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Патент USA US2117428

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May 17, 19È8.
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H. KUPPENBENDER
2,117,428
PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA
Filed Oct. 26, 1935
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May 17, 193‘8.
H. KUPPENBENDER
2,117,428»V
PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA
Filed Oct. 26, 1935
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Patented May 17, 1938
2,117,428
` UNITED STATESPATENT OFFICE
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_rno'rooaarmc caMEaA>
Heinz Küppenbender, Dresden, Germany, assign
or to Zeiss Ikon Aktiengesellschaft, Dresden,
Germany
Application october ze, 1935, serial No. 46,839
ln Germany October 29, 1934
12 Claims. (Cl. 95-44)
This invention relatesv to improvements in in the observation opening of the distance meter.
photographic cameras.
The casing I of the camera is equipped with a
y
It is an object of the invention to provide in
association with a photographic camera a range
5 finder or distance meter which permits to ascer
tain not only the proper adjustment of the lens
to the distance determined by the distance meter
but also permits to ascertain whether the depth
of sharpness of the image produced by the lens
l0 under the aforesaid adjustment will contain the
desired portions of the object to be photographed.
It is` also an -aim of the invention to combine
with the adjusting means for the lens, additional
means for actuating the distance meter to facili
I' l5 tate the proper adjustment of the lens to the dis
tance of the object, but also determine by a single
_
so as to permit the exchange of one optical equip- '
ment for another where the nature or distance 5
of the object to be photographed should require
this. This detachable lens mounting also permits
axial -adjustment of the optical system, as for
instance, by means of a screw’thread 3 of suit
able pitch on one of the elements -with a com- 10
panion thread on another part 4 of the detach
able mounting.
.
-
ì
In the embodiment illustrated, the _camera is,
furthermore, equipped with a distance meter of
the base type built into the casing of the camera. 15
The front wall of the camera, therefore, has two
observation ofthe image furnished bythe dis
.openings 5 and 6 in alinement respectively with
tance meter whether the image produced by the
.opposite ends of a mirror base 'l in the form of
. lens will have the desired sharpness and depth or
20
lens mounting 2 which preferably is detachable
not.
an elongated rhomboid prism. In alinement with
one end of this prism, the distance meter is
.
It is, therefore, an additional aim ofthe inven
tion to provide -in association with a camera,
means for simultaneously setting the distance
' meter and ascertaining the zone, of maximum
equipped with an observation opening -8 normal Nl 0
ly closed by a plain glass screen 5. The rotatable
part of the lens mounting 2 actuates through a
train of gears indicated generally at I0 dill'er
entially a pair of wedge-shaped elements Il, and 5
when through the proper actuation of the wedge
25 depth of-sharpness for the respective distance.
The invention, furthermore, has the aim of
facilitating the adjustmentto the proper depth "shaped elements induced by adjustment of the
of sharpness by the means through which a ‘ lens mounting, the images which would normally
diaphragm associated with the lens of the camera appear oiîset in the observation opening li are
30 is set inasmuch as the diaphragm adjusting placed in registered superimposition, the lens is
means are functionally associated withl indicatorA considered adjusted to the proper distance from
elements visible through the opening through
which the results of the adjustment of the dis
tance meter may- be ascertained.
35
With these and numerous other objects in view,
' embodiments of the invention are illustrated in
the accompanying drawings, to which a- reference
is made in the following’speciflcation:
In ,the drawings:
40
‘
-
Fig. 1 is a front elevation and fragmentary'
sectional view of a camera.
Fig. 2 isa horizontal section of the camera
Asubstantially along the broken line II~-II of
Fig. 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows.
45 A portion of the lens mounting isbroken away.
Fig. 3'shows on an enlarged scale images as
they appear in the observation opening of the
distance meter for this camera.
Fig. 4 is a horizontal section of a modification
50 of the camerav substantially on the broken line
IV-IV of Fig. 5, and looking in the direction of
the arrows.
,
_
Fig. 5 is a front elevation of the same, and
Fig. 6 indicates similar to the showing of Fig. 3,
55 the appearance of images and indicator elements
the object to be photographed.
