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Патент USA US2117089

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May 10, 1938-
R. R. GOODRICH, 2D
2,1 17,Q89
ELECTRONIC OSCILLATOR AND MULTIPLIER
Filed March 28, 1936
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Patented May 10, 1938
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‘UNITED STATES PATENT‘ orrle
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ELECTRONIC ostzlllllllgg‘zm AND MULTI-
_
Robert Rhea Goodrich, 2nd, Camden, N. J., as
signor to Radio Corporation oi’ America, a ,
corporation of Delaware
Application March 28,
12 Claims.
My invention relates to electronic oscillators
and multipliers. More speci?cally, my invention
is an electronic discharge device which depends
' for its oscillation on two sources oi’ electrons:
5 one, athermionic source of primary electrons; the
other, surfaces emitting secondary electrons upon
electronic bombardment.
'
1936, Serial No. 71,513
(Cl. 250-36)
tronic device of Fig. I employing a ?lament type
cathode,
‘ Fig. III is a diagram showing my invention
applied to a push pull oscillator, and
Fig. IV is an enlarged sectional view of a uni- 5
1noteniisslial cathode which may be embodied in my
nven 011
Electronic oscillators and multipliers which de- '
In Fig. I within a highly‘evacuated envelope l
pend solely on secondary emission o?’er advan- are included a pair of electrodes 8, 5, and an ac
io {ages such as; high ampli?cation, and quiet operation. However, the operation of such devices
celerating anode ‘I. Each of these electrodes is 10
Suitably supported by wires 9. ll, l3, Which may
is not without disadvantages. The electronic also act as the lead-in conductors. The surfaces
stream must be initially started. There are two . of the pair of disc shape electrodes 3. 5. are pref
accepted theories accounting for the initial trig>5 gering of the electronic stream. In one theory it
‘is assumed that a photo-emission of electrons accounts for the triggering effect. In the other
theory, it is assumed that a small amount of residual gas is ionized thereby starting the electronic movement,
»
If the photo-emissive type of electrode surfaces
are employed, these surfa‘es may be highly secondar?y emjssive and W111 operate under a, high
vacuum (10-6 mm, of mercury) but gas is apt
P to be driven out of the electrodes. This gas will
0 ruin‘the photo-emissive properties of the elec-
trodes. Thereafter, the triggering e?’ects must
erably treated with beryllium oxide, or the like.
to make them highly electron emissive. The ac- is
celerating anode may be formed of a circular
band 01' metal Which is preferably divided- its
Shown. by a Strip l5.
An electronic 81m. 01' unipotential cathode il
is inserted through a suitable ori?ce is in one of 20
the electrodes 5-
The end surface of the uni
potential cathode 5 is preferably flush with the
inner surface 2| of the electrode. The cathode
I1 is heated by a heater wire 23 in the ‘conven
tional manner, One of the heater leads may be
connected Within the enVelOP? to the supporting
conductor la. The other heater lead is connected
come from the ionization of the gas. But the
ionization of the gas is a critical matter depending
u upon pressure, It has been found that critical
gas pressures are dimcult to maintain. This is
due to clean-up of the gas by the electrodes
themselves,
One of the objects of my invention is to 'com5 Mile the secondary electron 'emissive electrode and
a thermionic electron emitter in an electronic
device_ Another object is to supply a, triggering
to the cathode heater battery 25 which is joined.
t0 the conductor l3- The unipotential cathode
i1 is likewise connected to the conductor It or
electrode 5.
30
A tunable circuit 21 comprising an inductor 29
and ‘capacitor 3| is connected between the pairs
0? electrodes 3, 5- The positive terminal 01’ a
biasing‘ battery 33 is Connected by means Of 0011
ductol' H to the accelerating anode 7. The nega
tive terminal of_this battery 33 is connected to a
device for a secondary electron emitter. A still
further object isthe embodiment of an electronic
I emitter whose. surface is treated to be highly
emisswe of electrons upon bombardment by pm
mary electrons and the inclusion of a thermionic
tap 35 intermediate the finds 01’ the inductor 29.
A magnetic ?eld. supplled by a permanent or
electremegnet 30. is arranged so that its lines of $0
,force are substantially coaxial with the axis of
the accelerating anode
emitter in the plane of said surface whereby the el3332:2156 353g; 31” beglringfatgdéhi1‘); HEM-V
; electronic device may operate substantially inde'
accelerated by the anodes-5e‘!p and syomee 01111::
gendelnt of critical gas pressure or photo-ems“ - electrons strike the electrode 3 at high velocity.
‘ W e ectmde Summes‘ An a'dditkfnal object is The striking electrons thus lose their energy and
to combine a secondary electron emlsslve element liberate secondary electrons. At the same time
and an electronic gun electrode within a high a transient current m ‘the tuned circuit sets up
evacuated envelope substantially free from ionizable gasFigure I is a schematic illustration showing an
embodiment of my invention in an electronic
oscillator,
,
.
