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Патент USA US2117230

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May 10, 1938.
H. A. THORNBURG ET AL
2,117,230
ENGINE STARTING` .Í‘QPPARÀTUSl
Filed July e, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet l
May ÍÜ» 1938- v
H. A. THORNBURG ET AL
2,117,230
ENGINE STARTING APPARATUS
Filed July 8, 1956
34(
_
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
/ZO
ZZ
39
26a:
/28
Patented May 10, 1938
2,117,230
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,117,230
`
ENGINE STARTING APPARATUS
Herbal A. Thornburg and James V. Brown, An
derson, Ind., assignors to General Motors Cor
poration, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Del
aware
Application July 8, 1936, Serial No. 89,503
5 Claims.
This invention relates to apparatus for starting
an internal combustion engine and particularly
to the type of apparatus which comprises an elec
tric motor and a pinion driven by motor and mov
able axially into mesh with the fly-wheel or other
gear of the engine to be started. In this type of
apparatus the pinion is withdrawn from the fly
wheel gear after the engine has been started.
It is one of the objects of the present invention
' to prevent engaging the motor-driven pinion
with the engine gear in case the engine is running
prior to moving the pinion into engagement there
with.
In the disclosed embodiment of this invention
the present object is accomplished by providing
a part adapted to make substantially noiseless
contact with an end face of an engine flywheel
and to be moved in response to contact with the
moving ñywheel into such position as to positively
20 stop movement of the motor pinion into engage
ment with the flywheel gear.
‘The present invention is adapted for any sort
of motor vehicle propelled by an internal combus
tion engine and is particularly useful on pas
senger busses of the type where the engine is lo
cated on the side or at the rear of the vehicle and
(Cl. 123-179)
tional View being taken on the line 1_1 of Fig
ure 6.
Referring now to Figure 1, numeral 29 desig
nates the electric motor comprising afield wind
ing 2 I , an armature 22 and brushes 23 and 24, the 5
latter of which is grounded at 25. This motor
drives the shaft 26 which is supported by bear
ings carried by the frame of the motor. The left
end frame is not shown, but it will be understood
to be attached to the left-hand end of the field 10
frame 21 which carries the field winding 2|. The
right end frame or gear housing of the motor is
designated by numeral 28, and it carries a bear
ing 29 for the right-hand end of the shaft 26. `
The shaft 26 is provided with longitudinal splines l
3U which cooperate with longitudinal splines 3l
provided in the sleeve 32 of the inner member or
clutch cam 33 of an overrunning clutch.` This
clutch comprises also a driven member or shell 34
and a series of rollers 35 eachl of which is located 20
between the inner cylindrical surfaces of shell
34 and a cam surface 33a which is not concentric
with the shell. The surfaces 33d are so arranged
with respect to the shell 34 that, as the clutch
inner member 33 rotates clockwise as viewed by
the arrow 36 in Figure '7, clockwise rotation will
so far from the driver’s seat that the operation of
be imparted to the shell 34. Obviously the shell
the engine when idling is not audibly perceptible. 34 may overrun in a clockwise direction with re
It occasionally happens that the operator, believ
spect to the inner driving member 33 when one
30 ing that the engine _has stopped, whereas in fact
Views it as shown in Figure '7. The clutch inner
it is idling, will operate the starter control button ' member 33 carries a bearing bushing 31 which is
causing the starter pinion to mesh with the fly
journaled on the reduced end portion 26a. of the
wheel gear. The engagement of the starter pin
shaft 26. The portion 26a, supportsa bearing
ion with the flywheel gear while the engine is bushing 38 press-fitted into the hub of a starting
running produces a disagreeable noise and is motor pinion 39 which is adapted to move axially
damaging to the gear teeth. Such noise or darn
along the shaft portion 26a into mesh with the
age is avoided by the use of the present invention. iiywheel gear 40 of the engine to be started. The
Further objects and advantages of the present pinion 39 is drivingly connected with the shell 34
invention will be apparent from the following de
by providing the latter with an annular boss 4|
scription, reference being had to the accompany
into which are provided a series of depressions, 40
ing drawings wherein a preferred embodiment of each adapted to receive an end portion of a tooth
the present invention is clearly shown.