'
4The image which the lens would produce upon
this adjustment on a sensitized carrier, not shown
in thedrawlngs,would have a certain depthsharp- 35
ness. 'I'he portions of the object appearing on
the image might be beyond this depth, and there
fore, might not be visible on the image with the
desired clearness. It is, therefore, of value to
ascertain whether the object to be photographed 40
is in certain- portions within the depth of sharp
ness of the lens. The depth of sharpness of the
image upon a certain adjustment of the lens is
to a large extent controlled by a diaphragm which
is associated with the lens.
The function of this '
diaphragm and its adjustment is well known in
the art. The diaphragm is usually located in a
fixed plane in respect of the axis of the optical
equipment, and the aperture of the diaphragm
may be enlarged or reduced in accordance with 50
the conditions of the respective exposure.
_
The cameras also are equipped with means for
indicating the aperture values to which the dia
phragm can be set.v 'I'he setting of the diaphragm
being of iniluence for the depth of sharpness' ol' 65
3
2,117,4ea
era is first moved Yslightly sideways so that the
image of the tree b moves toward the center of
able to permit the user of the diaphragm to ascer
tain simultaneously with the adjustment of the . the image ñeld and until the edge I of the tree b
lens also whether the depth of sharpness will be touches the ñxed line i2. Then the diaphragm
satisfactory for the picture to be made. For this ring Iii is rotated so that the line I9 on the mov
purpose the means for indicating the depth oí able carrier I5 moves toward the right a suiîicient
sharpness are rendered visible, according to the distance until it touches the edge II of the tree b.
present invention, in the observation opening ß When this adjustment is completed both trees
of the distance meter, said last named part of the a and b are correctly focused to appear with the
the picture to be produced, it is, therefore, valu.
10 equipment indicating the correctness of the axial
adjustment of the lens.
The plate or screen 9 serves as carrier of a
linear indicator element I2, Figs. 1 and 3, as for
instance, a line marked on the plate il. In the
15 embodiment of Figs. 1 to 3, the diaphragm I3
maybe set to different apertures values upon
rotation of the knurled ring It, and the carrier
I5 of the diaphragm actuates upon rotation a
gear train indicated generally at I6 and I'I. This
20 gear mechanism actuates upon its movement a
carrier I8 for a companion indicator element I9,
preferably also of linear dimension, and extend
.ng preferably parallel to the indicator element
l2. The carrier I8 for the second indicator ele
ment is shown in the form of a frame suitably
guided for rectilinear movement and equipped
with a rack bar for engagement with a portion
of the gear train I1. It Will be obvious, there
fore, that upon adjustment of the diaphragm,
80 the linear indicator element I9 willbe imparted
movement relatively to the companion element
I2 of the distance meter.
For the purpose oi’
focaliy adjusting the image produced by the dis
tance meter, and at the same time rendering
visible the indicator elements I2, I9 in the same
plane of the picture, an optical system in the
desired sharpness in the photograph.
~ While in the embodiment illustrated in Figs. 1
to 3, the linear indicator element I2 is shown as
a stationary element while the companion ele
ment I9 is movable in accordance with the ad
justment of the diaphragm I3, it is obvious that 15
both indicator elements might be functionally
associated with the mechanism which is actu
ated upon-adjustment of the diaphragm, whereby
for instance, both of these indicator elements .
maybe moved away from each other or towards 20
each other upon the corresponding adjustment
of the diaphragm. Whenever the indicator ele
ments are positioned relatively to each other in
such manner that selectively determined corre
sponding portions of the object to be photo 25
graphed appear to the user of the camera be
tween the two indicator elements, the proper
depth of sharpness is accomplished.
In the embodiment illustrated in Figs. 4 to 6,
the corresponding parts have been shown by cor, 30
responding reference characters. The proper ad
justment of the lens mounting, therefore, also is
assured when through said adjustment the train
of gears I@ has been actuated to shift relatively
the wedge shaped plates II until a single image
of the object to be photographed appears to the
I
form oi a telescope is interposed in the path oí’ l observer in the opening il.
