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Патент USA US2117534

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May 17, 1938.
R. c. BAKER
2,117,534
WELL CEMENTING‘DEVICE'
Filed Oct. 10, 1936
~
-
2 Sheets—Sheet l
17%.2.
BY Mam
ATTORNEY .
May 17, 1938.
R. c. BAKER
.
2,117,534
WELL CEMENTING DEVICE
Filed Oct. 10, 1936
W. 3.
2 Sheeté-Sheet 2
F’ 0.41.
'
/7
_
27
i
’
/
INVENTOR.
BYCOJAa/Z/Q. $226M
ATTORNEY .
Patented May 17, 1938
2,117,534
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,117,534
WELL CEMENTING DEVICE '
Reuben 0. Baker, Coalinga, Calif., assignor to
Baker Oil Tools, Inc., Huntington Park, Calif.,
a corporation of California
Application October 10, 1936, Serial No. 105,045
11 Claims. (01. 166-1)
This invention relates to apparatus for use
during the casing of deep oil well bores.‘
It is the principal object of my present inven
tion to provide an improved cementing apparatus
for use in connection with cementing of deep Well
casings, which device enables a proper washing
action to be performed, enables circulation to be
had throughout the whole length of the casing,
but also enables cement to be discharged from
10 the casing at any point therealong so that any
portion of the space between the lower extremity
i)
of the valve ‘chamber is a lower passageway l6
which is of a diameter less than the diameter of
the valve chamber.
Intermediate the ends of the valve chamber
are radial cementing ports I‘! which extend from
the valve chamber through the cylindrical mem
ber l2 so that when these ports I‘! are unob
structed, fluid may flow from the valve chamber 10.
outwardly through these ports into the annular
and the surface may be cemented as desired.
One form which the invention may assume is
space between the exterior of the casing or cylin
drical member l2 and the well bore. In the
exempli?ed in the following description and illus
present instance I have shown normally ?xed
plugs or closures ill .for the cementing ports I‘! 15
to maintain the same closed during the period
prior to the cementing operation. The plugs
trated by way of example in the accompanying
drawings, in which:
1 is a view in central vertical section
through a well casing in a well bore, showing the
construction of the preferred form of my appa
ratus.
Fig. 2 is a similar view with the exception that
it shows the closures removed from the cementing
ports and the parts in the position which they
assume during the cementing operation.
Fig. 3 is a central vertical sectional view
through the device very similar to Fig. 1 with the
exception that it includes a ?oat valve.
Fig. 4 is a view of the device shown in Fig. 3
with the parts in the position they assume during
the cementing operation.
Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional view through the
device taken on line V—V of Fig. 3.
Referring more particularly to the accompany
ing drawings, I have there illustrated a well
. casing l0 disposed in a well bore, which casing
is ?tted with an apparatus ll embodying the
preferred form of my invention. In the present
instance the apparatus H is disclosed as adapted
to be incorporated in a casing collar so that it
may be interposed between lengths of easing at
any desired point along the casing between the
ends of the latter. It will be obvious, however,
that the device may be incorporated in a casing
shoe for use at the lower extremity of the well
casing.
The device ll illustrated includes a cylindrical
member i2 which, when the device is to be inter
posed in the casing between its ends, is a casing
collar or coupling, and when the device is to be
$10 placed at the lower extremity of the casing, the
cylindrical member I2 is a ‘casing shoe.
Formed coaxially within the cylindrical mem
ber i2 is a cylindrical valve chamber M, in this,
instance illustrated as of a diameter considerably
I) I)
l4, and is of. a diameter considerably less than the
same. Extending coaxially from the lower end
less than the interior diameter of the cylindrical
member l2, although such is unnecessary as will
be apparent from a further description of the
device. Extending from the upper end of the
or closures l8 are, however, releasable as will be
hereinafter described, so that they may be re
leased and the ports I‘! opened just prior to the 20
cementing operation.
At the junction between the upper end of the
valve chamber [4 and the upper passageway I5
I provide a yieldable valve seat member IQ of
the type described and claimed in a oopending
application ?led by myself and Oscar A. Mellin,
which application is entitled “Valve structure for
well casings and tubing," ?led October 10, 1936,
bearing Serial No. 105,047.