of the pinion 39 when the pinion is fixed to the
In the drawings:
shell 34, as shown in Figure 1. To secure the
Figure 1 is in part a longitudinal sectional View pinion 39 to the shell 34 the pinion is provided
of the starting apparatus embodying the present with an annular flange 42 which is passed through 45
invention and in part a wirin-g diagram;
a central orifice in the shell 34 and is riveted
Figures 2 and 3 are sectional Views taken re
spectively on the lines 2--2 and 3-3 of Figure 1;
Figures 4, 5, and 6 are fragmentary side views
partly in section of the engine starter drive, show
ing the same in various positions; and
Figure 7 is in part an end View of the pinion
and clutch assembly and in part a sectional view
of the clutch, the end view being taken in the
,A direction of the arrow A1ct of Figure 6, the sec
over against the shell 34, as indicated at 43.
`
This overrunning clutch and pinion assembly is
moved along the shaft 26 by means of a pinion
meshing means including shifter sleeve 50 pro 50
vided with an annular groove 5| for receiving pins
or studs 52 located on diametrically opposite sides
of the sleeve 50 and carried by spaced arms 53 of
al lever 54 pivoted upon a rod 55 carried by the
frame 28. The rod 55 is surrounded by a coil 55
2
2,117,230
spring 56, one end 51 of which bears downwardly
against the frame 28, as indicated by the arrow
51a and the other end 58 of which bears in the
direction of the arrow 59 against a pin 58 car
ried by the lever 54. Counterclockwise rotation
of the lever 54 causes the sleeve 58 to move toward
the right, as shown in Figure 1. The sleeve 58 has
a central bore 6| which has a sliding ñt with the
shaft 26 and has a part 62 provided with a central
10 bore E3 having a sliding iit with respect to the
sleeve 32. Between the right-hand end of part
52 and the left-hand end of a washer 64 sur
rounding the sleeve 32 and bearing against the
clutch cam 33, there is located a coil spring 65
which normally is somewhat compressed. Spring
65, therefore, forces the part 62 a deñnite distance
an elongated slot |84 through which passes a pin
|85 connecting the link |83 with the lever 54.
The two windings 18 and 1| are connected with
the battery 80 by push-button switch | |8.
To start the engine, the operator closes the
switch ||8 thereby causing the current to flow
from the battery through the switch and through
the windings 10 and 1| and back to the ground
connection 18a. Current will also flow from the
battery through the switch | I8, winding 1|, start
ing motor 20, and back to the battery through the
ground connections 25 and 8|. The electromag
net will be energized suñiciently to cause the
armature 13 to move toward the left in order to
cause that counterclockwise rotation of the lever
separation of the parts 62 from the parts 64 is
limited by a wire split ring 66 which is snapped
54 and that axial movement of sleeve 58 which
will move the motor pinion 39 into mesh with the
engine gear 48. During this movement of the
armature 13, it will engage the rod 81 to cause it
20 into a groove provided by the sleeve 32 and which
to move toward the left and the contact 84 to be
bears against a beveled surface 81 provided on the
left-hand end of the part 62. The part 62 is
joined with the main part of the sleeve 58 by an
arcuate web 68 shown best in Figure 2. This web
25 68 is spaced from the shaft 26 suiiiciently to per
engaged with the contacts 83 and 85 under yield
ing pressure afforded by the spring 89. When
away from the washer 64 and clutch cam 33. The
this occurs the motor will receive current from
the battery and the shaft 26 will rotate and the
pinion 39 will drive the engine gear 48 in such
mit assembling the split ring 66. Quite obviously,
direction as to cause the engine to be started.
motion of the sleeve toward the right as eiîected
by counterclockwise rotation of the lever 54 will
cause the motion to be imparted through the
After the engine has been started the operator
releases the push-button switch | I8 thereby caus
ing the electromagnet to be deenergized, where
upon the lever 54 is moved clockwise into its 30
original position due tol the action of the spring
56, and the pinion 39l is withdrawn from the en
gine gear 48. The armature 13 having been with
drawn from the rod 81, the spring 92 moves the
rod 81 back to its normal position thereby dis
engaging the contact 84 from the contacts 83 and
85, whereupon the motor 28 is disconnected from
the battery 88 and the motor stops.
When the contact 84 engages the contacts 83
spring 65 to the clutch and pinion assembly there
by causing the pinion 39 to move into engage
ment with the engine gear 48.
