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Патент USA US2117820

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May 17, 1938.
Filed NOV. 8, 1935
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Patented May 17, 1938
2,1 17,820
Bernard E. O’Hagan, Swissvale, Pa., assignor to
The Union Switch & Signal Company, Swiss
vale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application November 8, 1935, Serial No. 48,884
1 Claim. (Cl. 171-419)
My invention relates to electrical relays, and
particularly to relays of the type known as de
coding relays for use in apparatus for controlling
wayside and cab signals by means of coded track
S circuit current.
One feature of my invention is the provision
of a novel and improved decoding relay which has
no moving parts.
Other features of my invention will become
5 apparent as the description proceeds.
I will describe one form of relay embodying
my invention, and will then point out the novel
features thereof in the claim.
The accompanying drawing is a diagrammatic
F View showing a railway signaling system includ
ing a relay embodying my invention.
Referring to the drawing, the reference char
acters l and In designate the track rails of a
stretch of railway track over which tra?ic nor
mally moves in the direction indicated by the
These track rails are divided, by means
CT-IBII is constantly supplied with current from
a suitable source the terminals of which are indi
cated by the reference characters B and C, and
this coding device constantly opens and closes its
contact l5 at the rate of 180 times per minute. Cl
The coding device CT-TS is likewise constantly
supplied with current from the terminals B and
C, and constantly opens and closes its contact H5
at the rate of 75 times per minute. It will be
seen, therefore, that when the relay H of a sec 10
tion is picked up so that its front contact l'l-—l‘|a
is closed, the rails of the section next in rear
will be- supplied with alternating current which
is periodically interrupted or coded at the rate
of 180 times per minute, but that, when the relay
H of a section is released, so that its back con
tact l l-l'lb is closed, the rails of the section next
in rear will then be supplied with alternating cur
rent which is periodically interrupted or coded at
the rate of '75 times per minute. The I80 code
is used to provide a proceed indication and the 15
of insulated joints 2, into a plurality of similar ‘ code is used to provide the caution indication,
track sections, only one of which, 3—4,' is shown in a manner which will be made clear as the
complete in the drawing. Tra?ic entering each description proceeds. Each relay H is controlled
track section is controlled by a signal designated by traf?c conditions in the associated section in 25
a manner which will also be made clear as the
by the reference character S with a distinguish
ing exponent corresponding to the location.
These signals may be of any suitable type but,
in the form here shown, these signals are of the
color light type, and each comprises a red lamp
R, a yellow lamp Y, and a green lamp G, which
lamps,_ when illuminated indicate “stop”, “cau
description proceeds.
Each track section is provided at the entering
end of the section with what I shall term a de—
coding relay of the saturation type, designated
by the reference character DR, only the relay DR
associated with section 3-4 being shown in the
drawing. This relay embodies my present inven
tion, and in the form here illustrated comprises
a main core 6 of the three-legged shell type, and 35
are means for supplying to the rails of the asso
ciated section coded alternating current, the code an auxiliary C-shaped core 1 which is separated
from the one outside leg 6% of the core _6 by a
frequency of which is controlled by tra?ic condi
tions in advance. These means form no part~ pair of air gaps 8. The main core 6 is provided
of my present invention and in the well-known with a primary winding 9 consisting of a single
40 form here shown comprise a track transformer coil disposed on the leg 6“; with an input or satu
designated by the reference character T1‘, with a ration winding l0 consisting of two coils Ill‘1 and
distinguishing exponent, the secondary of which lob disposed on the two legs 6b and 6°, respec
tively, and connected in series in such manner
is constantly connected with the rails of the asso
elated section in series with the usual current that current flowing in these two coils will cause
45 limiting impedance 5, and the primary of which a ?ux to circulate around the closed path formed
is connected with the terminals BX and CK of a by the associated legs but not in the path includ
suitable source of current, not shown in the draw; ing the leg 6“; and with a secondary or output
ing, over the contact I 5 of a coding device CT-IBII, winding ll consisting of two coils H8 and llh
disposed on the two legs 6*’ and 6°, respectively,
or the contact 16 of a coding device CT-15, ac
and connected in series in such manner that the 50
50 cording as the front contact I'I—|'|“, or the back
contact l‘|-—l‘lb of a relay H which is associated voltages induced in these two coils due to ?ux
with the section next in advance is closed, only from the primary winding 9 are additive. The
the coding devices CT-‘i5 and CT-l80 and the auxiliary core ‘I is provided with a secondary or
relay H3 which is associated with the section 34 output winding I2 consisting as here shown of a
tion”, and “proceed”, respectively.