The yieldable valve
seat member i9 is preferably formed of such
yieldable or pliable material as rubber, and is
disk-like and is anchored at its outer perimeter
adjacent the perimeter of the valve chamber, as
illustrated. The yieldable valve seat member I9
is formed with a central valve port 20 which is
arranged coaxially of the valve chamber l4 and
the upper passageway IS. The valve port men
tioned is somewhat less in diameter than the di
ameter of the upper passageway l5. The valve
port 20 in the valve seat member I9 is surrounded
by an upturned conical ?ange 2| which abuts at
its upper and outer surface against a conical
shoulder face 22 formed at the junction between
the valve chamber l4 and the upper passage
way l5.
Reciprocably mounted within the chamber N
for reciprocation coaxially thereof is an annular
piston 23 formed with a central port extending
coaxially therethrough as at 24. Surrounding
the upper end of the port 24 is a valve seat 25
and surrounding the lower end of the annular
piston at its perimeter is a conical seating. face
26 adapted to cooperate with a conical seating
face 21 formed at the junction between the valve
chamber l4 and the lower passageway IS.
30
35
40
45
50
The 55
valve chamber, [4 is an upper passageway l5
annular piston is, at commencement of operation,
disposed intermediate the radial cementing ports
57 and the upper end of‘ the valve chamber l4,
and it should be stated that when in this position,
which is disposed coaxially of the valve chamber
it is free to move vertically of the valve cham
60
2
2,117,584
her. It will be noticed that the closures or plug
members ill for the cementing ports ll have por
tions projecting within the valve chamber Hi
so that the annular piston 23 cannot move below
the radial cementing ports I‘! until the projec
tions of the closures i8 are removed.
For cooperation with the device just described
there is a main ball valve member 28.
This ball
valve member 28 is slightly less in diameter than
10 the upper passageway l5, although it is greater
in diameter than the port 20 formed through
the yieldable valve seat member IS. The main
ball valve 28 is likewise greater in diameter
than the port 2t formed through, the piston
15 23, so that it will properly seat on the seat
25 of this piston. It should be explained that
when the main ball valve 28 is pumped down
wardly through the casing and passes through the
passageway l5, it will expand the port 20 of the
20 yielding valve seat member l9 and will pass
therethrough into the valve chamber and will seat
on the seat 25 of the annular piston 23. How
ever, when the ball 28 attempts to pass upwardly
through the port 28 of the ?exible seat member
l9 after it is once positioned in the valve cham
ber, the yieldable valve seat member will not ex
pand and therefore the ball will cooperate with
the seat thereof, and which surrounds the port
the same as that disclosed in Figs. 1 and 2 with
the exception that in Figs. 3 and 4 the device is
?tted with a ?oat valve 29 which will act to enable
the casing to be ?oated into place. That is to
say, this ball valve 29 will, when the casing is
being lowered into the hole, ?oat upwardly and
seat on a valve seat 30 which surrounds the lower
end of the port 24 through the annular piston 23,
and thereby prevent the passage of ?uid upwardly
through the upper passageway l5 from the valve
chamber M so that the casing will be ?oated into
place in the hole. A single narrow strap 3| is
provided atthe lower end of the passageway IE
to retain the ball in the valve chamber. The
ball 29 is less in diameter than the passageway I6
so that ?uid may freely pass downwardly through
this passageway l6 even though the ball is there
in disposed as illustrated.
In operation of the device, if it is constructed
for use at any point in the string of casing be 530
tween the ends thereof, it is constructed as in
Figs. 1 and 2, or as in Figs. 3 and 4 should it be
desired to provide a ?oat valve therefor. If, how
ever, the device is to be used at the lower ex~
tremity of the casing, it will be constructed as -
shown in the broken lines in Figs. 1 and 3. In
other words, my device is adapted for use either
at the lower extremity of the casing or at any
28, closing the port 28 against the upward flow, intermediate point therealong.
30 of ?uid therethrough.
'
I have found in actual practice that the ball
' may pass downwardly through the ?exible valve
seat as described without any indicated gauge
pressure, and I have also found that it cannot
35 be forced upwardly through the port 28 at a
gauge indication of three thousand pounds‘ per
square inch. This is obvious when it is noticed
that the conical ?ange surrounding the port 20
will be prevented from expansion when the ball
40 attempts to pass upwardly through the port 20
due to its engagement with the tapered annular
shoulder face 22.
