 5, the brake being applied to
retard the paying out of the cable so that an
excessive amount of weight will not be applied
to the drill bit, and to control‘the adjustment
of the bit in accordance with the formation being
encountered, the `rate of rotation of the bit, and 40
various other circumstances which have a bearing
upon the rate of drilling.
._
'I'he present invention islin the nature of an
improvement over my prior Patent 1,779,656,
granted October 28, 1930, wherein the general`
combination of an automatic brake regulator for
rotary drilling is. disclosed. ' The present improve
ment consists primarily in` providing suitable
control mechanism for the fluid pressure so as
to equalize the action of the parts and to avoid
sharp fluctuations in the fluid pressure used to
control the mechanism, as well as to apply cir
culating fluid pressure which can be more accu
rately controlled than the arrangement of the
fluid pressure shown in my prior patent.
«
55
2
2,117,078
In order to provide a source of circulating fluid
pressure a supply tank 20 has been shown in
Fig. 2. Disposed in this tank is circulating pump
2| which may be operated by the drive wheel 22
from a connection 23 on the end of the rotary
drive pinion shaft. While this arrangement has
been shown, it is to be understood that the power
for circulating the fluid pressure liquid 24 from
the tank 20 may be provided from any suitable
10 source. The pump 2| discharges into the pipe
line 21 which passes into the control device 28
which is shown in section in Fig. 1. The pressure
in this fluid circuit is maintained constant by the
use of a suitable pressure control valve 25 which
may as a practical matter comprise a suitable
by-pass valve.
In such event it is obvious that
the volume of liquid pumped by circulating pump
2| will be suf?cient to ñll control chamber 66 at
such rate that the desired change in braking
20 will occur. The fluid from this pipe line 21 dis
charges into a chamber 30 in the housing 3| and
beneath a diaphragm 32. 'I‘his pressure of course
tends to raise the diaphragm 32 away some so as
to move it out of contact with a seat 33 which is
25 formed on a nipple 34 carried by the base 35 of
the control mechanism. The diaphragm 32 nor-mally closes the nipple 34 of the valve 33 so that
there can be no flow of fluid from the chamber
30 into the outlet pipe 31 which is connected to
The movement of the diaphragm
32 is assisted by a spring 40 which bears against
the partition 4| of the housing- 3|, this spring
being adjustable by means of hand wheel 42,
which is threaded on the stem 43, which is con
35 nected to the diaphragm 32. In other words, the
diaphragm is loaded by the spring 40 in any de
sired amount of adjusting the hand wheel 42.
The pressure through the line 21 and in the cham
ber 30 will assist the loading of spring 40 before
30 the nipple 34.
40 the diaphragm 32 can move upwardly.
In order to control the movement of the dia
phragm as a function of the load on the drilling
cable a iluid pressure connection 45 leads into the
chamber 46 in the housing 3| above the diaphragm
45 32 and this connection 45 leads to a cylinder 41
which carries a piston 48 which presses against
the dead line I4 of the cable. A suitable roller
49 is connected to the piston 48. The cylinder 41
is carried by a bracket 5l) which is shown as
50 clamped to the dead line so that a variable pres
sure on the cable will impart a variable pressure
to the piston 48 so that the fluid pressure in the
chamber 5| will reflect this variable pressure in
the chamber 46 of the control mechanism.
55
It will be apparent that the diaphragm 32 is
thus controlled by a differential pressure so that
it is either balanced or unbalanced, depending
upon the variable pressure in the chamber 46, it
being understood that the spring 40 will be used
60 to load the diaphragm, depending upon the num
ber of times the cable is reeved through the travel
ing block and the crown block and upon the
weight of the drill stern in the hole.
The operation of the brake lever I8 is effected
65 by means of the link connection 62 which is in
turn connected to the stem 63 which carries a pis
t0n 64 disposed in the pressure cylinder 65. It
will be observed that the ñuid pressure from the
outlet pipe 31 is directed into the pressure cham
70 ber 66 so that it tends to move the piston 64 down-,
wardly and in this manner apply the brake to the
brake drlmi. This fluid pressure is admitted to
the chamber 66 only when the constant pressure
in the chamber 30 exceeds the variable pressure
75 in the chamber 46.
It has been found in practice, however, that a
constant pressure is subject to variation due to
expansion and contraction of the piping and other
equipment due to leakage and to various other
circumstances which cannot bey accurately con Ul
trolled; for this reason the circulating mechanism
described above has been provided so that there
is a constant pressure applied in the chamber 30
which is admitted periodically to the chamber
6C. In order to effect a complete circulation 10
of the liquid the outlet 10 has been provided on
the cylinder 65 and a suitable choke 1| is dis
posed in this discharge outlet 10. The handle 12
serves to adjust the choke so as to restrict or en
large the volume of flow through the chamber 66.