Located at the leaving end of each track section
being shown in the drawing. The coding device
single coil.
The primary winding 9 of relay DR. is con—
stantly connected with terminals BX and CK or
seen, therefore, that when coded current is be
ing supplied to the decoding relay DR, both por
the alternating current source, and it will be
tions l38L and l3b of the primary of the decoding
apparent that“ with the two coils Ill8 and Illb transformer DT will be supplied with direct cur
of the input winding l0 arranged in the manner rent, which current will flow through these por
just described. the flux due to the current ?ow
tions in opposite directions, but that, during the
ing in the primary winding will normally not “on” period of the code, the current which ?ows
induce any net voltage in the winding ill since in the portion I3‘) will be considerably larger
the voltages induced in the two coils of this wind
than that which flows in the portion [3* where
10 ing will be equal and opposite. The input wind
as, during the “off" period of the code, the cur
ing I0 is energized from the associated track rent which flows in the portion i3m will be con
section 3—4 through the medium of a relay siderably larger than that which ?ows in the
transformer RT which insulates the winding It portion I3". It follows, therefore, that whenever
from the track rails, and a recti?er RI which coded current is being supplied to the decoding
15 converts the coded alternating current received relay, an alternating current will be induced in
from the rails into pulses of unidirectional cur
the decoding transformer DT in substantially the
rent in winding ill.
The parts are so propor
same manner as has been accomplished hereto
tioned that during the “on” period of the code. fore by a decoding relay having a moving con
the recti?ed current in winding ill will saturate ’ tact, and that this alternating current will have
20 the portion of the main core on which the sec
a frequency which depends upon the code fre
ondary winding Ii is wound, so that this por
tion of the core'will have a ,high reluctance for
the primary flux. The primary ?ux will then
have a path of lower reluctance through the air
25 gaps 8 and the auxiliary core ‘I, and the voltage
induced in the secondary winding 12 will there
fore be relatively high while that induced in the
secondary winding II will be r/élativeiy low.
During the “off” period of the code, however, the
30 input winding I0 receives no current, and under
these conditions, the portion of the core on which
the secondary winding II is wound will form a
lower reluctance path for the ?ux from the pri
mary winding than the path through the air gaps
8 and the auxiliary core ‘I, thus causing the
voltage induced in the secondary winding Ii to
be relatively high, and the voltage induced in
the secondary winding I! to be relatively low.
In order to reduce the power which is required
to saturate the relay core 6, the two legs 6” and
6c of this core may be'provided with portions
20 of reduced cross sectio" between the input
or saturating winding l0 and the secondary
winding H in themanner shown. With the core
45 constructed in this manner, the current which
must be supplied by the track circuit need only
be large enough to saturate these portions of
reduced cross section of the core, and need not
be large enough to saturate the complete mag
50 netic circuit. When the portions of reduced cross
section of the core are saturated, these portions
of the magnetic circuit are. in effect, two large
air gaps which have a greater reluctance than
the reluctance of the physical air gaps 8 between‘
in i;l the auxiliary core and the main core.
With the
ordinary three-leggedtype of saturation relay, it
is necessary to saturate a complete magnetic cir
cult, which must be large in order to provide high
is not saturated.
The decoding transformer DT supplies energy
to the relay H3 for section 3-4 through the me
dium of a secondary winding l4 and a recti?er
R4. Relay H3 is a direct current. relay and is so 25
designed that it ‘will remain energized whenever
transformer DT is receiving energy from either
the 75 or the I80 code. The decoding trans
former DT for section 3-4 also supplies energy
to a direct current decoding relay. J3 which is 30
connected with a portion of the winding of the
decoding transformer through a decoding unit
DU-IBO. The detaim of construction of the de
coding unit DU-l?ii are not shown in the draw
ing, but this unit usually comprises a recti?er -
and a reactor condenser tuning ‘unit for tuning
relay J3, whereby this relay will be energized
when and only when the I80 code is being sup
plied to the decoding relay.
