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Патент USA US2117243

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May 10, 1938.
J. F. FRESE
TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING MEANS FOR RAILWAY CARS
Filed April 6, 1936
2,117,243
2,117,243
Patented May 10, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,117,243
TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING MEANS FOR
RAILWAY CARS
Joseph F. Frese, Baltimore, Md., assignor to Mon
itor Controller Company, Baltimore, Md., a cor
poration of Maryland
Application April 6, 1936, Serial No. 73,024
4 Claims. (Cl. 236—1)
This invention relates to electrically operated
means for maintaining the air in railway pas
senger cars at a desired temperature either in
warm or cold weather while the car is in service,
5 and for maintaining a suitable temperature in the
car while the car may be out of service in cold
weather. In carrying out the invention, I provide
an air cooling system for use in warm weather
comprising a compressor for compressing re
10 frigerating ?uid, a condenser and a refrigerating
coil, a motor for operating the compressor, one
or more motors for‘ circulating cooling fluid
around the condenser and one or more fan motors
for circulating the air in the car past the re
frigerating coil to cool the air and thermally con
trolled means for starting the compressor motor
and the condenser motors when the temperature
in the car is above a desired normal and for stop
ping these motors when the temperature falls to
said desired normal.
Such cars are provided with
steam pipes through which steam is carried from
the locomotive to suitable radiators in the car, to
heat the car in cold or chilly weather, and I pro
vide thermally controlled electro-magnetic means
for automatically opening a valve in the heating
25 system when the temperature of the air in the car
falls below the aforesaid desired normal tem
perature and for closing the valve when the tem
perature is about normal. Thus, in changeable
weather, while the car is in service, the heat con
30 trolling means may operate to raise the tempera
ture of the air in the car to a desired normal
at one time and the cooling system may operate to
lower the temperature of the air in the car at
another time on the same day or on different
35 days.
I provide interlocking connections where
by the heating and cooling system cannot op
erate simultaneously and also means whereby,
when the car is uncoupled from a train and placed
in storage, the cooling system cannot operate,
4 O but the heat controlling means may operate pro
viding the steam pipe is connected to a suitable
4 UT
and one or more fan motors g are provided for
circulating the air of the car over the heat radiat
ing surfaces. The supply wires leading from a
current source such as a battery or generator on
the car are indicated at L and L’.
To provide for keeping the temperature within
the car at a suitable degree above the freezing
temperature while the car may be stored or out of
use in the winter time, the steam pipe f may be
connected to a suitable stationary heating plant
and the temperature will then be regulated auto
matically by electromagnetic valve actuating
means controlled by a thermostat.
As shown, a
valve 1 is arranged in the steam pipe 1‘ and this
valve is movable to the closed position by an elec 15
tromagnet 2 and to the open position by an elec
tromagnet 3. The armatures of the electromag
nets are connected to a valve lever 4 and this
lever has at its free end a contact piece 5 which
electrically connects stationary contacts 6 and 20
1 when the valve is in closed position, and which
electrically connects stationary contacts 8 and
9 when the valve is in the open position. Con
tact 6 is connected by conductor [0 to the coil
of magnet 3 and thence to supply wire L by con
ductor ll, and contact 8 is connected to coil 25
of magnet 2 and thence to supply wire L by con
ductor l2. Contact ‘I is connected by conductor
Hi to stationary contact Id of relay h and contact
9 is connected by conductor I5 to relay contact [6.
The relay It has a contact arm H‘ which normally 30
engages contact l6 and which is movable into en
gagement with contact l4 when the magnet l8 of
the relay is energized. The relay also has a con
tact arm H] which is movable with the arm H
but which performs no function when the car is 35
in storage and disconnected from the locomotive.
The circuit for the magnet of relay h extends
from supply wire L through conductor 20 to
the magnet coil and thence by conductor 2! to the
supply wire L’. Included in the part 20 of this 40
circuit is a manually operable switch 22 and a
steam generator.
