Патент USA US2117243код для вставки
May 10, 1938. J. F. FRESE TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING MEANS FOR RAILWAY CARS Filed April 6, 1936 2,117,243 2,117,243 Patented May 10, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,117,243 TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING MEANS FOR RAILWAY CARS Joseph F. Frese, Baltimore, Md., assignor to Mon itor Controller Company, Baltimore, Md., a cor poration of Maryland Application April 6, 1936, Serial No. 73,024 4 Claims. (Cl. 236—1) This invention relates to electrically operated means for maintaining the air in railway pas senger cars at a desired temperature either in warm or cold weather while the car is in service, 5 and for maintaining a suitable temperature in the car while the car may be out of service in cold weather. In carrying out the invention, I provide an air cooling system for use in warm weather comprising a compressor for compressing re 10 frigerating ?uid, a condenser and a refrigerating coil, a motor for operating the compressor, one or more motors for‘ circulating cooling fluid around the condenser and one or more fan motors for circulating the air in the car past the re frigerating coil to cool the air and thermally con trolled means for starting the compressor motor and the condenser motors when the temperature in the car is above a desired normal and for stop ping these motors when the temperature falls to said desired normal. Such cars are provided with steam pipes through which steam is carried from the locomotive to suitable radiators in the car, to heat the car in cold or chilly weather, and I pro vide thermally controlled electro-magnetic means for automatically opening a valve in the heating 25 system when the temperature of the air in the car falls below the aforesaid desired normal tem perature and for closing the valve when the tem perature is about normal. Thus, in changeable weather, while the car is in service, the heat con 30 trolling means may operate to raise the tempera ture of the air in the car to a desired normal at one time and the cooling system may operate to lower the temperature of the air in the car at another time on the same day or on different 35 days. I provide interlocking connections where by the heating and cooling system cannot op erate simultaneously and also means whereby, when the car is uncoupled from a train and placed in storage, the cooling system cannot operate, 4 O but the heat controlling means may operate pro viding the steam pipe is connected to a suitable 4 UT and one or more fan motors g are provided for circulating the air of the car over the heat radiat ing surfaces. The supply wires leading from a current source such as a battery or generator on the car are indicated at L and L’. To provide for keeping the temperature within the car at a suitable degree above the freezing temperature while the car may be stored or out of use in the winter time, the steam pipe f may be connected to a suitable stationary heating plant and the temperature will then be regulated auto matically by electromagnetic valve actuating means controlled by a thermostat. As shown, a valve 1 is arranged in the steam pipe 1‘ and this valve is movable to the closed position by an elec 15 tromagnet 2 and to the open position by an elec tromagnet 3. The armatures of the electromag nets are connected to a valve lever 4 and this lever has at its free end a contact piece 5 which electrically connects stationary contacts 6 and 20 1 when the valve is in closed position, and which electrically connects stationary contacts 8 and 9 when the valve is in the open position. Con tact 6 is connected by conductor [0 to the coil of magnet 3 and thence to supply wire L by con ductor ll, and contact 8 is connected to coil 25 of magnet 2 and thence to supply wire L by con ductor l2. Contact ‘I is connected by conductor Hi to stationary contact Id of relay h and contact 9 is connected by conductor I5 to relay contact [6. The relay It has a contact arm H‘ which normally 30 engages contact l6 and which is movable into en gagement with contact l4 when the magnet l8 of the relay is energized. The relay also has a con tact arm H] which is movable with the arm H but which performs no function when the car is 35 in storage and disconnected from the locomotive. The circuit for the magnet of relay h extends from supply wire L through conductor 20 to the magnet coil and thence by conductor 2! to the supply wire L’. Included in the part 20 of this 40 circuit is a manually operable switch 22 and a steam generator. In the accompanying drawing which illustrates thermostat switch 23. the system diagrammatically, (1 indicates a com ing system of the car from a stationary heating 45 plant. To keep the air in the car above the freea pressor for compressing the refrigerating ?uid, at’ indicates a condensing coil and a2 indicates a refrigerating coil, these coils being in series in a circulating pipe system a3 connected to the com pressor. A high pressure valve a4 at the high 50 pressure side of the compressor opens and re lieves the pressure if it becomes abnormally high. An electric motor h is provided for operating the When the car is in storage in cold weather, steam will be admitted to the pipe j of the heat ing temperature, the manually operable switch 22 will be closed to make up the circuit to the coil of relay h through the thermostat switch 23 50 which closes at a predetermined