The lever 54 is moved in a counterclockwise di
rection by direct manual operation or by the
35 electromagnetic means shown diagrammatically
in Figure 1. 'I'his electromagnetic means com
30
prises an electromagnet having two windings 18
of relatively fine wire and 1| of relatively coarse
wire. These windings surround a non-magnetic
40 tube 12 which provides a guide for the movement
of a magnetizable armature 13 toward a sta
tionary magnetizable core member 14 also located
within the magnetic field which is created by cur
rent passing through these windings. The core
14 is attached to the magnetizable discs 15 which
are in contact with a magnetizable shell 16 and
in contact also with m'agnetizable discs 11 and
18 which are h'eld by the sleeve 12 concentric
with respect to the armature 13.
and 85 the winding 1| of coarse wire will be ¿_
short circuited so that a greater amount of current
will flow from the battery to the starting motor
than before. At the time contact 84 engages with
contacts 83 and 85 to short circuit the winding 1|
the air gap between the core 14 and armature 13 45
is relatively small and, therefore, the magnetic
force produced by the coil 18 alone is sufficient to
hold the armature 13 in its attracted position.
Should the pinion 33 collide with the end faces
The starting motor 28 is energized by current of the teeth of the flywheel gear 48 before go
from a storage battery 88 which is grounded at ' ing into mesh, motion of the armature 13 will not
cease due to the fact there is yielding connection
8| and which is connected by wire 82 with a start
er switch contact 83. Contact 83 is connected aiîorded by the spring 85 between the sleeve 58
and the pinion and clutch assembly. After the
by a movable Contact 84 with a stationary con
tact 85 which is connected with winding 1| and pinion 39 engages the end faces of the teeth of 55
with the series field 2| of the starting motor. The the flywheel gear 48, the armature 13 will con
contact 84 is insulatingly supported by a tubular tinue to move toward the left and the sleeve 58
toward the right. While the spring 65 is being
metallic rivet 88 which is slidable upon a rod 81
which extends through the core 14 and is guided compressed beyond its initial stage of compres
60 thereby. The rod 81 carries a washer 88 against sion, the switch contact is being engaged with 60
which the tubular rivet 86 is urged by spring 89 the contacts 83 and 85. When this engagement
located between a washer 98 ñxed to the rod 81
occurs, the motor will be connected with the bat
and a washer 9| loosely mounted on the rod 86. tery and will cause the pinion teeth to be brought
The washer 98 is held against the left end face of into mesh registration with the spaces between
the teeth of the engine gear 48. At the instant
65 core 14 by a spring 92 which surrounds a stud 93
carried by a fixed part 94 and projects into an meshing registration occurs, the spring 65 will be
released quickly to move or “jump” the pinion 39
axial. bore 94 in the pin 81. The spring 92, there
into mesh with the engine gear 48.
fore, serves to maintain the contact 84 out of en
Should the pinion 39 fail to come out of mesh
gagement with contacts 83 and 85, and the right
70 >hand end of plunger 81 in such position as to be with the engine gear 48 after the engine starts,
normally engaged by the left-hand end of core the spring 92 is still free to move the contact 84
away from the contacts 83 and 85 due to the fact
13. The winding 18 is grounded at 18.
‘ The armature 13 is centrally tapped to receive that the slots |84 in links |83 provide thelost
the threaded shank |88 of a stud |8| which is motion connection between the lever 54 and the
` 75
75 >connected by cross pin |82 with a .link |03 having armature 13.
3
2,117,230
The means for preventing the meshing of the
motor pinion with the engine gear after the
engine becomes self-operative and the pinion has
been demeshed therefrom, will now be described
with particular reference to Figures 1, 4, 5, and 6.
This means comprises a tubular cup-shaped part
|20 having a tubular sleeve |2I/»journaled on the
part 62 of the sleeve 59 of the pinion meshing
-means, and having an annular flange |22 adapted
10 to engage the left end face of the flywheel |23
which carries the gear 40. The part 62 carries
diametrically opposed screw pins |24, each of
which is received by a somewhat T-shaped slot
|25 provided in the tubular sleeve | 2| of the tubu
15 lar part |29. The head of this T-shaped slot |25
is a somewhat triangular opening deñned by wall
ited` to a' position wherein the pinion 39 is still
out of engagement with the left end faces‘of
the gear teeth of the flywheel gear 40, as shown
in Figure 6. In this way motion of the pinion
into engagement with the engine ilywheel gear
is positively arrested when the operator attempts
to mesh these gears While the engine is running.