In the accompanying drawing which illustrates
thermostat switch 23.
the system diagrammatically, (1 indicates a com
ing system of the car from a stationary heating 45
plant. To keep the air in the car above the freea
pressor for compressing the refrigerating ?uid, at’
indicates a condensing coil and a2 indicates a
refrigerating coil, these coils being in series in a
circulating pipe system a3 connected to the com
pressor. A high pressure valve a4 at the high
50 pressure side of the compressor opens and re
lieves the pressure if it becomes abnormally high.
An electric motor h is provided for operating the
When the car is in storage in cold weather,
steam will be admitted to the pipe j of the heat
ing temperature, the manually operable switch 22
will be closed to make up the circuit to the coil
of relay h through the thermostat switch 23 50
which closes at a predetermined low temperature
and opens at a predetermined high temperature
in the car.
When the thermostat switch closes,
and one or more fan motors d are provided for
the relay magnet is energized and the contact
arm I‘! is moved out of engagement with the 55
contact 16 and into engagement with the contact
‘circulating the air in the car past the refrigerat
ing coil, to cool the air. The train-pipe of the
air brake system is indicated at e and a pipe form
ing a part of the heating system is shown at *1‘,
valve operating magnet 3 from supply wire L
through the magnet coil and by conductor it]
through contacts 5, 6 and 1, conductor l3, con 60
compressor; one or more motors c are provided
vfor circulating cooling ?uid around the condenser,
M.
This completes a circuit to the coil of the
2
2,117,243
tact l4, switch arm H and conductor 2| to supply
wire L’. Magnet 3 immediately moves the valve
to open position to admit steam to the heating
system of the car. In moving to open position,
the contact member 5 on the valve lever opens the
circuit to magnet 3 and makes up a- circuit to
magnet 2 at the contacts 8 and 9, but this latter
tircuit is open at the relay contact l6 and re
mains open as long as the thermostat is closed
10 and the relay magnet is energized. When the
temperature in the car rises sufficiently to cause
the thermostat switch to open the circuit of the
relay magnet, the relay arm ll moves into en
gagement with contact l6, thus completing the
circuit to the valve operating magnet 2 through
the contact 5 on the valve lever and the contacts
8 and 9. Magnet 2 then moves the lever to close
the valve, at the same time opening the circuit
through its coil and making up a circuit to the
20 coil of magnet 3 at the contacts 6 and 1, but
this latter circuit is then open at the relay contact
I4 and remains open until the thermostat switch
again closes the circuit of the relay magnet.
Thus, each valve operating magnet, after moving
25 the valve, opens its own circuit and makes up a
circuit for the opposing magnet, and current is
on the magnets only momentarily, in the normal
working of the apparatus.
When the car is out of service in cold weather
30 and heat is supplied from an external source, as
there are no passengers in the car, it is unneces
sary to operate the fan motors g to circulate the
air in the car and therefore the connections are
such that these motors can be operated only when
35 the car is coupled in a train.
In warm summer
weather, the heating system Will not be required,
whether the car is idle or in service, and there
fore the switch 22 will be left open so that the
relay h which controls the steam valve and also
forms a part of the controlling means for the mo
tors g will be inoperative.
When the car is in service, the pipe 1‘ will re
ceive steam from the locomotive and the train
pipe e of the air brake system will contain air
45 under pressure. A switch 213 which is always open
when the car is disconnected from the locomo—
tive, is always closed by the air pressure in the
train pipe when the car is coupled to a locomotive.
Through this switch and interlocking connections,
50 circuits are made up for operating the heated air
fan motors y when the car requires heating and
the steam valve is open, or for operating the fan
motors d when the heat is not required and the
steam valve is closed. In order to cause opera
tion of any of the fan motors, g or d, a push but
ton switch marked “Fan” must ?rst be closed in
arm IQ of relay h is in engagement with contact
32, current will not flow through the magnet coil
of, relay 1' but will flow through the magnet coil
of relay is. Relay 7‘ has a contact arm 38, normal
ly in open position, adapted to engage contact 39
when the relay is closed. Contact 39 is connected
by conductor 40 to the fan motors d which are
connected to supply wire L and contact arm 38
is connected by conductor 4| to supply wire L', 10
so that when said relay closes, these motors will
operate. Contact arm 42 of relay is is connected
by conductor 43 to the heated air fan motors g
which are connected to supply wire L, and when
the relay closes, it will connect the motors g 15
through conductors M and 2| to supply wire L’
and these motors will operate to circulate the
air of the car past the heating surfaces.