In this embodiment, however, there is no me
the rays of light of the distance meter and ot
the indicator elements respectively. This optical
equipment comprises an ocular compound lens
20 disposed in the opening 8 for observing the
image of the distance meter and anvobjective
chanical connection between the diaphragm ad
justment and the linear indicator element or
lens 2| in the interior of the camera in opposi
tion to one end of `the base and in alinement
with the opening 5 of the distance meter.
Owing to this arrangement, the user of the
camera when holding the observation opening e
and its compound lens 2U in front of his eye, will
be able to observe images of the same object in
different area portions of the opening. l"lfIe will
also notice the two linear indicating elements i2
and I9. The proper adjustment oi’ the dia
iphragm to induce the desired`> depth of sharpness
for the object to be photographed, is indicated to
the user when' corresponding portions of .the
ing d for the distance meter is provided with
elements as in the first described embodiment. '
The screen or plate 21 in the observation open
linear indicator elements in the form of a plu
rality of pairs of straight lines in symmetrical 45
arrangement, as shown in Fig. 6. The lines 2l
of each pair are provided on the plate 21 with
markings 29 corresponding to the markings, as
employed on diaphragm adjusting mechanisms.
In this embodiment also the observer will see 50
images of the object in different areas 22 and
2t, as in the first embodiment. Again the lens
system and therewith the distance meter is i'o
cused on the tree a which is closer to the camera.
than. the tree b.
The correct adjustment of the
object vappear in these two images within the ` lens system, as formerly is obtained when the
(ill photograph sharply the two trees o and b which
are located at different distances from the cam
era. For this purpose the distance meter, which
Assuming that it is desired to
two image portions N and 25 of tree 'a appear
correctly assembled in the-image field. In order
to determine the diaphragm opening which is
necessary to let the tree b appear sharply in the 60
photograph, the camera is now moved sideways
so that _the tree b appears in the image area
which is covered with the pairs of lines 2U. More
as has been explained in the foregoing is coupled
with the rotatable part of the lens system, is
specially, the image portion 30 appearing in the
inner image area 22 and the image portion 3| of 85
focused on the tree a, which is closer to the
camera than the tree b.` This is accomplished
tree b appearing in the outer image area 2l are
adjusted in such a way, that “the edge I of por
Aby rotating the part 4 until the two image por
tion 30 and edge II of portion 3I touch indicating
lines of said two pairs of lines 28 which left and
right are provided with the same marking. In
>the example as illustrated by Fig. 6 the edge I of
image portion 30 and the'edge II of image por
two indicator elements visible to him.
In Fig. 3 the „two area portions observable by
the user of the camera are indicated at 22 and
23 respectively.
tions 24 and 25 of the tree a, appearing in the
area portions 22 and 23 respectively, are in cor
70
rect alinement as indicated in Fig. 3. The two
image portions' 30 and 3l of the tree b,» which is
arranged farther away from the camera than the
tree a, however, are not properly assembled. In
order to adjust now the diaphragm I3, the cam
tion 3i are touching each a line provided with
the marking 4, which means that the diaphragm
should be adjusted to an opening F14 in order to Il
2,117,428
I obtain a photograph 4in which both trees a and b
3
of the camera, said indicating marks appearing
,appear with the desired sharpness.
, in the area in which the combined images of the
Where exchangeable lens'mountings are used distance meter appear, and comprising two siml
in association with a camera, the adjusting
mechanism for the movable carrier of the linear
indicator element may be'provided with compen
sating means assuring the proper setting of the
linear elements for any selected lens mounting.
The compensating means also may be attached to
10 theexchangeable. lens mounting itself to make
certain` that with different lens mountings the
diaphragms can be adjusted to aperture values
which will be ascertained by observation of the
suitably spaced linear indicator elements in the
15 device.
