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Патент USA US2117495

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May 17, 1938.
2,117,495
1.. E. NORQUIST
PROPULSION MEANS FOR WATERCRAFT
Filed July 16, 1957
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Lester E [Var
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May 17, 1938.
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|_. E. NORQUIST
2,117,495
PROPULSION MEANS FOR WATERCRAFT
Filed July 16, 1957
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Patented May 17, 1938
2,11'ZA95
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFHCE
2,117,495
PROPULSION MEANS FOR WATERCRAFT
Lester E. Norquist, Denver, 0010.
Application July 16, 1937, Serial No. 153,938
5 Claims.
0
‘order to permit travel of the craft. In addition,
the location of the conventional propeller is such
sion means for such craft.
as to minimize its effectiveness because of the
A further object of the invention is to provide
improved propulsion means for water craft selec
tively operable to control lateral as well as longi
tudinal travel of such craft.
A further object of the invention is to provide
improved propulsion means for water craft selec
tively operable to steer as well as to propel such
craft.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an improved construction and arrangement of
elements comprising propulsion means for water
craft, which means are readily adaptable to op
erative association in various combinations with
various types and sizes of water craft, and are
susceptible of highly ?exible selective operation
for efficient propulsion and control thereof.
My invention consists in the construction, ar
rangement, and combination of elements herein
after set forth, pointed out in my claims, and
diagrammatically illustrated in the accompany
ing drawings, in which
Figure 1 is a plan view, partlyin horizontal
section, of a typical application of the invention'to
a conventional water craft, a portion of said craft
being broken away to conserve space. Figure 2
is a side elevation, partly in vertical section, of the
arrangement shown in Figure 1. Figured is a
view similar to Figure 1 and illustrating a modi
?ed arrangement of the elements constituting the
invention. Figure 4 is a fragmentary view of the
stern portion of a water craft wherewith a further
35 modi?cation of the invention is operatively asso
ciated. Figure 5 is a fragmentary, detail eleva
tion of protective grid means advantageously em
ployed with the other elements of the invention.
Figure 6 is a plan view of the elements shown in
40
(Cl. 115—16)
This invention relates to powered water craft,
and has as an object to provide improved propul
Figure 5.
The instant invention is primarily concerned
with the longitudinal propulsion of water craft
through the ef?cient application of power to
initiate and maintain a. suction effect adjacent
the forward portion of the craft and a pressure
eddy currents and disturbed water adjacent the
stern of a moving‘ craft, and it is to obviate the
foregoing disadvantages as well as to secure ad
vantages of efficiency, control, and ?exibility, that
the principles of the instant invention have been
developed.
In the application of the principles of the in '10
vention as illustrated, a typical water craft or
vessel arranged for power propulsion is conven
tionally illustrated as comprising a hull Ill formed
with the usual tapered bow II and curved stern
i2. Adjacent the bow portion of the craft, the ,: 15
side walls of the hull iii are intersected by a plu
rality of circular ports which open below the
normal water line of the craft and are preferably
paired on opposite sides of the hull. Each of
the ports above mentioned opens into an intake \ 20
chamber de?ned by a suitable housing or wall I3
within the hull Hi, and each of said intake cham
bers operatively houses a water wheel or like ele
ment Hi rotatable to initiate and maintain water
flow relative to its intake chamber. E‘ach water
wheel M is preferably ?xed to the outer end of an
operating shaft I 5 which extends inwardly of the
hull ill through a gland or stuf?ng box l6 asso
ciated with the housing l3, through suitable bear
ing supports I? and a coupling “3, to driven con- -.