As before stated, the “Fan” push button must
be depressed to energize the magnet of relay 2' 20
and cause this relay to close in order that either
of the relays 9' or k can be closed to operate the
motors d or g. The normally open “Fan” push
button switch is arranged in a conductor 37a
which extends from conductor 26 to a resistance 25
:15 and coil 46 of a low voltage relay m, which
resistance and coil are connected by conductor
31 to supply wire L’. Normally, depression of the
“Fan” button causes the relay magnet to be en
ergized and its arm 41, which is connected by con
30
ductor 48 to conductor 26, closes a holding cir
cuit '49 for the magnet coil 4'6 and also connects
conductor 138 to conductor 50 which leads to the
coil of magnet 5| of relay 2‘ and thence by con
ductor 3? to supply wire L'. Depression of the
“Fan” push button switch therefore causes re
lay i to close and complete the circuit from con
tact arm IQ of relay it through conductor 34, con
tact member 35, contact 36 and conductor 31 to
supply wire L’. While this condition exists, as
long as contact arm 19 is in normal position
against contact 3|, the relay 7' will be energized
and the fan motors d will operate; but if low tem
perature causes thermostat 23 to close and relay
h to shift the arm [9 to contact 32, fan motors d 1
will stop and motors y will operate. Depression
of the “Stop” push button will open the circuit
to the low voltage relay coil and the relay will
open the circuit to the magnet coil of relay i,
which relay will open the circuit to arm l9 of re
lay h and hence no current can flow to the mag
nets of relays 7' or k and the fan motors in opera
:50
tion at the time the “Stop” switch is depressed
As shown, a circuit extends from supply wire L
through conductor 25 and a normally closed
will be stopped.
In warm weather the thermostat switch 23 of 55
the heat controlling means will remain open and
the relay it will not operate, hence contact arm
I 9 will remain in engagement with contact 3|
and the air circulating fan motors d'will oper
switch marked “Stop" and through conductor 26,
'ate after‘depression of the “Fan” push button. 60
order to close a relay 1'.
60
the coil of magnet 29 of relay 7‘, and if contact
>
switch 24 and conductor 21 to coil of magnet 29 of
a relay 7‘, thence by conductor 30 to stationary
contact 3! of relay h. A conductor 33 extends
from conductor 21 to coil of magnet 28 of a relay
65 k and thence to stationary contact 32 of relay h.
The contact arm I9 of relay it rests against con
tact 3! when the steam valve is closed and is
movable into engagement with contact 32 when
the steam valve is opened. A conductor 34 con
nects'said contact arm to the contact arm '35 of
the normally open relay 2'. When relay 2‘ is closed,
conductor 34 is connected through conductors 36
and 31 to supply wire L’. Hence, if contact arm
I 9 of relay h is in engagement with contact 3|
75 and relay i is closed, current will flow through
These fan motors may be operated to circulate
air in the car without operating the refrigerat
ing apparatus, but the interlocking connections
are such that they must be in operation before
the compressor motor and condenser motors can
be operated. This is to avoid the possibility of
operating the compressor without having the
fans in operation to circulate the air over the
refrigerating coils.
After the circulating fan motors d have been
started by depression of the “Fan” push but
ton switch, another push button switch 52,
marked “Comp”, must be depressed to condition
the circuits for operating the compressor motor
b and the condenser motors c.