The closures l8 for the cementing ports H are
so constructed as illustrated that when the lower
45 end of the piston 23 engages the inner projec
tions thereon and su?‘lcient pressure is applied
downwardly to the piston, the latter will shear
said projections and thereby release the plugs or
closures l8, so that the latter may pass outwardly
60 through the ports I‘! so that the latter will be
unobstructed. Upon the removal of these pro-—
jections and the release of the closures or plugs,
If the device of Figs. 1 and 2 is employed, it 30
is connected with the well casing at the proper
point and the latter is lowered into the hole minus
the ball 28. When the casing has been positioned
in the bore and it is desired to cement through
the ports ll, the ball 28 is pumped downwardly 35
through the casing and will pass through the
upper passageway“? through the port 20 of the
?exible valve seat member l9 into the valve
chamber and will bear against the valve seat 25
of the annular piston 23. Fluid pressure above 40
the ball will then cause the piston to move down
wardly and shear the projections of the closures
or plugs l8 and release the latter. The sheared
projections will, of course, drop downwardly
through the valve chamber and through the 45
The ?uid pressure will, of
course, blow the remaining portions of the plugs
lower passageway H5.
I8 outwardlyvthrough the ports H.
' When the annular piston 23 reaches the bottom
of vthe valve chamber, its seating face 26 will seat 50
on the face'i2'l at the junction between the valve
chamber and the lower passageway l6 and the
‘the annular piston will travel downwardly and the , pump-pressure will keep the ball 28 seated on the
face 26 thereon will seat on the face 21 at the seat 25,‘,[r3reventing the passage of ?uid down
junction between the lower passageway I6 and wardly through the lower passageway Hi. There
the valve chamber l4, and the annular piston after thé'ceinent is introduced into the casing and
together with the ball will form a closure for the
lower passageway and prevent the passage of
?uid downwardly therethrough so that the latter
pumped downwardly under pressure, and as it
cannot‘ pass downwardly through the passage
way ' l6, it will discharge through the radial ce
must pass out through the radial ~cementing menting ports I‘! and upwardly around the cas 60
ing._ When the cementing pressure is discon
ports l1.
When the pressure within the casing becomesv tinued, the ball 28 will rise and seat on the seat
less or is equalized with the external pressure, the surrounding the port 20 in the ?exible seat mem
ball 28 will rise and seat on the seat of the valve ber l9 and prevent the cement from backing up
into the well casing.
,
port 28 of the yieldable valve member l9 and pre
vent the return of cement from the exterior of
The operationof the device shownin Figs. 3
the casing through the ports and upwardly into
the casing. In this capacity, the ball 28 acts,
and 4 is the same except that when the casing.
is being lowered into the hole, the ball 29 will
seat upwardly on the seat 30 and prevent the
passage of fluid upwardly into the casing, and
consequently enable the casing to be ?oated into
of course, as a back pressure valve. The ball
70 28 may be, if desired, of a speci?c gravity less
than that of ?uid cement and greater than that
of mud ?uid so that it may be pumped down the , place in the well bore.
From the foregoing itw isvobvious that I have
hole with the mud and will ?oat in the ?uid ce
ment thereafter to its seat as previously described. provided a very simple and e?icient device by ’
The device disclosed in Figs. 3 and 4 isexactly means of which ?uid may be pumped directly
75
2,117,534
and coaxially downwardly through the well cas
ing for the purpose of‘washing down or circula
tion, and that thereafter cement may be ejected
from the casing at any desired point through
radial ports in the side thereof.
There are a considerable number of uses to
which my invention may be put; for example,
in cementing off combination strings, for 'spot
ting cement at any particular point along the
10 casing, such as between oil sands, or for ce
menting o? any portion 01’ the bore between
the bottom of the casing and the upper end
thereof. When used in connection with combi
nation jobs or in spotting cement, bootleg pack
15 ers or their equivalent 'may be employed as will
be obvious to one skilled in the art, and while
I have shown the preferred form of my inven
tion, it is to be understood that various changes
may be made in its construction by those skilled
20 in the art without departing from the spirit of
the invention as de?ned in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
3
sageway, said tubular member having radial ports
formed therein extending from said chamber out
wardly through said member, a normally ?xed
closure for each of said ports, releasing means
in the chamber for releasing said closures, said
releasing means being operated by said valve
member after the latter has passed into said
chamber through said upper passageway and
port.