low temperature and opens at a predetermined high temperature in the car. When the thermostat switch closes, and one or more fan motors d are provided for the relay magnet is energized and the contact arm I‘! is moved out of engagement with the 55 contact 16 and into engagement with the contact ‘circulating the air in the car past the refrigerat ing coil, to cool the air. The train-pipe of the air brake system is indicated at e and a pipe form ing a part of the heating system is shown at *1‘, valve operating magnet 3 from supply wire L through the magnet coil and by conductor it] through contacts 5, 6 and 1, conductor l3, con 60 compressor; one or more motors c are provided vfor circulating cooling ?uid around the condenser, M. This completes a circuit to the coil of the 2 2,117,243 tact l4, switch arm H and conductor 2| to supply wire L’. Magnet 3 immediately moves the valve to open position to admit steam to the heating system of the car. In moving to open position, the contact member 5 on the valve lever opens the circuit to magnet 3 and makes up a- circuit to magnet 2 at the contacts 8 and 9, but this latter tircuit is open at the relay contact l6 and re mains open as long as the thermostat is closed 10 and the relay magnet is energized. When the temperature in the car rises sufficiently to cause the thermostat switch to open the circuit of the relay magnet, the relay arm ll moves into en gagement with contact l6, thus completing the circuit to the valve operating magnet 2 through the contact 5 on the valve lever and the contacts 8 and 9. Magnet 2 then moves the lever to close the valve, at the same time opening the circuit through its coil and making up a circuit to the 20 coil of magnet 3 at the contacts 6 and 1, but this latter circuit is then open at the relay contact I4 and remains open until the thermostat switch again closes the circuit of the relay magnet. Thus, each valve operating magnet, after moving 25 the valve, opens its own circuit and makes up a circuit for the opposing magnet, and current is on the magnets only momentarily, in the normal working of the apparatus. When the car is out of service in cold weather 30 and heat is supplied from an external source, as there are no passengers in the car, it is unneces sary to operate the fan motors g to circulate the air in the car and therefore the connections are such that these motors can be operated only when 35 the car is coupled in a train. In warm summer weather, the heating system Will not be required, whether the car is idle or in service, and there fore the switch 22 will be left open so that the relay h which controls the steam valve and also forms a part of the controlling means for the mo tors g will be inoperative. When the car is in service, the pipe 1‘ will re ceive steam from the locomotive and the train pipe e of the air brake system will contain air 45 under pressure. A switch 213 which is always open when the car is disconnected from the locomo— tive, is always closed by the air pressure in the train pipe when the car is coupled to a locomotive. Through this switch and interlocking connections, 50 circuits are made up for operating the heated air fan motors y when the car requires heating and the steam valve is open, or for operating the fan motors d when the heat is not required and the steam valve is closed. In order to cause opera tion of any of the fan motors, g or d, a push but ton switch marked “Fan” must ?rst be closed in arm IQ of relay h is in engagement with contact 32, current will not flow through the magnet coil of, relay 1' but will flow through the magnet coil of relay is. Relay 7‘ has a contact arm 38, normal ly in open position, adapted to engage contact 39 when the relay is closed. Contact 39 is connected by conductor 40 to the fan motors d which are connected to supply wire L and contact arm 38 is connected by conductor 4| to supply wire L', 10 so that when said relay closes, these motors will operate. Contact arm 42 of relay is is connected by conductor 43 to the heated air fan motors g which are connected to supply wire L, and when the relay closes, it will connect the motors g 15 through conductors M and 2| to supply wire L’ and these motors will operate to circulate the air of the car past the heating surfaces. As before stated, the “Fan” push button must be depressed to energize the magnet of relay 2' 20 and cause this relay to close in order that either of the relays 9' or k can be closed to operate the motors d or g. The normally open “Fan” push button switch is arranged in a conductor 37a which extends from conductor 26 to a resistance 25 :15 and coil 46 of a low voltage relay m, which resistance and coil are connected by conductor 31 to supply wire L’. Normally, depression of the “Fan” button causes the relay magnet to be en ergized and its arm 41, which is connected by con 30 ductor 48 to conductor 26, closes a holding cir cuit '49 for the magnet coil 4'6 and also connects conductor 138 to conductor 50 which leads to the coil of magnet 5| of relay 2‘ and thence by con ductor 3? to supply wire L'. Depression of the “Fan” push button switch therefore causes re lay i to close and complete the circuit from con tact arm IQ of relay it through conductor 34, con tact member 35, contact 36 and conductor 31 to supply wire L’. While this condition exists, as long as contact arm 19 is in normal position against contact 3|, the relay 7' will be energized and the fan motors d