Патент USA US2117078код для вставки
May 10, 1938. _ w. BRAUER ` 2,117,078 DRILLING CONTROL MECHANI SM /7A l4\\\ \\ÑA gmc/Mw" WALTER BRAUER May 10, 1938. w. BRAUER > 2,117,078 DRILLING. CONTROL MEGHAÑISM >Filed Jan. 9, 1937 Pà' ‘2. i ' v \ 2 Sheets-Sháet 2 H WALTER ÈRAUER. mmm». Patented May 10, 1938 l 2,117,078 PATENT 0IA-'FICE UNITED STATES 2,117,018 DRILLING coN'raoL MECHANISM waiter armer, oklahoma city, Okla. Application January 9,1937, serial No. 119,752 6 Claims. (Cl. Z55-19) ` The invention relates to a brake control mecha nism where the brake governs the movement of a drum carrying a cable. f In many instances and particularly in well 5 drilling operations the drill bit is advanced due to its own weight while it is being suspended by a. block and tackle froma drum. A brake mecha nism applied to the drum is usually controlled ' so as to pay out the cable as the drilling opera 10 tion progresses. It is needless to say that if the cable is released too slowly the drilling operation will be slowed down, while on the other han l, if the cable is paid out too fast then too much weight will be permitted to rest upon the drill bit 15 which causes unnecessary deflection of the' drill ' bit from the vertical. It is desirable, therefore, to pay out the cable so as to feed the drill bit in proportion to the weight or the strain on 20 the cable due to the weight of the bit. The rate at which the drill bit penetrates the formation fluid piping connection to the various parts of the device. ` The invention ls being described in connection with well drilling equipment, but it is to lbe under stood that it may be applied to various devices QI where a brake is to be operated as a function of the load being braked. All of the equipment has been illustrated as being positioned upon the derrick floor 2 inside of the confines of the derrick legs 3. 'I'he draw 10 works assembly is illustrated generally at I and of course includes the drum 5 upon which the cable is reeled in order to effect the raising and i lowering of the drill stem which is shown at G asprojecting through the rotary table 1. of course understood that the rotary rotated by means of the pinion shaft ß sprocket 9, which is in turn driven by from the sprocket i i of the drawworks It is table is and the a chain l. The cable which supports the string of pipe and the 20 drill bit in the well bore passes upwardly over the of course varies with the formation being en crown block in the top of the derrick and of . countered and the present mechanism has there course through the usual traveling block and fore been devised with a view of controlling the brake mechanism as a function of the weight „thence down to the drum 5 of the drawworks. i5 suspended by the cable so that the mechanism will The other end of the cable known as the dead 25 line is seen at i4 in Fig. 1 and will be anchored operate automatically to maintain a substan tially uniform weight on the cable which is sus l at i6 to the derrick floor. In order to control the rotation of drum ‘5 the pending the drilling equipment. It is one of the objects of the invention to brake bands Il are applied to each end of tne provide an automatically operating mechanism drum and will be operated by the brake lever iB 30 for brakes which will function in proportion to seen in both Figs. l and 2. During the drilling operation the brake lever i8 the load on the brake. Another object of the invention is to provide a ñuid pressure control mechanism wherein there is a continuous circulation of pressure fluid. Another object of the invention is to provide a safety mechanism for fluid pressure operated brake devices so as to apply the brake in event the pressure in the system drops below a pre determined value. Another object of the invention is to provide a diiierential pressure operated diaphragm in a drilling control mechanism so that a variable pressure due ‘to a fluctuating load can be bal 5 anced by a constant pressure in order to control the drilling operation. ` , Other and further objects of the invention will be readily apparent when the following descrip tion is considered in connection with the accom 1 G panying drawings, wherein: l Fig. 1 is a side view of a derrick brake and control mechanism construction illustrating the various parts in section. Fig. 2 is'a top plan view of the assembly by 55 » which the control is obtained; and illustrating the will be manipulated to allow the weight of the drill bit and the drill .stem to unreel the cable from the drum 5, the brake being applied to retard the paying out of the cable so that an excessive amount of weight will not be applied to the drill bit, and to control‘the adjustment of the bit in accordance with the formation being encountered, the `rate of rotation of the bit, and 40 various other circumstances which have a bearing upon the rate of drilling. ._ 'I'he present invention islin the nature of an improvement over my prior Patent 1,779,656, granted October 28, 1930, wherein the general` combination of an automatic brake regulator for rotary drilling is. disclosed. ' The