4. In combination with a well casing, a tubu
lar member adapted to be connected therewith,
said tubular member having a chamber formed
therein and an upper passageway extending from
said chamber upwardly, said passageway being
of a diameter less than the diameter of said
chamber, a yieldable valve seat member circum
scribing said passageway and having a port
formed therethrough less in diameter than said
passageway, a valve member permitted by said
seat member to pass through said upper passage
way and said port in one direction only, so when
it attempts to pass through said port in the op
posite direction it will seat on said yieldable valve
1. In combination with a well casing, a tubu
seat member and effect closing of said port and
26 lar member adapted to be connected therewith,
said passageway, said tubular member having
said member having a chamber formed therein, radial ports formed therein extending from said
said member having cementing ports extending chamber outwardly through said member, a nor
outwardly therethrough from said chamber, a mally ?xed closure for each of said ports, an
normally ?xed closure for each of said ports, re
annular piston reciprocably mounted in said
'30 leasing means in said chamber for releasing said ' chamber and capable when sufficient pressure is 30
closures, and a ball member adapted to be posi
exerted thereon to effect release of said closures,
tioned. in the casing after the same has been said annular piston being normally disposed in
lowered into a well bore to engage said releas
said chamber between said ports and said flexible
ing means and when fluid pressure is exerted valve seat member and capable of being engaged
35 thereagainst to actuate the same to release said
by said valve member so that when pressure is
closures.
exerted on the latter from above it will force said
2. In combination with a well casing, a tubu
piston downwardly in said chamber and effect
lar member adapted to be connected therewith, release of said closures.
said tubular member having a chamber formed
5. In combination with a well casing, a tubular
therein and an upper passageway extending from member adapted to be connected therewith, said 40
said chamber upwardly, said passageway being tubular member havinga chamber vformed there
of a diameter less than the diameter of said
in, an upper passageway extending from said
chamber, a yieldable valve seat member circum
chamber upwardly, said passageway being of a
scribing said passageway and having a port
diameter less than the diameter of said chamber,
formed therethrough less in diameter than said a yieldable valve seat member circumscribing said
passageway, a valve member permitted by said
passageway and having a port formed there
seat member to pass through said upper pas
through less in diameter than said passageway, a
sageway and said port in one direction only, so
valve member permitted by said seat member to
when it attempts to pass through said port in pass through said upper passageway and said
port in one direction only, so when it attempts to 50
5%) the opposite direction. it will seat on said yield
able valve seat member and eifect closing of said pass through said port in the opposite direction
port and said passageway, said tubular member it will seat on said yieldable valve seat member
having radial ports formed therein extending and effect closing of said port and said passage
from said chamber outwardly through said mem
way, said tubular member having radial ports
ber, normally effective closure means for said
formed therein extending from said chamber 55
ports, releasing means in said chamber capable outwardly through said member, a normally ?xed
of releasing said closure means, said releasing closure for each of said ports, an annular piston
means being capable of operation by said valve reciprocably mounted in said chamber and ca
member when the latter has passed into said pable when sufficient pressure is exerted thereon
chamber through said port.
to effect release of said closures, said annular pis 60
3. In combination with a well casing, a tubular
ton being normally disposed in said chamber be
member adapted to be connected therewith, said tween said ports and said ?exible valve seat
tubular member having a chamber formed there
member and capable of being engaged by said
in, an upper passageway extending from said valve member so that when pressure is exerted on
chamber upwardly, said passageway being of a
the latter from above it will force said piston 65
diameter less than the diameter of said chamber, downwardly in said chamber and effect release
a yieldable valve seat member circumscribing of said closures, said chamber being reduced in
said passageway and having a port formed there
diameter at its lower end to form a lower passage
through less in diameter than said passageway, way, said piston being capable of seating at the
a valve member permitted by said seat member
junction between said chamber and the lower
to pass through said upper passageway and said passageway whereby the piston and the valve
.‘port in one direction only, so when it attempts member when seated thereon may form a closure
to pass through said port in the opposite direc
for the lower passageway.
tion it will seat on said yieldable valve seat mem
6. In combination with a well casing, a tubular
ber and effect closing of said port and said pas
member adapted to be connected therewith, said
2,117,534
tubular member having a chamber formed‘ there
in, an upper passageway extending from said
chamber upwardly, said passageway being of a
diameter less than the diameter of said chamber,
a yieldable valve seat member circumscribing said
passageway and having a port formed there
through less in diameter than said passageway,
a valve member permitted by said seat member to
pass through said upper passageway and said port
10 in one direction only, so when ‘it attempts to pass
through said port in the opposite direction it
will seat on said yieldable valve seat member and
effect closing of said port and said passageway,
ing from said chamber outwardly through said
member, a normally ?xed closure for each of said '
ports, an annular piston reciprocably mounted
in said chamber and capable when su?icient pres
sure is exerted thereon to e?ect release of said
closures, said annular piston being normally dis
posed in said chamber between said ports and
the upper end of said chamber and capable of
being engaged by said ball so that when pres
sure is exerted on the latter from above it will 10
force said piston downwardly in said chamber and
effect release of said closures, said chamber being
reduced in diameter at its lower end to form a
said tubular member having radial ports formed
therein vextending from said chamber outwardly
through said member, a normally ?xed closure
lower passageway, said piston being capable of
seating at the junction between said chamber
for each of said ports, an annular piston recip
rocably mounted in said chamber and capable
when sui?cient pressure is exerted thereon to
e?ect release of said closures, said annular piston
the ball when seated thereon may form a closure
for the lower passageway.