When the mo
75
2,117,243
3
tors d are in operation, relay 2' is closed and the
contact arm 38 of relay 1' is also in closed posi
tion and another arm 53 of the latter relay is
magnet 88 of contactor s will be energized and
in engagement with a contact 54 which is con
sor motor I).
nected to conductor 34. Arm 53 is connected by
conductor 55 to contact arm 56 of a relay n which
is adapted to engage contact 51 when the relay
is closed. This relay has an arm 58 adapted to
engage a contact 53, and arm 58 is connected
by conductor 63 to conductor 26 which is con
nected to supply wire L through the “Stop”
switch. The push button switch 52 is adapted
to complete a circuit from the supply wire L and
conductor 28 through the push button switch
15 and conductor 6| to the coil of magnet 62, thence
through conductors 68 and 34 to contact arm 35
of relay 2' and conductors 36 and 31 to the sup
ply wire L'. When this circuit is completed by
the momentary depression of‘the push button
20 switch 52, contact arm 58 will close a holding
circuit for the coil of magnet 62 through con
ductor 63 in shunt to the switch 52, and arm
56 will engage contact 51 and connect a conduc
tor 64 to the side L’ of the supply circuit through
conductor 55, arm 53 and contact 54 of relay 7',
25
conductor 54”‘, arm 35 of relay 1‘ and conductors
36 and 31.
Conductor 64, connected as described, to the
supply wire L’, when the relays controlling fan
.30 motors d are closed, extends to the coil of mag
net 65 of a relay 0, thence through a thermostat
switch 66 and a manually controlled switch 61
to conductors 26 and 25 and thence through the
“Stop” switch to the side L of the supply circuit.
Thus, after the closure of the “Fan” push but
35 ton switch and the compressor push button
switch in succession, the magnet 85 of relay 0
will be energized, providing the thermostat
switch 66 and the manually controlled switch 61
the contact arm 85 will be moved to closed po
sition and will close the circuits of the compres
The armature circuit of the compressor motor
extends from supply wire L’ through conductors
86 and 81 to contact 88 and contactor arm 85 to
conductor 89 through resistances 98 and 9I to
the armature 92 and thence to supply wire L.
The shunt ?eld circuit extends from the con 10
tactor arm through conductor 93 to the shunt
?eld winding 94 and thence to the supply wire L.
When the contactor s closes, the compressor
motor starts and insulated contact 95 on the arm
engages contacts 98 and 91 and connects con 15
ductor 14 to a conductor 88 which leads to the
coil 99 of the retarded relay t and thence to con
ductor 83, through switch 84 to conductor 64,
thence through thermostat switch 66, manually
operable switch 61 and the “stop” switch to sup— 20
ply wire L.
The retarded relay will move its con
tact member upward gradually, said member ?rst
engaging a stationary contact I88 and then en
gaging a stationary contact I8I. When it en
gages contact I88, a circuit is completed from 25
conductor 14 through contacts 15 and I88 to con
ductor I82 which leads through coil of magnet
I83 of relay s’ and thence, through conductors 82
and 83, switch 84 and conductors 83a, 64, and 25 30
to the supply wire L. Contactor arm I84 will
close and connect conductor 86 to armature cir
cuit 89, cutting out resistance 98. Next, contact
member 15 will engage contact I8I and connect
conductor 14 to conductor I85 which leads 35
through coil of magnet I86 of contactor s2 to con
ductor 82 and thence through conductors 83, 83a,
and 64 to the supply wire L. Contactor arm 16
will close and connect conductor 86 to the arma—
ture circuit 89, cutting out resistance section 9|.
are closed. The relay 0-, which constitutes a
40 starter for the condenser motors c and controls
In closing, a contact I81 on the contactor arm
the operation of a starter S for the compressor
motor, has a contact arm 68, normally in open
position and adapted to engage a contact 69 in
closed position. When the relay magnet is en
45 ergized, a circuit is completed to the condenser
motors c from supply wire L’ through conductor
18 to contact 89, thence through arm 68 and
conductor H to the motors c which are connected
to the supply wire L, as shown. These motors
50 will then operate. The relay also has an arm
12 adapted to engage a contact 13 which is con
nected to the conductor 64 and when this relay
closes, the arm 12 connects the conductor 64 to
a conductor 14 which leads to the contact mem
55 ber 15 of a retarded relay t. The starter S has
contactors s, s’ and s2 for closing the armature
circuit‘of the compressor motor and for cutting
the starting resistance out of said circuit. The
magnet I86 from conductor 14 through resist
will establish a holding circuit for the coil of
ance I88, and contact 11 will break the connec~
tion between conductors 14 and 8!, thereby de- .