present improve ment consists primarily in` providing suitable control mechanism for the fluid pressure so as to equalize the action of the parts and to avoid sharp fluctuations in the fluid pressure used to control the mechanism, as well as to apply cir culating fluid pressure which can be more accu rately controlled than the arrangement of the fluid pressure shown in my prior patent. « 55 2 2,117,078 In order to provide a source of circulating fluid pressure a supply tank 20 has been shown in Fig. 2. Disposed in this tank is circulating pump 2| which may be operated by the drive wheel 22 from a connection 23 on the end of the rotary drive pinion shaft. While this arrangement has been shown, it is to be understood that the power for circulating the fluid pressure liquid 24 from the tank 20 may be provided from any suitable 10 source. The pump 2| discharges into the pipe line 21 which passes into the control device 28 which is shown in section in Fig. 1. The pressure in this fluid circuit is maintained constant by the use of a suitable pressure control valve 25 which may as a practical matter comprise a suitable by-pass valve. In such event it is obvious that the volume of liquid pumped by circulating pump 2| will be suf?cient to ñll control chamber 66 at such rate that the desired change in braking 20 will occur. The fluid from this pipe line 21 dis charges into a chamber 30 in the housing 3| and beneath a diaphragm 32. 'I‘his pressure of course tends to raise the diaphragm 32 away some so as to move it out of contact with a seat 33 which is 25 formed on a nipple 34 carried by the base 35 of the control mechanism. The diaphragm 32 nor-mally closes the nipple 34 of the valve 33 so that there can be no flow of fluid from the chamber 30 into the outlet pipe 31 which is connected to The movement of the diaphragm 32 is assisted by a spring 40 which bears against the partition 4| of the housing- 3|, this spring being adjustable by means of hand wheel 42, which is threaded on the stem 43, which is con 35 nected to the diaphragm 32. In other words, the diaphragm is loaded by the spring 40 in any de sired amount of adjusting the hand wheel 42. The pressure through the line 21 and in the cham ber 30 will assist the loading of spring 40 before 30 the nipple 34. 40 the diaphragm 32 can move upwardly. In order to control the movement of the dia phragm as a function of the load on the drilling cable a iluid pressure connection 45 leads into the chamber 46 in the housing 3| above the diaphragm 45 32 and this connection 45 leads to a cylinder 41 which carries a piston 48 which presses against the dead line I4 of the cable. A suitable roller 49 is connected to the piston 48. The cylinder 41 is carried by a bracket 5l) which is shown as 50 clamped to the dead line so that a variable pres sure on the cable will impart a variable pressure to the piston 48 so that the fluid pressure in the chamber 5| will reflect this variable pressure in the chamber 46 of the control mechanism. 55 It will be apparent that the diaphragm 32 is thus controlled by a differential pressure so that it is either balanced or unbalanced, depending upon the variable pressure in the chamber 46, it being understood that the spring 40 will be used 60 to load the diaphragm, depending upon the num ber of times the cable is reeved through the travel ing block and the crown block and upon the weight of the drill stern in the hole. The operation of the brake lever I8 is effected 65 by means of the link connection 62 which is in turn connected to the stem 63 which carries a pis t0n 64 disposed in the pressure cylinder 65. It will be observed that the ñuid pressure from the outlet pipe 31 is directed into the pressure cham 70 ber 66 so that it tends to move the piston 64 down-, wardly and in this manner apply the brake to the brake drlmi. This fluid pressure is admitted to the chamber 66 only when the constant pressure in the chamber 30 exceeds the variable pressure 75 in the chamber 46. It has been found in practice, however, that a constant pressure is subject to variation due to expansion and contraction of the piping and other equipment due to leakage and to various other circumstances which cannot bey accurately con Ul trolled; for this reason the circulating mechanism described above has been provided so that there is a constant pressure applied in the chamber 30 which is admitted periodically to the chamber 6C. In order to effect a complete circulation 10 of the liquid the outlet 10 has been provided on the cylinder 65 and a suitable choke 1| is dis posed in this discharge outlet 10. The handle 12 serves to adjust the choke so as to restrict or en large the volume of flow through the chamber 66. The outlet pipe 13 continues as seen in Fig. 2 and discharges into the supply tank 20. It is thus apparent that choke 1| permits ad justment of the rate of flow of fluid from control chamber 66 such that when an increased braking 20 is desired the rate of ñow of fluid through valve 33 to control chamber 66 exceeds a discharge flow through choke 1|, and brake lever I8 is