nection with the rotor element of a power unit,
such as an electric motor I S, suitably ?xed within
and carried by the hull I 0. Each of the shafts I 5
supporting the water wheels is is preferably pro
vided with an independent power unit, though
it is to be understood that all of said shafts may
be operated from a single power unit, through
proper clutches and driving connections, without
in’ any way departing from the spirit of the in
vention. A water wheel M is provided in opera
tive relation with each of the ports opening
through the forward portion of the hull forcom
munication with an intake chamber, and said
water wheels are disposed and arranged for ro
by forward portions of the vessel against the
water through which propulsion is desired, which
pressure is proportional to the speed of the vessel
tation to normally draw Water inwardly of the
ports and thereby'create a suction effect adja~
cent and acting on the forward portion of the
vessel. The speci?c disposition and arrangement
of the intake chambers will vary with varying
sizes and types of water craft, but they are pref
erably grouped closely adjacent the bow of the
vessel, as indicated by broken lines in Figures 1
and 2, it being apparent that an enhanced suc
tion eifect may be had through actuation of the
and must be overcome by the propeller thrust in
water wheel elements when said elements are dis
effect adjacent the stern portion of the craft, such
effects combining to propel the craft away from
the pressure area and inthe direction of the suc
tion zone. The conventional screw or propeller
associated with the stern of a vessel for propul
sion purposes is productive of a pressure exerted
~ .
55
2
2,117,495
posed along and in closely spaced relation in the
prow portion of the craft.
The intake chambers de?ned by the housings
l3 are each provided with an outlet conduit 20
disposed along the adjacent hull wall and pref
erably inclining downwardly and rearwardly of
the craft to communicate at intervals with a
water-way or conduit 2| of a size to freely re
ceive the maximum discharge from the conduits
10 20 with a minimum of pressure and resistance,
the conduit 2| preferably increasing in diameter
or cross sectional area as it is intersected by suc
cessive outlets 20.
One conduit 2| is disposed
along each side of and just within the walls of
15 the hull ID to receive the combined intake from
the chambers communicating through the corre
sponding hull wall, and, according to the show
ing of Figures 1 and 2, said conduits 2| are di
rected inwardly of the hull adjacent the stern
20 I2 and combine on the longitudinal median line
of the vessel in an outlet 22 having a capacity
su?icient to carry the combined ?ow from the
conduits 2| and arranged to open through the
stern of the craft below the normals water line.
25 In the arrangement just described, actuation of
the water wheels It in a common proper direc
tion acts to induce water ?ow inwardly of the
intake chambers and outwardly therefrom
through the outlets 2|! to establish a combined
30 ?ow rearwardly of the vessel through the con
duits 2| for ultimate discharge through the out—
let 22, thus generating a suction effect adjacent
the bow of the craft and a pressure effect ad
jacent the stern of the craft which combined to
is propel the vessel longitudinally and forwardly.
A craft equipped as shown and described may be
steered to a desirable and advantageous degree
through selective control of the water wheels l4
during forward travel of the vessel or when the
40 craft is at rest. With all of the water wheels
operating, there is a balance between the suction
effects generated on opposite sides of the hull
and a consequent tendency of the craft to main
tain a straight course. Obviously, if more of the
45 water wheels are operating on one side than on
the other side of the hull, the suction eifect on
that side having the larger number of water
wheels in operation will be enhanced with a con
sequent tendency of the craft to veer or turn
~50 toward the area of greater suction effect. The
outlet 22 is preferably provided with a gate or
valve 23 arranged to entirely obstruct the pas
sage through said outlet, at times. When the
valve 23 is closed, there is no ?ow through the
55 outlet 22 from the conduits 2|, but a U-shaped
communication is then established between the
ports on one side of the craft and those on the
opposite side of the hull, so that when the water
wheels on one side only of the craft are operated,
60 a water flow is established inwardly through the
intake chambers on that side of the craft,
through the outlets 2|], conduits 2|, opposite
outlets 2|], and outwardly through the intake
chambers wherein the water wheels are idle,
85 which ?ow acts to move the forward portion of
the craft toward the suction effect produced by
the operating water wheels, and thereby steer
and control the vessel when not in longitudinal
motion. It is, of course, apparent that the water
wheels may be reversely driven to draw water
inwardly through the outlet 22 for discharge out
wardly of the intake chambers and thereby pro
pel the craft in a rearward direction, and that
said water wheels may be selectively operated
with such speed and in such operative combina~
tions as will provide complete control of the craft
position and direction.
In the modi?cation illustrated in Figure 3, the
essential elements of the invention are in all re~
spects identical with those previously described,
the only variation from the previous disclosure
being that the conduits 2| are led directly and.
separately to and open through the stern of the
craft I2.