Upon release of the operating lever 54 the
spring 5E restores it and the other parts of the
pinion meshing means to normal position shown 10
in Figure l. During this return movement, the
end ñange |22 of the tubular part |29 leaves the
portions |25 which are oblique or inclined to the
axis of the pinion. The stem or elongated por«
tion of the slot is indicated by numeral |21, and
20 is of a length such that the pinion may be meshed
with the engine gear while part |20 is pressed
against an end face of the engine gear, provided
that the pin i2@ remains in alignment with the
elongated slot portion |21. Where the stem or
pressure exerted by the spring |30.
25
elongated portion |21 joins the head portion de
fined by oblique wall portions |29, the metal of
sleeve |2| provides stop shoulders |28 each of
which is adapted to receive pin |24 depending on
which direction the sleeve |20 is rotated with
respect to the sleeve `59.
Normally each pin |24 rests in the apex of the
head portion of the slot |25 and between the
oblique wall portions |26, and is caused to be
moved into that position by spring |30 located
between a shoulder |3| of the sleeve 59 and a
washer |32 surrounding the sleeve 59 and bear
ing against the left end of the sleeve | 2 |. There
fore, while the engine is at rest, the pinion 39
may be meshed with the engine gear 40 without
40 hindrance by the cup-shaped member |20 since,
during this meshing movement, the pin |24 will
move into the stem portion |21 of the slot | 25
and finally into the position shown in Figure 5,
when the pinion 39 is fully meshed with the
45 engine gear 40. During the cranking of the
engine the flange |22 of the cup~shaped mem~
ber |20 will bear against the left face of the
end face of the engine gear | 23 and each slot
part |21 returns to alignment with each pin |24
due to the camming action between each pin |24 15
and each inclined wall surface |26 caused by
`
While the embodiment of the present invention
as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form,
it is to be understood that other forms might be 20
adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims
which follow.
What is claimed is as follows:
1. Engine starting apparatus comprising, in
combination, an electric motor, a pinion driven 25
by the motor and slidab-le axially into mesh with
a gear of the engine to be started, means to
move the pinion into mesh with the engine gear,
and means responsive to rotation of the engine
gear for positively> blocking movement of the 30
pinion into mesh with the engine gear while- the
engine is running, said last mentioned means
comprising a locking sleeve adapted to be rotated
by the engine gear into locking position to pre
vent movement of the pinion toward the engine 35
gear.
2. Engine starting apparatus comprising, in
combination, an electric motor, a pinion driven
by the motor and slidable axially into mesh with
a gear of the engine to be started, means to move 4.0
the pinion into mesh with the engine gear, a
part movable against an end face of the engine
gear and adapted to be rotated thereby, means
for transmitting movement from the pinion
meshing means to said part to cause the latter 45
to be pressed against an end face of the engine
gear before the pinion starts to mesh with the
engine flywheel |23, but such engagement will
be practically noiseless.
If the operator attempts to mesh the motor
engine gear, and devices for interconnecting the
pinion meshing means and said part, said devices
being so constructed and arranged as normally 50
pinion 39 with the engine gear 40 while the en
to permit such a relative movement between the
pinion and part that the pinion may be meshed
with the engine gear while the part is pressed
against the engine gear and to prevent said rela
tive movement in case the engine gear is rotating 55
before the pinion is meshed therewith`
gine is running the tubular, cup-shaped part |28
will be rotated due to the frictional engagement
of the end face of the ñywheel |23 and flange |22
of the part |20 thereby causing the slots |25 in
the sleeve | 2| to be shifted relative to the pins
|24 carried by the sleeve y5|), one way or the other
depending on the direction of the rotation of
the cup-shaped member |29. Figure 6 shows the
condition which will obtain if, looking in the
direction of the arrow 'la in Figure 6, the rota
tion of the ñywheel |23 is counterclockwise.