energizing the magnet of contactor s and per
mitting its contactor arm 85 to move to normal
position, opening the circuit to coil 99 of the re
tarded relay t. The contact member 15 of the
relay 1.‘ will drop downward, breaking the con 150
nections between conductor 14 and the magnet
coils of relays s’ and $2. The contactor arm or
relay s’ will return to normal position but the
magnet coil of contactor s2 will remain energized
through its holding circuit and the compressor
motor will continue to run until the circuit
through the coil of magnet I86 is interrupted at
some point in the system. If the thermostat
switch 65 opens, due to lowering temperature in
contactor arm 18 of contactor s2 has an insu- ' the car, the relay or contactor 0 will open, stop
60
lated contact 11 which normally rests against
a stationary contact 18 connected to conductor
14 and a stationary contact 19. In its normal
position, the arm of contactor s2 completes a cir
cult to the coil of magnet 88 of contactor s from
65 conductor 14 to contacts 11, 18, and 19 to con
ductor BI, thence to coil of magnet 88, thence
by conductor 82 to conductor 83 and through a
high pressure cut-out switch 84 and conductor
83*L to conductor 64 and thence through thermo
70 stat 66 and manually controlled switch 61 and
through conductor 25 and the “Stop” switch to
supply wire L. Hence when the relay magnet
65 is energized and the contact arm 12 of relay 0
is moved into engagement with contact 13, the
75
60
ping the motors o and the contactor s2 will open,
stopping the compressor motor, and its armature
18 will return to normal position, connecting the
conductors 14 and 8I, thus conditioning the cir~ ,
cuits of the starter S for restarting when the cir
cuit through conductor 64 is re-established by the
thermostat switch when the temperature rises to
a predetermined degree. If the high pressure
cut-out switch opens, due to excessive pressure
at the compression side of the compressor, the
magnet I86, which receives current through the
high pressure switch, will be de-energized and the
compressor motor will stop, while the condenser
motors will continue in operation, and when the 75
4
2,117,243
pressure goes down and said switch closes, the
compressor motor will start.
When it is desired to stop the working of the
refrigerating mechanism, the “Stop” push button
to the supply circuit, heat regulating means in
cluding a valve for turning on and o? the steam,
electro-magnetic means for operating the valve, a
thermally controlled relay for controlling said
is depressed. This causes the low voltage relay m latter means and a fan motor for circulating the
to open the circuit of the magnet of relay 2‘ and heated air, a relay for connecting the latter mo
this relay opens the circuit to the magnet of tor to this supply circuit, and a circuit for the
relay n'which opens the control circuit 64 for ' magnets of the fan motor relays, said thermally
the compressor and condenser motors so that
controlled relay adapted to connect the magnet
these cannot operate. The opening of relay i
also opens the circuit through conductor 34 to
of the relay associated with the ?rst-mentioned l0
the magnet of relay 9‘, causing the stoppage of
fan motor in the latter circuit when the steam
valve is closed and to disconnect said last men
the cooling fan motors d. To place the system
in condition for operation again, it is ?rst nec
tioned magnet and connect the magnet of the re
essary to depress the “Fan” button, to cause clo
sure of the relays m, z‘ and 9', which starts the
fan motors d. These fan motors may be oper
ated as long as desired independently of the com
pressor and condenser motors. The relays i and
v20 :i, when closed, make up a circuit through con
ductors 31, 36, 54a, and 55 to the arm 56 of relay 11.
After the fan motors d have been started, depres
sion of the push button switch 52 causes relay n
to connect conductor 55 with conductor 64, thus
.25 completing the control circuit for the compressor
and condenser motors so that they may operate
when the thermostat switch 66 is closed.