Fig. II represents a modi?cation of the elec-
an alternating current ms current alternately
makes one of the pair of electrodes 3, 5 positive
and negative with respect to the other electrode.
The secondary electrons from the electrode 3 are
attracted to the momentarily positive electrode 5,
and upon impinging on this electrode 5 more sec- M
2
2,117,089
ondary electrons are emitted.
These electrons,
in tiu'n, are impinged on the then momentarily
positive electrode 3. These cycles continue with
trodes 11, 19 from within the electrodes. The
end surfaces of the cathodes 03, 85 are prefer
ably in the plane of the emissive surfaces of the
electrodes 11, 19. The heaters 9|, 93 for the
ever increasing numbers of electrons until the
space charge and ‘collection of electrons by the
accelerating anode limit the numbers of electrons
travelling back and forth between the elec
cathodes 83, 85 may be connected in series or
parallel and are preferably connected to the
trodes 3, 5.
to the electrodes 11, 19.
From the foregoing description, it would seem
10 that the cathode could be de-energized once the
electronic cycles were started.
This is true in
many electronic tubes, but I prefer to maintain
the cathode heated. The heated cathode, al
though it may only supply a few of the total num
ber of electrons, acts as a stabilizing element,
permits more uniform manufacture of tubes', and
more stable operation.
In Fig. II a modi?cation of my invention, em
ploying a ?lament type cathode, is illustrated.
20 The evacuated envelope M is arranged with a
cylindrical anode 43 supported by a conductor
45. A cylindrical electrode 41 surrounds the
anode 43 and is concentrically mounted with re
spect thereto by conductors '46. The-inner sur
face 49 of the electrode 41 is treated to render
it highly electron emissive. A V shape opening
5| is pierced in the electrode 41. A pair of con
ductive leads 53 are mounted so that their ends
terminate within the V without contacting the
30 electrode 41. A suitable electron emitter ?lament
is conductively arranged between the leads 53
and is supported at its center by a wire 55 which
is attached to the electrode 41.
The ?lament is arranged to lie substantially in
the plane of the surface of the electrode 41.
The ?lament is heated by a battery 51. A sole
noid 59 is arranged to surround the envelope I.
The solenoid is energized by a battery 6| .
The conductor 45 which supports the anode is
connected to the positive terminal of battery 53.
The negative terminal of the battery is joined to
one terminal of a tuned circuit 05 which is com
posed of an inductor B1 and a variable capacitor
69. The other terminal of the tuned circuit is
connected to the conductors 46 which in turn
connect to the electrode 41.
The operation of this embodiment of my in
vention is somewhat diiferent from the circuit of
Fig. I. In the present case the ?lament emits pri
mary electrons. These primary electrons, under
the in?uence of the magnetic ?eld travel out
wardly but follow a curved path approaching the
anode and returning at high velocity to the sur
face of the emissive electrode 41. The primary
electrons impinging on the emissive electrode
cause the emission of increasing numbers of sec
ondary electrons. A transient current in the
tuned circuit 65 establishes oscillatory currents
which are sustained by and at the'same time aid
the electronic movements as previously described.
Although the ?lament may be de-energized I pre
fer to maintain it in the heated condition in
which state it aids the operation of the oscil
lator.
In Fig. III a schematic diagram illustrates an
embodiment of my invention applied to a push
pull magnetron oscillator. A pair of accelerating
electrodes.
The cathodes 83, 85 are connected
A solenoid 95 or other suitable source of mag
netic ?eld is used to create a ?eld whose lines 10
'of force are substantially coaxial with respect to
the longitudinal axis of the several electrodes.
The solenoid is energized by a battery 91.
This
same battery may be used to energize the heaters
9|, 93. The accelerating anodes 1|, 13 are re
spectively connected to the terminals of a tunable '
circuit 99 which is comprised of an inductor IM
and a capacitor I03. A battery I05 is connected
between the junction of the secondary emissive
electrodes "-19 and a tap I01 intermediate the 20
ends of the inductor IN. The battery is poled
to make the anodes positive with respect to the
secondary emissive electrodes.
The operation of the circuit of Fig. III is sub
stantially'the same as the circuit of Fig. II. The 25
push-pull oscillator is so well known to those
skilled in the art that further description is not
required. It should be understood that the uni
potential or electron gun type of cathode is in
terchangeable with the ?lament type cathode 30
and vice versa.
_ .
Thus, an electronic device has been described
which does not depend solely on secondary elec
tron emission, or thermionic emission but com
bines the useful characteristics of both. The 35
combined application of secondary electron emis
sion and thermionic emission makes the elec-'
tronic oscillator and multiplier more stable, re
liable, and cheaper to manufacture than those
devices which rely solely on secondary emission.