10. In combination with a well casing, a tubular
being normally disposed in said chamber between
tubular member having a chamber formed there
in, an upper passageway extending from said
chamber upwardly, said passageway being of a
diameter less than the diameter of said chamber,
a yieldable valve seat member circumscribing said
passageway and having a port formed there
through less in diameter than said passageway, a
said ports and said ?exible valve seat member
and capable of being engaged by said valve mem~
ber so that when pressure is exerted on the latter
from above it will force said piston downwardly
in said chamber and e?ect release of said closures,
said chamber being reduced in diameter at its
lower end to form a lower passageway, said pis
ton being capable of seatingat the junction be
tween said chamber and the lower passageway
and the lower passageway whereby the piston and
member adapted to be connected therewith, said
valve member permitted by said seat member to
pass through said upper passageway and said
port in one direction only, so when it attempts 30
whereby the piston and the valve member when
to pass through said port in the opposite direc
seated thereon may form a closure for the lower
tion it will seat on said yieldable valve seat mem
passageway, said valve member being buoyant in
?uid cement whereby it may rise and seat on
said ?exible seat member.
7. In combination with a well casing, a tubular
ber and effect closing of said port and said pas
sageway, said tubular member having radial ports
formed therein extending from said chamber out
wardly through said member, a normally ?xed
closure for each of said ports, an annular piston
reciprocably mounted in said chamber and capa
ble when suf?cient pressure is exerted thereon
to effect release of said closures, said annular 40
piston being normally disposed in said chamber
between said ports and said ?exible valve seat
member and capable of being engaged by said
member adapted to be connected therewith, said
tubular member having a chamber formed there
in, a ball member adapted to pass downwardly
40 into'said chamber, said tubular member having
radial ports formed therein extending from said
chamber ‘outwardly through said member, nor
mally effective closure means for said ports, re-’
leasing means in said chamber capable of ren
45 dering said closure means ineffective, said releas
ing means being capable of operation by said ball
member when the latter has passed into said
chamber through said port.
8. In combination with a well casing, a tubular
member adapted to be connected therewith, said
50
tubular member having a chamber formed there
in, a member adapted to pass ‘downwardly
through the casing into said chamber, said tubu
lar member having. radial ports formed therein
55 extending from said chamber outwardly through
said member, a normally ?xed closure for each
of said ports, an annular piston reciprocably
mounted in said chamber and capable when su?i
cient pressure is exerted thereon to effect release
60 of said closures, said annular piston being nor
mally disposed in said chamber between said ports
and the upper end of said chamber and capable
of being engaged by said member so that when
pressure is exerted on the latter from above it
65 will force said piston downwardly in said chamber
and effect release of said closures.
9. In combination with a well casing, a tubular
member adapted to be connected therewith, said
tubular member having a chamber formed there
70 in, a ball adapted to pass downwardly through
the casing into said chamber, said tubular mem
ber having radial ports formed therein extend
valve member so that when pressure is exerted
on the latter from above it will force said piston
downwardly in said chamber and effect release
of said closures, said chamber being reduced in
diameter at its lower end to form a lower passage
way, said piston being capable of seating at the
junction between said chamber and the lower pas- '
sageway whereby the piston and the valve mem
ber when seated thereon may form a closure for
the lower passageway, said valve member being
buoyant in ?uid cement whereby it may rise and
seat on said ?exible seat member, and a ?oat valve
member in said chamber to seat on the under
side of said piston to prevent the ?ow of ?uid up
wardly through the upper passageway.
11. In combination with a well casing, a tubu- ‘
lar member adapted to be connected therewith,
said member having a chamber formed therein,
said member having cementing ports extending
outwardly therethrough from said chamber, a
normally ?xed closure for each of said ports,
releasing means in said chamber for releasing
said closures, and means capable of operation
after the casing has been positioned in a well
bore and operated by ?uid pressure for actuating
said releasing'means, and a ?oat valve and ?oat
valve seat in said chamber to enable ?oating the '
casing in a well bore.
REUBEh C. BAKER.
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