will operate; but if low tem perature causes thermostat 23 to close and relay h to shift the arm [9 to contact 32, fan motors d 1 will stop and motors y will operate. Depression of the “Stop” push button will open the circuit to the low voltage relay coil and the relay will open the circuit to the magnet coil of relay i, which relay will open the circuit to arm l9 of re lay h and hence no current can flow to the mag nets of relays 7' or k and the fan motors in opera :50 tion at the time the “Stop” switch is depressed As shown, a circuit extends from supply wire L through conductor 25 and a normally closed will be stopped. In warm weather the thermostat switch 23 of 55 the heat controlling means will remain open and the relay it will not operate, hence contact arm I 9 will remain in engagement with contact 3| and the air circulating fan motors d'will oper switch marked “Stop" and through conductor 26, 'ate after‘depression of the “Fan” push button. 60 order to close a relay 1'. 60 the coil of magnet 29 of relay 7‘, and if contact > switch 24 and conductor 21 to coil of magnet 29 of a relay 7‘, thence by conductor 30 to stationary contact 3! of relay h. A conductor 33 extends from conductor 21 to coil of magnet 28 of a relay 65 k and thence to stationary contact 32 of relay h. The contact arm I9 of relay it rests against con tact 3! when the steam valve is closed and is movable into engagement with contact 32 when the steam valve is opened. A conductor 34 con nects'said contact arm to the contact arm '35 of the normally open relay 2'. When relay 2‘ is closed, conductor 34 is connected through conductors 36 and 31 to supply wire L’. Hence, if contact arm I 9 of relay h is in engagement with contact 3| 75 and relay i is closed, current will flow through These fan motors may be operated to circulate air in the car without operating the refrigerat ing apparatus, but the interlocking connections are such that they must be in operation before the compressor motor and condenser motors can be operated. This is to avoid the possibility of operating the compressor without having the fans in operation to circulate the air over the refrigerating coils. After the circulating fan motors d have been started by depression of the “Fan” push but ton switch, another push button switch 52, marked “Comp”, must be depressed to condition the circuits for operating the compressor motor b and the condenser motors c. When the mo 75 2,117,243 3 tors d are in operation, relay 2' is closed and the contact arm 38 of relay 1' is also in closed posi tion and another arm 53 of the latter relay is magnet 88 of contactor s will be energized and in engagement with a contact 54 which is con sor motor I). nected to conductor 34. Arm 53 is connected by conductor 55 to contact arm 56 of a relay n which is adapted to engage contact 51 when the relay is closed. This relay has an arm 58 adapted to engage a contact 53, and arm 58 is connected by conductor 63 to conductor 26 which is con nected to supply wire L through the “Stop” switch. The push button switch 52 is adapted to complete a circuit from the supply wire L and conductor 28 through the push button switch 15 and conductor 6| to the coil of magnet 62, thence through conductors 68 and 34 to contact arm 35 of relay 2' and conductors 36 and 31 to the sup ply wire L'. When this circuit is completed by the momentary depression of‘the push button 20 switch 52, contact arm 58 will close a holding circuit for the coil of magnet 62 through con ductor 63 in shunt to the switch 52, and arm 56 will engage contact 51 and connect a conduc tor 64 to the side L’ of the supply circuit through conductor 55, arm 53 and contact 54 of relay 7', 25 conductor 54”‘, arm 35 of relay 1‘ and conductors 36 and 31. Conductor 64, connected as described, to the supply wire L’, when the relays controlling fan .30 motors d are closed, extends to the coil of mag net 65 of a relay 0, thence through a thermostat switch 66 and a manually controlled switch 61 to conductors 26 and 25 and thence through the “Stop” switch to the side L of the supply circuit. Thus, after the closure of the “Fan” push but 35 ton switch and the compressor push button switch in succession, the magnet 85 of relay 0 will be energized, providing the thermostat switch 66 and the manually controlled switch 61 the contact arm 85 will be moved to closed po sition and will close the circuits of the compres The armature circuit of the compressor motor extends from supply wire L’ through conductors 86 and 81 to contact 88 and contactor arm 85 to conductor 89 through resistances 98 and 9I to the armature 92 and thence to supply wire L. The shunt ?eld circuit extends from the con 10 tactor arm through conductor 93 to the shunt ?eld winding 94 and thence to the supply wire L. When the contactor s closes, the compressor motor starts and insulated contact 95 on the arm engages contacts 98 and 91 and connects con 15 ductor 14 to a conductor 88 which leads to the coil 99 of the retarded relay t and thence to con ductor 83, through switch 84 to conductor 64, thence through thermostat switch 66, manually operable switch 61 and the “stop” switch to sup— 20 ply wire L. The retarded relay will move its con tact member upward gradually, said member ?rst engaging a stationary contact I88 and then en gaging a stationary contact I8I. When it en gages contact I88, a circuit is completed from 25 conductor 14 through contacts 15 and I88 to con ductor