I claim:
_
1.- In a camera, the combination with an ad
justable lens, of a base distance meter, provided
` with an opening for observing the two images
20 produced in the same, means operatively con
necting said lens with said base distance meter
and adapted to cause an adjustment of the dis
tance meter when said lens is adjusted ‘a dia
phragm for said lens, means for adjusting said
25 diaphragm to different apertures, and means
visible through the observation opening of said
-base distance meter andprovided with spaced in
dicating marks, at least one-mark being provided
for each image of said distance meter, said marks
30 when two image portions are correctly matched
' and when appearing to touch similar points of
two other laterally displaced image portions in
the distance meter determine the correct dia
phragm opening for reproducing the image point
35 corresponding to the displaced image portions
and which lies "outside the plane for which the
lar series of spaced vertical lines, one series for
each image, one series of said lines being ar
ranged in the right half and the other series of
said lines being arranged in the left half of
said area, similar lines in each series when two
image portions are correctly matched and when
appearing to touch similar image points of two 10
other laterally displaced image portions in the
distance meter indicate the required diaphragm
aperture for reproducing the image point cor
responding to the displaced image portions andl
.which lies outside the plane for which the base
distance meter and therewith the lens is ad
justed with sufiicient depth of focus in the image
produceable by the lens.
4. In a camera, the combination with an ad
justable lens, of a base distance meter, the cam
era having an opening for observing the two
images produced in said Vdistance meter, means
operatively connecting'said lens with said base
distance meter and adapted to cause an adjust
ment of the distance meter when said lens is
adjusted, a diaphragm'for said lens, means for
adjusting said diaphragm to diiîerent apertures,
and means operatively connected with said dia
Aphragm adjusting means and provided with
spaced indicating marks visible through said ob
servation opening of the camera, said indicating
30A
marks appearing in the area in which the com
bined images of the distance meter appear, said
indicating marks comprising two spaced vertical '
lines, the distance at which said lines are spaced 35
apart indicate the widest allowable relative dis
placement of the two ’images in the distance
adjusted with suñìcient depth of focus in the " meter at which i'or a predetermined diaphragm
image produceable by the lens,
aperture a 'suiiicient depth of focus of the picture
2. In a camera, the combination with an ad
produceable by the lens will be obtained.
base distance meter and therewith the lens is
justable lens, of a .base distance meter, the
5. In a camera, the combination with an ad
camera having an opening for observing the two.
images produced in said distance meter, means
justable lens, of a base distance meter, the
camera havingan opening for observing the two
images produced in said distance meter, means
operatively connecting said lens with said base
distance meter and adapted to cause an adjust
ment of the distance meter when said lens is
adjusted, a diaphragm for said lens, means for
operatively connecting said lens with said base,
adjusting said diaphragm to diiîerent apertures,
and means provided with spaced indicating
marks visible through said observation opening
of the camera, said indicating marks appearing
adjusted, a diaphragm for said lens, means for
in the area in which the combined images of the
`distance meter appear, at least one indicating
mark `being provided for each image, said marks
when two image portions -are correctly matched
and when appearing to touch similar points of
two other laterally displaced image portions in
the distance meter determine the correct dia
00
phragm setting for reproducing. the image point
corresponding to the displaced image portions
and which lies outside the plane for which the
base distance meter and therewith the lens is
`adjusted with sufiicient depth of focus in the
image produceable by.the lens.
65
3. In a camera, the combination with an ad
distance meter and adapted to cause an adjust
ment of the distance meter when said lens is
adjusting said diaphragm to diiîerent apertures,
and means provided with spaced indicating
marks visible through said observation opening
of the camera, said indicating marks comprising
two spaced vertical lines which appear in the
area in which the combined images of the dis
tance meter appear, the distance at which said 65
lines are spaced apart indicate the widest allow
able relative displacement of the two images in
the distance meter at which for a predetermined
diaphragm aperture a sufficient depth of focus
of the picture produceable kby the >lens will be
obtained, one of said lines being stationary and
~the other ,of said lines being arranged on a mov
able member i'or varying the horizontal distance
between said lines, means for adjusting said
movable member, and means for operatively con 65
justable lens, of a` base distance meter, the necting said movable merriber adjusting means
camera having an opening for observing the two with said diaphragm adjusting means, whereby
images produced in said distance meter, means the position of said movable line is varied when
operatively connecting said lens with said base ever the diaphragm aperture is variedÍ
distance meter and adapted to cause an adjust
6. In a camera, the combination »with an ad
ment of the distance meter when said lens is justable lens, of a base distance meter, the cam 70
adjusted, a diaphragm for said lens, means for era having an opening for observing the two
adjusting said> diaphragm to diii'erent apertures, ' images produced in said distance meter, means
andy means provided withY spaced indicating operatively connecting said lens with said base
marks visible through said observation opening distance meter and adapted to cause an adjust
y
.