Quite obviously, the rotation of the tubular, cup
shaped part |29 will be clockwise. Therefore,
the slot |25 nearest the observer of the view
shown in Figure 4 will move upwardly into the
position shown in Figure 6, and the lowermost
portion of the two shoulders |28 provided by the
metal of the sleeve |2| adjacent the slot |25 will
provide a stop for the pin |24. Since the pin
|24 can move no further toward the right than
is shown in Figure 6, the shifter sleeve 5U and
the clutch and pinion assembly can be moved no
further toward the right. The clutch and pin
75 assembly is arrested in its movement and is lim
3. Engine starting apparatus comprising, in
combination an electric motor, a pinion driven by
the motor and slidable axially into mesh with a
gear of the engine to be started, means to move 60
the pinion into mesh with the engine gear, a tubu
lar part surrounding the pinion and pinion mesh
ing means and movable against an end face of
the engine gear to be rotated thereby, means for
transmitting motion from the pinion meshing
means to said port to cause the latter to be pressed
against an end face of the engine gear before the
pinion starts to mesh with the engine gear, and
devices for interconnecting the pinion meshing
means and said part and provided respectively
by said means and part, one of said devices being
a laterally extending pin and the other a mem
ber having a slot for receiving the pin, said slot
having an elongated portion extending longitudi
nally of the axis of the pinion whereby normally 75
4
2,117,230
pin to alignment with the elongated portion of
to permit such a relative movement between the
pinion and tubular part that the pinion may be
meshed with the engine gear while the part is
the slot when the pinion meshing means returns
to normal position.
pressed against the engine gear, said slot provid
ing a stop shoulder which is moved into align
combination, an electric motor, a pinion driven
ment with the pin in case the tubular part
is rotated by the engine gear face prior to the
meshing of the pinion With the engine gear.
4. Engine starting apparatus comprising, in
10 combination, an electric motor, a pinion driven
by the motor and slidable axially into mesh with
a gear of the engine to be started, means to move
the pinion into mesh With the engine gear, a tubu
lar part surrounding the pinion and pinion mesh
5. Engine starting apparatus comprising, in
by the motor and slidable axially into mesh with`
a gear of the engine to be started, means to move
the pinion into mesh with the engine gear, tubu
lar part surrounding the pinion and pinion mesh
ing means and movable axially against an end face 10
of the engine gear to be rotated thereby, a slot
provided by the tubular part including an elon
gated portion extending longitudinally of the axis
of the pinion a pin extending laterally from the
pinion meshing means and into said slot, a spring 15
for transmitting motions from the pinion meshing
15 ing means and movable against an end face of
the engine gear to be rotated thereby, yielding
means for transmitting motion from the pinion
meshing means to said part to cause the latter
means to the tubular part thereby causing one
to be pressed against an cnd face of the engine
normally against said pin whereby normally to
20 gear before the pinion starts to mesh with the
maintain an end of the tubular part closer to the
engine gear than the pinion, said elongated slot
engine gear, and devices for interconnecting the
pinion meshing means and said part and provided
'respectively by said means and part, one of said
devices being a laterally extending pin and the
25 other a member having a slot for receiving the
pin, said slot having an elongated portion ex
tending longitudinally of the axis of the pinion
. whereby normally to permit such a relative move
ment between the pinion and tubular part that
30 the pinion may be meshed with the engine gear
While the part is pressed against the engine gear,
said slot providing a stop shoulder which is
moved into alignment with the pin in case the
tubular part is rotated by the engine gear face
35 prior to the meshing of the pinion with the
engine gear, said slot having a surface oblique
to the axis of the pinion whereby said surface and
said yielding means may cooperate to restore the
end wall of the slot of the tubular part to bear
portion permitting the pinion to be meshed with
the engine gear while the tubular part is pressed
against an end face of the engine gear, said slot
providing a stop portion which is moved into align 25
ment with the pin in case the tubular part strikes
the engine gear while rotating whereby to prevent
contact between the pinion and engine gear while
the engine is running, and said slot providing a
surface inclined to the axis of the pinion and lo 30
cated between the stop shoulder and an end of
said slot, said inclined slot portion cooperating
with the pinion under pressure exerted by said
spring to restore the alignment between the pin
and the elongated portion of said slot when the 85
pinion meshing means returns to normal position.
HERBAL A. THORN‘BURG.
JAMES- V. BROWN.
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