I82 which leads through coil of magnet I83 of relay s’ and thence, through conductors 82 and 83, switch 84 and conductors 83a, 64, and 25 30 to the supply wire L. Contactor arm I84 will close and connect conductor 86 to armature cir cuit 89, cutting out resistance 98. Next, contact member 15 will engage contact I8I and connect conductor 14 to conductor I85 which leads 35 through coil of magnet I86 of contactor s2 to con ductor 82 and thence through conductors 83, 83a, and 64 to the supply wire L. Contactor arm 16 will close and connect conductor 86 to the arma— ture circuit 89, cutting out resistance section 9|. are closed. The relay 0-, which constitutes a 40 starter for the condenser motors c and controls In closing, a contact I81 on the contactor arm the operation of a starter S for the compressor motor, has a contact arm 68, normally in open position and adapted to engage a contact 69 in closed position. When the relay magnet is en 45 ergized, a circuit is completed to the condenser motors c from supply wire L’ through conductor 18 to contact 89, thence through arm 68 and conductor H to the motors c which are connected to the supply wire L, as shown. These motors 50 will then operate. The relay also has an arm 12 adapted to engage a contact 13 which is con nected to the conductor 64 and when this relay closes, the arm 12 connects the conductor 64 to a conductor 14 which leads to the contact mem 55 ber 15 of a retarded relay t. The starter S has contactors s, s’ and s2 for closing the armature circuit‘of the compressor motor and for cutting the starting resistance out of said circuit. The magnet I86 from conductor 14 through resist will establish a holding circuit for the coil of ance I88, and contact 11 will break the connec~ tion between conductors 14 and 8!, thereby de- . energizing the magnet of contactor s and per mitting its contactor arm 85 to move to normal position, opening the circuit to coil 99 of the re tarded relay t. The contact member 15 of the relay 1.‘ will drop downward, breaking the con 150 nections between conductor 14 and the magnet coils of relays s’ and $2. The contactor arm or relay s’ will return to normal position but the magnet coil of contactor s2 will remain energized through its holding circuit and the compressor motor will continue to run until the circuit through the coil of magnet I86 is interrupted at some point in the system. If the thermostat switch 65 opens, due to lowering temperature in contactor arm 18 of contactor s2 has an insu- ' the car, the relay or contactor 0 will open, stop 60 lated contact 11 which normally rests against a stationary contact 18 connected to conductor 14 and a stationary contact 19. In its normal position, the arm of contactor s2 completes a cir cult to the coil of magnet 88 of contactor s from 65 conductor 14 to contacts 11, 18, and 19 to con ductor BI, thence to coil of magnet 88, thence by conductor 82 to conductor 83 and through a high pressure cut-out switch 84 and conductor 83*L to conductor 64 and thence through thermo 70 stat 66 and manually controlled switch 61 and through conductor 25 and the “Stop” switch to supply wire L. Hence when the relay magnet 65 is energized and the contact arm 12 of relay 0 is moved into engagement with contact 13, the 75 60 ping the motors o and the contactor s2 will open, stopping the compressor motor, and its armature 18 will return to normal position, connecting the conductors 14 and 8I, thus conditioning the cir~ , cuits of the starter S for restarting when the cir cuit through conductor 64 is re-established by the thermostat switch when the temperature rises to a predetermined degree. If the high pressure cut-out switch opens, due to excessive pressure at the compression side of the compressor, the magnet I86, which receives current through the high pressure switch, will be de-energized and the compressor motor will stop, while the condenser motors will continue in operation, and when the 75 4 2,117,243 pressure goes down and said switch closes, the compressor motor will start. When it is desired to stop the working of the refrigerating mechanism, the “Stop” push button to the supply circuit, heat regulating means in cluding a valve for turning on and o? the steam, electro-magnetic means for operating the valve, a thermally controlled relay for controlling said is depressed. This causes the low voltage relay m latter means and a fan motor for circulating the to open the circuit of the magnet of relay 2‘ and heated air, a relay for connecting the latter mo this relay opens the circuit to the magnet of tor to this supply circuit, and a circuit for the relay n'which opens the control circuit 64 for ' magnets of the fan motor relays, said thermally the compressor and condenser motors so that controlled relay adapted to connect the magnet these cannot operate. The opening of relay i also opens the circuit through conductor 34 to of the relay associated with the ?rst-mentioned l0 the magnet of relay 9‘, causing the stoppage of fan motor in the latter circuit when the steam valve is closed and to disconnect said last men the cooling fan motors d. To place the system in condition for operation again, it is ?rst nec tioned magnet and connect the magnet of the re essary to depress the “Fan” button, to cause clo sure of the relays m, z‘ and 9', which starts the fan motors d. These fan motors may be oper ated as long as desired independently of the com pressor and condenser