2,117,428
ment oi' the distance meter when said lens is
adjusted, a diaphragm for said lens, means for
adjusting said diaphragm to different apertures,
and means provided with spaced indicating
marks visible through said observation opening
of the camera, said indicating marks com
prising two spaced vertical lines, ' adapted
to be adjusted relatively to each other to
vary the distance between the same, said verti
cal lines appearing in the area in which the
combined images of the distance meter appear,
said lines when two image portions are correctly
matched and when appearing to touch similar
points of two other laterally displaced image
portions-in the distance meter indicate 'the cor
rect diaphragm aperture for producing the image
point corresponding to the displaced image por
tions and which lies outside the plane for which
the base distance meter and therewith the lens
ls adjusted with suiiicient depth of focus in the
image produceable by the lens.
^
7. In a camera, the combination with an ad
justable lens, of a base distance meter, the cam
era having an opening for observing the two
images produced in said distance meter, means
operatively connecting said lens with said base
distance meter and adapted to cause an adjust
ment of the distance meter when said lens is ad
justed, a diaphragm for said lens, means for ad
which lies outside the plane for which the base
distance meter‘and therewith the lens is adjusted
with suflicient depth of focus in the image pro
duceable by the lens, one of. said lines being sta
tionary and the other of saidlines being arranged
on a movable member for varying the horizontal
distance between said lines, means for adjust
ing said movable member, and means for opera.
tively connecting said movable member adjust
ing means with said diaphragm adjusting means, i10
whereby the position of said movable line is
varied whenever the diaphragm aperture is
varied.
9. In a camera, the combination with an ad
justable lens, of a base distance meter, the cam
era having an opening for observing the two
images produced in said distance meterÀ and
adapted to cause an adjustment of the distance
meter when said lens is adjusted, a diaphragm
for said lens, means for adjusting said dia 20
phragm to different apertures, and a transparent
plate provided with spaced indicating marks ar
ranged in line with said observation opening of `
the camera so that said indicating marks appear
ing in the area in which the combined images of 25
the distance meter appear, said indicating marks
comprising two series of similarly spaced vertical
lines arranged on said plate symmetrically on
opposite sides of its vertical median line, each
pair-of coordinated lines of said two series of
justing said diaphragm to diilîerent apertures,
and means provided with spaced indicating lines indicating apredetermined diaphragm aper
marks visible through said observation opening Ä ture and when appearing to touch simliar points
of the camera, said indicating marks appearing in laterally displaced image'portions in the dis'
'JU
in the area in which the combined images of the
.35 distance meter appear, said indicating vmarks
comprising two spaced vertical lines adapted to
be adjusted relatively to each other to vary the
distance between the same, said lines when two
tance meter upon correctly matching other image
portions assure a sufñcient depth of focus of the
image produceable by the lens when the dia
phragm aperture is adjusted >to the size indicated
-by said pair of lines.
10. In a camera, the combination of a selec
image portions are correctly matched and when
appearing to touch similar points of two other tively exchangeable lens system, an adjustable
laterally displaced image portions in the distance diaphragm associated with said lenssystem, a
meter indicate the correct diaphragm aperture _base distance meter, means for simultaneously
for producing the image point corresponding to adjusting said lens system and said base distance
meter, said last named adjusting means being
the displaced image Iportions and which lies out
side the plane for which the base distance meter releasably coupled with said base distance meter
and therewith the lens is adjusted with sufficient and being exchangeable with said lens system,
depth of focus in the image produceable by the -compensating means on said exchangeable lens
lens, means for varying the distance _between said - system for coordinating the base distance meter
vertical lines, said means being coupled with with the lens system, the camera having an open
said diaphragm adjusting means, whereby the ing for observing the two images produced by the 60
60 distance of said lines is varied whenever the dia-, distance meter, Aand means provided with spaced
indicating marks visible through said observa
phragm aperture is varied.