When the car is coupled in a train, the air
pressure switch 24 is closed. If the “Fan” push
button is depressed and the temperature in the
car is at or above a desired normal, the heat con
trolling device will not work because the thermo
stat switch 23 will be open and relay h will be
inoperative; but the circuit to the magnet 29 of
35 relay 7' will be complete through arm IQ of relay
h and the fans at will operate when said relay
closes, and upon depression of the push button
switch 52, the refrigerating apparatus will oper
ate automatically to reduce the temperature in
40 the car to the desired normal. In cold ‘weather,
however, where the temperature in the car is
low enough to cause thermostat 23 to close, the
relay h will operate to open the steam valve and
also interrupt the circuit to the magnet of relay
.45 7', so that the cooling fan motors d cannot operate,
and at the same time the relay it will close the
circuit to the magnet of relay is and the latter
relay will connect the motors g to the supply cir
cuit, and these motors will circulate the heated
'50 air. Since the relay 7' cannot operate while the
heat controlling relay is closed and the steam
valve open, the circuit through contact member
v53 of relay 7' to conductors 55 and 64 will remain
open at relay 9', and the compressor and condenser
55
motors cannot operate, even though the push
button switch 52 be depressed after the “Fan”
push button switch has been depressed. Thus,
‘there can be no interference between the heat
60 controlling mechanism and the air cooling system.
'As before described, when the car is out of service,
'the pressure controlled switch 24 is open and
neither the cooling fan motors northe motors
connected with the heat controlling means can
65 be operated; but the heat controlling valve can
operate independently of the rest of the mecha
nism if the steam pipe 1‘ be connected to a sta
'tionary steam heating plant.
What I claim is:
1. In temperature regulating means for rail
way cars having steam heating means and an
electrical supply circuit, an air cooling system
comprising a fan motor for circulating cooled air
in the car and a relay for connecting said motor
lay associated with the second fan motor in said
latter circuit when the steam valve is opened.
15
2. In temperature regulating means for rail
way cars having steam heating means, air brakes
and an electrical supply circuit, an air cooling
system comprising a fan motor for circulating
cooled air in the car and a relay for connecting 20
said motor to the supply circuit, heat regulating
means including a valve for turning on and off
the steam, electro-magnetic means for operating
the valve, a thermally controlled relay for con
trolling said latter means, a fan motor for circu
25
lating the heated air, a relay for connecting the
latter motor to the supply circuit, a circuit for
the magnets of the fan motor relays including a
switch normally closed by the pressure in the air
brake system while the car is coupled in a train 30
and which is normally open when the car is un- '
coupled, manually controlled means for closing
said circuit for the relay magnets when said
switch is closed, and means controlled by said
thermally controlled relay adapted to connect the
magnet of the relay associated with the ?rst
mentioned fan motor in the latter circuit when
the steam valve is closed and to disconnect said
last-mentioned magnet and connect the magnet
0f the relay associated with the second-men 40
tioned fan motor in said latter circuit when the
steam valve is opened.
3. In temperature regulating means for rail
way cars having air brakes and an electrical sup
ply circuit, an air cooling system comprising a fan 45
motor for circulating cooled air in the car and
a relay for connecting said motor to the supply
circuit, a circuit for the magnet of said relay in
cluding a switch normally closed by the pressure
in the air brake system while the car is coupled 60
in a train and which is normally open when the '
car is uncoupled and out of service, and manually
controlled means for closing said relay magnet
circuit when said switch is closed.
4. In temperature controlling means for rail
55
way cars having steam heating means, air brakes ‘ '
and an electrical supply circuit, a valve for turn
ing on and off the steam, electro-magnetic means
for opening and closing said valve, a thermally
controlled relay controlling said latter means to 60
open the valve at a predetermined low tempera
ture and to close the valve at a predetermined
higher temperature, an electric motor for circu
lating the heated air, a normally open relay for
closing the circuit of said motor and a circuit for 65
the magnet of the latter relay adapted to be
closed by said ?rst-mentioned relay when the
steam valve is opened and the car is in service,
said last-mentioned circuit including a switch
which is normally closed by air pressure in the
brake system when the car is in service, and
which is normally open for lack of air pressure
when the car is out of service.
JOSEPH F. FRESE.
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