moved downwardly by piston 64. On the other hand, if a decrease in braking is desired the rate of ñow of fluid from control chamber 66 exceeds that from valve 33 into the chamber whereby piston 64 will rise and braking will be decreased. The safety feature has been provided in event there is breakage in any of the piping or a failure 30 of the supply pump 2| by an arrangement of a pipe 80 which is connected to the supply pipe 21 and carries a pressure gaugev 8|. This pipe leads to a diaphragm 82 which is carried by a cylinder 83 on the safety housing 84. A latch member 85 is connected to the diaphragm 82 and is normally pressed inwardly due to fluid pressure through the pipe 80 on the diaphragm 82. A spring 86 resists a predetermined amount of pressure ap plied to the diaphragm so that while the latch 85 40 normally remains in the position shown in Fig. 1, if the pressure drops below this predetermined amount then thel spring 96 will move the latch 85 to the left or to retracted position. The latch 85 normally serves to support a plate 88 which is'connected by a chain 90 to the brake arm I8. A spring 9| normally urges the plate 88 downwardly to retain it against the latch 85. When the latch 85 is removed due to a reduction in pressure the spring 9| will exert a downward pull on the stem at 89 and of course on the brake arm I8 so as to set the brake. This prevents un necessary and undesirable relation of the cable with the brake mechanism in event of difficulty with any of the control mechanism. Broadly, the invention contemplates a control mechanism for brakes which will be uniform in its action and which will be operated as a func tion of the load being braked. What is claimed is: j ’ ' 60 1. A brake control for feeding the cable of a drilling rig comprising in combination with the brake of a liquid pressure mechanism to exert a pull thereon, means to transmit liquid pressure to said mechanism as a function of the force op 65 posing said brake, and means to discharge theV liquid from said mechanism at a predetermined rate so as to damp thefluctuation of the pressure actuating said mechanism. 2. A brake control for feeding the cable of a 70 drilling rig comprising in combination with the brake of a liquid pressure Amechanism to exert a pull thereon, means totransmit liquid pressure to said mechanism as a function of the force op posing said brake, means to discharge the liquid 76 2,117,078 from said mechanism at a predetermined rate so as to damp the iluctuation of the pressure actu ' ating said mechanism, and additional means to set said brake ln event of reduction of the operat ing liquid pressure below a predetermined value. 3. A control mechanism for drilling rig brakes where the rate of feeding the cable from the brake drum is dependent upon the load being car ried which comprises the combination of a sup 10 ply of liquid subject to a pressure which is a func tion of the load on the cable, a diaphragm sub jected to such pressure, means to apply a con stant pressure to said diaphragm in balancing the load pressure, `a valve operated by said diaphragm to release the constant pressure when the load pressure is overbalanced, and means to actuate said brake when the ñow of pressure iiuid 're leased by said valve exceeds a predetermined vol ume. 20 4. A control mechanism for drilling rig brakes where the rate of feeding the cable from the 'brake drum is dependent upon the load being carried which comprlses‘the combination of a supply of liquid subject to a pressure which is a 25 function of the load on the cable, a diaphragm subjected to such pressure, means to apply a con 3 the load pressure is overba'lanced, means to actu ate said brake when the flow of pressure fluid re leased by said valve exceeds a predetermined vol ume, said last means including a choke. 5. A control mechanism for drilling rig brakes Where the rate of feeding the cable from the 5 brake drum is dependent upon the load being car ried which comprises the combination of a sup ply of liquid subject to a pressure which is a func tion of the load on the cable, a diaphragm sub jected to such pressure. means to apply a constant 10 pressure to said diaphragm in balancing the load pressure, a valve operated by said diaphragm 4to release the constant pressure when the load pres sure is over-balanced, means to actuate said brake 15 when the iiow of pressure ñuid released by said valve exceeds a predetermined volume, said last means including a choke, and additional means to actuate said brake if the constant pressure falls below a predetermined value. 20 - 6. In an automatically operable fluid pres sure brake control mechanism a safety device to actuate the brake in event the operating pressure falls below a predetermined value including a mechanically operated member to apply the 25 brake, and `fluid pressure latching means to re stant pressure to said diaphragm in balancing ' lease said member when the pressure falls below the load pressure, al valve operated by said dia a predetermined value. y A phragm to release the constant pressure when WALTER BRAUER.