tion opening of the camera, said indicating marks
8. In a camera, the combination with an ad
justable lens, of ya base distance meter, the cam
era having an opening for observing the two
images produced in said distance meter, means
operatively connecting said lens with said base
distance meter and adapted to cause an adjust
ment of the distance meter when'said lens is
adjusted, a diaphragm for said lens, means for
00
adjusting said diaphragm to diiïeren't apertures,
and means provided with .spaced indicating
marks visible through said observatlonopening
' of the camera, said indicating marks comprising
appearing in the area in which the combined
images of the distance meter appear, at least 55
one indicating mark being provided for each
image, said marks when two image portions are
correctly matched and when appearing to touch
similar points of two other laterally displaced
image portions in the distance meter determine
the correctA diaphragm setting for reproducing
the image point corresponding to the displaced
image portions and which lies outside the plane
for which the base distance meter and therewith
two spaced vertical lines adapted to be adjusted ' the lens is adjusted with sufficient depth of focus 65
in the image produceable by the lens.
relatively to each other to vary the distance be
11. In a camera, the combination of a lens,
tween the same, said vertical lines appearing in
the area in which the combined images of the
distance meter appear, said lines when two image
portions are correctly matched and when ap
pearing to touch similar image points of two
other laterally displaced image portions in the
distance meter indicate the correct diaphragm
aperture for producing the image point corre
las
sponding to the displaced image portions and
means for axially adjusting the lens relatively to
the camera, a base distance meter, means con
nected with the lens adjusting means for adjust- >
ing-the distance meter to varying distances, a
diaphragm associated with the lens, means for
setting the diaphragm to varying aperture values
to determine thereby the depth of focus of the
image produceable by the lens, the‘camera hav 75
2,117,428
ing an observation opening for the distance
to determine thereby the depth of focus oi' the »
meter, a member having a vertical indicator line
placed in said opening, a carrier provided with a
ing an observation opening Iorthe distance Vme
image produceable by the lens, the camera hav
vertical linear indicator arranged adjacent‘said - ter, a screen having a vertical indicator line
placed in said opening, a carrier provided with
member, means for adjusting said carrier hori
zontally and relatively to said' indicating line on a, vertical linear indicator arranged adjacent
said screen, means for adjusting-said carrier
horizontally in a plane parallel to said screenand
ting means, said indicating line on the member relatively to the indicating line on the latter, said
and indicator on the carrier, when upon match- . «carrier adjusting means being operatively con 10'
nected. with said diaphragm settingmeans, a
ing'two image portions appearing to touch simi
said member. said carrier. adjusting means being
operatively connected with the diaphragm set
.
l5.
lar points of two other laterally displaced image
portions in the distance meter indicate the dia
phragm has been adjusted to reproduce the
image point corresponding to the displaced image
portions and which lies outside the plane for
which the base distance meter and therewith
telescope in alinement with said- observation .
opening and adapted to project the combined
images of the distance meter upon `the screen,
said‘indicating line on the screen and indicator 16
on the carrier, when upon correctly matching
two image portionsappearing to touch similar
the lens is adjusted with suillcient depth of focus l points of two other laterally displaced image por
tions in the distance meter indicate that the dia
inthe picture produceable by the lens.
phragm has been adjusted to'reproduce the pic
12.
In
a
camera,
the
combinationA
of
a_lens,
20
ture point corresponding to the displaced image
means for axially adjusting the lens relatively to
the camera, a base distance meter, means con- .
nected with the lens adjusting means for adjust
ing the distance meter to varying distances, a
25 diaphragm associated with the lens, means for
-setting the diaphragm to varying aperture values
portions and which lies outside the plane for`
which the base distance meter and therewith the
lens is adjusted with suiiicient depth of focus in
the picture produoeable by the lens.
-
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Hmz xiiPPnNBENDm j
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