motors. The relays i and v20 :i, when closed, make up a circuit through con ductors 31, 36, 54a, and 55 to the arm 56 of relay 11. After the fan motors d have been started, depres sion of the push button switch 52 causes relay n to connect conductor 55 with conductor 64, thus .25 completing the control circuit for the compressor and condenser motors so that they may operate when the thermostat switch 66 is closed. When the car is coupled in a train, the air pressure switch 24 is closed. If the “Fan” push button is depressed and the temperature in the car is at or above a desired normal, the heat con trolling device will not work because the thermo stat switch 23 will be open and relay h will be inoperative; but the circuit to the magnet 29 of 35 relay 7' will be complete through arm IQ of relay h and the fans at will operate when said relay closes, and upon depression of the push button switch 52, the refrigerating apparatus will oper ate automatically to reduce the temperature in 40 the car to the desired normal. In cold ‘weather, however, where the temperature in the car is low enough to cause thermostat 23 to close, the relay h will operate to open the steam valve and also interrupt the circuit to the magnet of relay .45 7', so that the cooling fan motors d cannot operate, and at the same time the relay it will close the circuit to the magnet of relay is and the latter relay will connect the motors g to the supply cir cuit, and these motors will circulate the heated '50 air. Since the relay 7' cannot operate while the heat controlling relay is closed and the steam valve open, the circuit through contact member v53 of relay 7' to conductors 55 and 64 will remain open at relay 9', and the compressor and condenser 55 motors cannot operate, even though the push button switch 52 be depressed after the “Fan” push button switch has been depressed. Thus, ‘there can be no interference between the heat 60 controlling mechanism and the air cooling system. 'As before described, when the car is out of service, 'the pressure controlled switch 24 is open and neither the cooling fan motors northe motors connected with the heat controlling means can 65 be operated; but the heat controlling valve can operate independently of the rest of the mecha nism if the steam pipe 1‘ be connected to a sta 'tionary steam heating plant. What I claim is: 1. In temperature regulating means for rail way cars having steam heating means and an electrical supply circuit, an air cooling system comprising a fan motor for circulating cooled air in the car and a relay for connecting said motor lay associated with the second fan motor in said latter circuit when the steam valve is opened. 15 2. In temperature regulating means for rail way cars having steam heating means, air brakes and an electrical supply circuit, an air cooling system comprising a fan motor for circulating cooled air in the car and a relay for connecting 20 said motor to the supply circuit, heat regulating means including a valve for turning on and off the steam, electro-magnetic means for operating the valve, a thermally controlled relay for con trolling said latter means, a fan motor for circu 25 lating the heated air, a relay for connecting the latter motor to the supply circuit, a circuit for the magnets of the fan motor relays including a switch normally closed by the pressure in the air brake system while the car is coupled in a train 30 and which is normally open when the car is un- ' coupled, manually controlled means for closing said circuit for the relay magnets when said switch is closed, and means controlled by said thermally controlled relay adapted to connect the magnet of the relay associated with the ?rst mentioned fan motor in the latter circuit when the steam valve is closed and to disconnect said last-mentioned magnet and connect the magnet 0f the relay associated with the second-men 40 tioned fan motor in said latter circuit when the steam valve is opened. 3. In temperature regulating means for rail way cars having air brakes and an electrical sup ply circuit, an air cooling system comprising a fan 45 motor for circulating cooled air in the car and a relay for connecting said motor to the supply circuit, a circuit for the magnet of said relay in cluding a switch normally closed by the pressure in the air brake system while the car is coupled 60 in a train and which is normally open when the ' car is uncoupled and out of service, and manually controlled means for closing said relay magnet circuit when said switch is closed. 4. In temperature controlling means for rail 55 way cars having steam heating means, air brakes ‘ ' and an electrical supply circuit, a valve for turn ing on and off the steam, electro-magnetic means for opening and closing said valve, a thermally controlled relay controlling said latter means to 60 open the valve at a predetermined low tempera ture and to close the valve at a predetermined higher temperature, an electric motor for circu lating the heated air, a normally open relay for closing the circuit of said motor and a circuit for 65 the magnet of the latter relay adapted to be closed by said ?rst-mentioned relay when the steam valve is opened and the car is in service, said last-mentioned circuit including a switch which is normally closed by air pressure in the brake system when the car is in service, and which is normally open for lack of air pressure when the car is out of service. JOSEPH F. FRESE.