The outlet pipe 13 continues as seen in Fig. 2 and
discharges into the supply tank 20.
It is thus apparent that choke 1| permits ad
justment of the rate of flow of fluid from control
chamber 66 such that when an increased braking 20
is desired the rate of ñow of fluid through valve
33 to control chamber 66 exceeds a discharge flow
through choke 1|, and brake lever I8 is moved
downwardly by piston 64. On the other hand, if
a decrease in braking is desired the rate of ñow
of fluid from control chamber 66 exceeds that
from valve 33 into the chamber whereby piston
64 will rise and braking will be decreased.
The safety feature has been provided in event
there is breakage in any of the piping or a failure 30
of the supply pump 2| by an arrangement of a
pipe 80 which is connected to the supply pipe 21
and carries a pressure gaugev 8|. This pipe leads
to a diaphragm 82 which is carried by a cylinder
83 on the safety housing 84. A latch member 85
is connected to the diaphragm 82 and is normally
pressed inwardly due to fluid pressure through
the pipe 80 on the diaphragm 82. A spring 86
resists a predetermined amount of pressure ap
plied to the diaphragm so that while the latch 85 40
normally remains in the position shown in Fig. 1,
if the pressure drops below this predetermined
amount then thel spring 96 will move the latch
85 to the left or to retracted position.
The latch 85 normally serves to support a plate
88 which is'connected by a chain 90 to the brake
arm I8. A spring 9| normally urges the plate 88
downwardly to retain it against the latch 85.
When the latch 85 is removed due to a reduction
in pressure the spring 9| will exert a downward
pull on the stem at 89 and of course on the brake
arm I8 so as to set the brake. This prevents un
necessary and undesirable relation of the cable
with the brake mechanism in event of difficulty
with any of the control mechanism.
Broadly, the invention contemplates a control
mechanism for brakes which will be uniform in
its action and which will be operated as a func
tion of the load being braked.
What is claimed is:
j
’
'
60
1. A brake control for feeding the cable of a
drilling rig comprising in combination with the
brake of a liquid pressure mechanism to exert a
pull thereon, means to transmit liquid pressure
to said mechanism as a function of the force op
65
posing said brake, and means to discharge theV
liquid from said mechanism at a predetermined
rate so as to damp thefluctuation of the pressure
actuating said mechanism.
2. A brake control for feeding the cable of a 70
drilling rig comprising in combination with the
brake of a liquid pressure Amechanism to exert a
pull thereon, means totransmit liquid pressure
to said mechanism as a function of the force op
posing said brake, means to discharge the liquid 76
2,117,078
from said mechanism at a predetermined rate so
as to damp the iluctuation of the pressure actu
' ating said mechanism, and additional means to
set said brake ln event of reduction of the operat
ing liquid pressure below a predetermined value.
3. A control mechanism for drilling rig brakes
where the rate of feeding the cable from the
brake drum is dependent upon the load being car
ried which comprises the combination of a sup
10 ply of liquid subject to a pressure which is a func
tion of the load on the cable, a diaphragm sub
jected to such pressure, means to apply a con
stant pressure to said diaphragm in balancing the
load pressure, `a valve operated by said diaphragm
to release the constant pressure when the load
pressure is overbalanced, and means to actuate
said brake when the ñow of pressure iiuid 're
leased by said valve exceeds a predetermined vol
ume.
20
4. A control mechanism for drilling rig brakes
where the rate of feeding the cable from the
'brake drum is dependent upon the load being
carried which comprlses‘the combination of a
supply of liquid subject to a pressure which is a
25 function of the load on the cable, a diaphragm
subjected to such pressure, means to apply a con
3
the load pressure is overba'lanced, means to actu
ate said brake when the flow of pressure fluid re
leased by said valve exceeds a predetermined vol
ume, said last means including a choke.
5. A control mechanism for drilling rig brakes
Where the rate of feeding the cable from the 5
brake drum is dependent upon the load being car
ried which comprises the combination of a sup
ply of liquid subject to a pressure which is a func
tion of the load on the cable, a diaphragm sub
jected to such pressure. means to apply a constant 10
pressure to said diaphragm in balancing the load
pressure, a valve operated by said diaphragm 4to
release the constant pressure when the load pres
sure is over-balanced, means to actuate said brake 15
when the iiow of pressure ñuid released by said
valve exceeds a predetermined volume, said last
means including a choke, and additional means
to actuate said brake if the constant pressure falls
below a predetermined value.
20
- 6. In an automatically operable fluid pres
sure brake control mechanism a safety device to
actuate the brake in event the operating pressure
falls below a predetermined value including a
mechanically operated member to apply the 25
brake, and `fluid pressure latching means to re
stant pressure to said diaphragm in balancing ' lease said member when the pressure falls below
the load pressure, al valve operated by said dia
a predetermined value.
y
A
phragm to release the constant pressure when
WALTER BRAUER.
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