I claim as my invention:
,
'
.
scribed comprising an evacuated envelope, an ac
celerating anode and a secondary emissive elec
trode mounted within said envelope and includ
ing an opening in its emissive surface, a primary
electron emitting electrode located within and
having an emissive surface ?ush with said open
ing, and means for energizing said-additional
electrode for the emission of primary electrons.
2. An electronic device of the character de
scribed comprising an evacuated envelope, an ac
celerating anode and a secondary emissive elec
trode mounted within said envelope and having
an opening in its emissive surface, an additional
electrode arranged within said opening and hav
ing a surface which is substantially in alignment
with the emissive surface of said secondary emis
sive electrode and means for energizing said ad
ditional electrode for the emission of primary 60
'3. An electronic device of the character de
electrons.
.
'
scribed comprising an evacuated envelope, an ‘ac
celerating anode and a secondary emissive elec
trode mounted within said envelope, said sec
ondary emissive electrode having an opening in
its emissive surface, and a unipotential cathode
anodes 1i, 13 are suitably supported within an
evacuated envelope 15. Within these anodes 1|,
connected to said secondary emissive electrode
and mounted within said opening having its emis
13 are concentrically mounted a pair of electrodes
sive surface substantially ?ush with said emis
sive surface.
4. An electronic device of the character de
scribed comprising an evacuated envelope con
taining an accelerating anode, a pair of elec
trodes disposed on opposite sides of said anode
11, 19 which are supported by conducting wires
8|. The outer surfaces of the electrodes 11, 18
are treated to render them high electron emis
sive. A pair of unipotential cathodes 83, 85 are
75 inserted through ori?ces 81, 89 with the elec
40
1. An electronic device of the character ‘de
9,117,089
and having surfaces of secondary emissive ma
terial, one of said pair of electrodes having an
opening within its emissive surface, and an ad
ditional electrode, arranged within said opening
?ush with one of said surfaces and made of a
primary electron emitting material.
,
5. In a device of the character described by
claim 1, a tunable circuit connected between said
anode and secondary emissive electrode, a source
of electrical energy for biasing said anode posi
tive with respect to said secondary emissive elec
trode, and a magnetic ?eld for in?uencing elec
tron movement within said envelope.
6. In a device of the character described by
15 claim
4, means for energizing said additional elec
trode, a tunable circuit connected between said
anode and secondary emissive electrodes, a source
of electrical energy for biasing said anode posi
tive with respect to said secondary emissive elec
20 trodes, and a magnetic ?eld for in?uencing elec
tron movement within said envelope.
7. An electronic device of the character de
scribed comprising an evacuated envelope, an
accelerating anode and a secondary emissive
electrode mounted within said envelope, an addi
tional electrode one of the surfaces of which is
substantially in the plane of the emissive surface
30
of said secondary emissive electrode and which
may be energized to emit primary electrons,
means for energizing said additional electrode, a
tunable circuit connected between said anode
and secondary emissive electrode, a source of
electrical energy for biasing said anode positive
with respect to said secondary emissive electrode,
and a magnetic ?eld for in?uencing electron
movement within said envelope.
8. An electronic multiplier comprising an evac
uated envelope, an accelerating anode of cylin
drical form; a hollow cylindrical electrode sur
rounding said anode and having an inner sur
face of secondary electron emissive material; and
3
9. An electronic multiplier comprising an evac
of accelerating anodes of
hollow cylindrical form; a pair of cylindrical
electrodes mounted within said anodes and hav
ing outer surfaces of secondary emissivemate
rial; and a pair of thermionic cathodes connect
ed to said pair of cylindrical electrodes and hav
ing electron emitting surfaces disposed substan
tially in alignment with said outer surfaces.
. 10. A device of the character of claim 8 in— 10
cluding a magnetic ?eld for in?uencing electron
movement within said envelope, a source of pow
er for energizing said cathode, a tunable circuit,
a source of biasing voltage and serial connec
tions between said anode, electrode, source of 15
biasing voltage, and tunable circuit.
11. A device of the character of claim 9 includ
ing a magnetic ?eld for in?uencing electron
movement within said envelope, a source of pow
er for energizing said cathodes, a tunable circuit, 20
connections from said tunable circuit to said ac
celerating anodes, and a source of biasing volt
age connected between a point intermediate the
terminals of said tunable circuit and said elec
trodes.
12. An electronic device of the character de
25
scribed comprising an evacuated envelope, an
accelerating anode and a secondary emissive
electrode mounted within said envelope and hav
ing an opening in its emissive surface, an ad 30
ditional electrode mounted within said opening
and having a surface which is substantially in
alignment with the emissive surface of said sec
ondary emissive electrode and which may be
energized to emit primary electrons, means for
energizing said additional electrode, a tunable cir
cuit connected between said anode and second
ary emissive electrode, a source of electrical en
ergy for biasing said anode positive with respect
to said secondary emissive electrode, and a mag
netic ?eld for in?uencing electron movement
within said envelope.v
ROBERT RHEA GOODRICH, 2ND.
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