With this latter arrangement, longi-
tudinal propulsion of the craft may be e?ected
exactly as above set forth, and the craft may be
steered when in longitudinal motion, but since
no connection is provided between the conduits
2| within the craft, this modi?cation does not
permit of the lateral manipulation of the craft 15
apart from longitudinal motion thereof.
In the modi?cation according to Figure 4, the
advantages of both of the installations previously
described are combined. In this modi?cation the
conduits 2| open directly through the stern of 20
the craft in spaced relation and are intercon
nected within the hull by means of a suitable
passage 25. The outlet ends of the conduits 2|
are each provided with cuto? valves 25, and a
similar valve 26 is installed to control the flow
through the passage 24, said valve preferably be
ing suitably interconnected for simultaneous ac
tuation in such manner as to provide that when
one valve 25 is open the other valve 25 is also
open and the valve 2% closed, and that when the ‘~
valve 26 is open, both valves 2'5 are closed, which
arrangement permits direct discharge from the
conduits 2| for forward propulsion of the craft,
or intake on one side of the craft for discharge
through the.ports on the opposite side, utilizing '
the passage 24, for lateral control of the vessel
independently of its longitudinal travel.
It is desirable to guard the intake ports against
entrance of flotsam, debris, weeds, and the like,
in a manner which will permit free and ready ac
cess to the water wheels for maintenance, re
placement, and repair of the latter, to which end
the construction shown in Figures 5 and 6 is
particularly adapted. As shown, a grid assembly
comprises a plurality of spaced, parallel ?ngers i
2'! ?xed at one end each to and disposed in trail
ing relation with a bar 28 which is in turn mount
ed for reciprocation in a vertically disposed slide
bearing 29 ?xed to the hull ill in leading relation
with each of the intake ports. The arrangement '.
shown provides a guard assembly from which
weeds and like entangling matter may slide away
freely, and which may be conveniently and expe
ditiously elevated in its slide bearing 29 to clear
its respective port when access to the latter or ~
water wheel associated therewith is desired.
The power units l9 are preferably arranged
for independent selective control in any suitable
or convenient manner, a control panel 30 prefer
ably being associated with and positioned ad
jacent each of said power units for manipula
tion by maintenance personnel of the craft, when
required, and a master control panel 3| prefer
ably being associated with the various panels 30
and positioned on the bridge or in the pilot
house of the vessel for manipulation by navigat
ing personnel. With this arrangement, the power
units may be actuated and controlled from a re
mote station, when expedient, or may be sepa
rately and individually regulated on signal, or
otherwise, according to the needs and problems
of a given situation.
While the water wheels M are illustrated as of
propeller type, such illustration is but typical of
any suitable speci?c water wheel construction
2,117,495
operable to initiate and maintain water ?ow, and
is to be understood as including conventional
pumps of centrifugal or other type, squirrel-cage
rotor elements, and any equivalent construction
operable to the ends speci?ed.
Since many changes, modi?cations, and varia
tions, in the speci?c form, construction, and ar
rangement of the elements shown and described
may be had without departing from the spirit
10 of my invention, I wish to be understood as be
ing limited solely by the scope of the appended
claims, rather than by any details of the illus
trative showing and foregoing description.
I claim as my invention
1. The operative association with a water craft
of propulsion and control means comprising in
take ports opening through opposite sides of the
20
25
30
35
craft hull adjacent the bow and below the water
line of said craft, an intake chamber cooperating
with each of said ports within said craft, a water
wheel operatively disposed in each of said intake
chambers, power means in selectively driving re
lation with said water wheels, an outlet conduit
from each of said intake chambers directed rear
wardly and downwardly of the craft, a longi
tudinal header conduit communicating with the
outlet conduits on each side of the craft, said
header conduits converging to a junction adja
cent the stern of the craft, an outlet passage
communicating with the combined header con
duits and opening through the stern of the
craft, and valve means associated with said out
let passage and operable to establish ?ow
through said header conduits and between the
oppositely-disposed sets of intake chambers.
2. Propulsion means for watercraft compris
ing a series of separate intake chambers grouped
along and opening through opposite sides of the
craft hull below the normal water line and ad
jacent the craft how, a water wheel operatively
mounted in each of said intake chambers, power
means in selective driving relation with said
water wheels, an outlet conduit associated With
each of said intake chambers, said outlet conduit
45 having a ?ow capacity less than that of its asso
ciated chamber, whereby the propulsion e?ect of
the water wheel associated with a given chamber
is utilized to maintain a uniform, high-velocity
flow of water through the related outlet conduit,
50 a header conduit interconnecting all of the out
let conduits along one side of the craft, said head
er conduit being disposed longitudinally of the
craft and having a rearwardly-increasing ca
pacity such as will accommodate the in?ow from
55 the outlet conduits without back pressures or in
creased velocity of flow in the header conduit,
and a discharge for said header conduit through
the stern of the craft and below the normal water
line thereof.
3. Propulsion means for watercraft comprising
60
a series of separate intake chambers grouped
along and opening through opposite sides of the
craft hull below the normal water line and ad
jacent the craft bow, a water wheel operatively
65 mounted in each of said intake chambers, power
means in selective driving relation with said
water wheels, an outlet conduit associated with
each of said intake chambers, said outlet con
duit having a flow capacity less than that of its
70 associated chamber,whereby the. propulsion effect
of the water wheel associated with a given cham
ber is utilized to maintain a uniform, high-veloc
ity ?ow of water through the related outlet con
duit, a header conduit longitudinally of each side
75 of the craft in interconnecting relation with the
3
outlet conduits on the corresponding side of the
craft, said header conduit being formed with a
rearwardly-increasing capacity such as will ac
commodate the inflow from successive outlet
conduits without undesirable back pressures and
increase in the velocity of flow therethrough, flow
passage means interconnecting the rearward por
tions of said header conduits, and a discharge
from said ?ow passage means rearwardly through
the stern of the craft and below the normal water .
line thereof.
4. Propulsion means for watercraft comprising
a series of separate intake chambers grouped
along and opening through opposite sides of the
craft hull below the normal water line and ad
jacent the craft bow, a water wheel operatively
mounted in each of said intake chambers, power
means in selective driving relation with said
water wheels, an outlet conduit associated with
each of ‘said intake chambers, said outlet conduit
having aflow capacity less than that of its asso
ciated chamber, whereby the propulsion effect of
the water wheel associated with a given chamber
is utilized to maintain a uniform, high-velocity
flow of water through the related outlet con-duit, 25
a header conduit longitudinally of each side of
the craft in interconnecting relation with the
outlet conduits on the corresponding side of the
craft, said header conduit being formed with a
rearwardly-increasing capacity such as will ac 30
commodate the in?ow from successive outlet
conduits without undesirable back pressures and
increase in the velocity of ?ow therethrough, flow,
passage means interconnecting the rearward por
tions of said header conduits, a discharge from .
said flow passage means rearwardly through the
stern of the craft and below the normal water
line thereof, and valve means associated with
said discharge and closable to establish ?ow from
one of said header conduits into, through and 40
outwardly of the intake chambers associated with
the other of said header conduits.
5. Propulsion means for watercraft compris
ing a series of separate intake chambers grouped
along and opening through opposite sides of the 45
craft hull below the normal water line and ad
jacent the craft bow, a water wheel operatively
mounted in each of said intake chambers, power
means in selective driving relation with said
water wheels, an outlet conduit associated with 50
each of said intake chambers, said outlet con
duit having a flow capacity less than that of
its associated chamber, whereby the propulsion
effect of the water wheel associated with a given
chamber is utilized to maintain a uniform, high
velocity flow of water through the related outlet
conduit, a header conduit longitudinally of each
side of the craft in interconnecting relation with
the outlet conduits on the corresponding side
of the craft, said header conduit being formed 60
with a rearwardly increasing capacity such as
will accommodate the in?ow from successive
outlet conduits without undesirable back pres
sures and increase in the velocity of flow there
through, a discharge for each of said header con
65
duits opening through the stern of said craft
below the normal water line thereof, ?ow pas
sage means interconnecting said header conduits
adjacent the stern of the craft, and valve means
olperatively vassociated with each header dis
charge and with the flow passage means for the
control of ?ow through, outwardly of and be
tween said header conduits.
LESTER E. NORQUIST.
75
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