When relays H3 and J3'are both energized, a 40
circuit is completed for lamp G of signal S3,
which circuit passes from terminal BX of the
source through front contact Iii-l8“ of relay
H3, front contact I 9-H“ of'relay J3 and the ?l- _
ament of lamp G to terminal CX. When thisv
circuit is closed, lamp G is lighted and under
these conditions signal S3 indicates ' proceed.
When relay H3 is energized and relay J3 is de
energized, lamp Y of signals3 then becomes
lighted by virtue of a circuit which passes from 50
terminal BX through front contact Iii-l8It of
relay H3, back contact l9---i9b of relay J3 and
the ?lament of lamp Y to terminal X, and under
these conditions, signal S3 indicates caution.
When, however, relay H3 is deenergized, lamp R
of signal S3 becomes lighted by virtue of a circuit
which passes from terminal BX of the source
through back contact |8--|8b of relay Hg and
the ?lament of lamp R of signal S3 to terminal
impedance to alternating current when the core
_ X. thus causing this signal to indicate stop.
The current which is induced in the secondary
The operation of the apparatus as a whole is
winding ll of the decoding relay DR is recti?ed as follows: Section 3-4 will be supplied with the
by an associated recti?er RF, and is impressed -' i8. code or the-‘l5 code according as'the section
across a portion l3“ of the primary winding of next in advance is unoccupied or occupied. When
65 an associated decoding transformer DT in such
section H is supplied'with I" code and no train 65
manner that this current will ?ow through the ' occupies this section, all parts will occupy the po
[portion l3“ from left to right, as indicated by
‘the arrow.
The current induced in the sec
ondary winding l2 of the decoding relay DR is
likewise rectified by an associated recti?er R3,
and is impressed across another portion l3!’ oi.’
the primary‘winding of the associated decoding
transformer ‘DT in such manner that this cur
rent will ?ow through. the portion l3b from right
75 w left, as indicated by the arrow. It will
sitions in which they are shown in the drawing.
That is to say, relays H3 and J3 will both be ener
gized, the circuit for the proceed lamp G of signal
83 including contact lS-l ll of relay H3 and con w
tact l9-—l8l of relay J3 will be closed, thus caus
ing this lamp to be lighted so that the signal will
indicate proceed, and the circuit for the primary
of transformer '1‘? including front contact
I'l--i'la of relay H3 and contact ii of coding de- 75
9,1 17,880
vice CT-‘Jll will be closed. so that the section
next in rear 01' section 3-4 will also be supplied
wan is] code.
When section 3-4 is supplied with the ‘II code
and no train- occupies this section, relay H‘ will
remain picked up but relay JJ will become re
leased, thus causing signal S3 to indicate caution.
The rails oi’ the section next in rear of section
1-4, however, will continue to be supplied with
ill code in the same manner as when section
3-4 is supplied with the l" code and no train
occupies this section.v
When a train enters section 3-4, the train
will shunt away'coded current from the coding
16 apparatus, and relays H3 and J3 will then both
become released, thus causing signal S1 to indi
cate stop, Furthermore, with relay Ha released,
the circuit for the primary 0! transformer '1'!“
including back contact i'I----l‘_lh of relay H3 and
20 contact it of coding device CT-fli will now be
closed, thus causing the rails oi’ the section next
in rear of section 3-4 to be supplied with the
only one form of decoding relays embodying my
invention, it is understood that various changes
and modi?cations may be made therein within
the scope of the appended claim without depart
ing from the spirit and scope of my invention.
Having thus described my invention; what I
claim is:
A relay oi the saturation type comprising a
main three-legged‘closed core of the shell type
and an auxiliary C-shaped core which is sepa
rated from one leg of said main core by an air
gap, a primary winding disposed on said one
leg of said main core and normally supplied with
alternating current, a saturation winding com
prising two coils disposed respectively on the two
remaining legs oi’ said main core and connected
in series in such manner that any voltages in
duced therein‘due to ?ux from the primary wind
ing will oppose each other, a ?rst secondary wind
ing comprising two coils disposed respectively on
said two remaining legs of said main core and
connected in series in such manner that any
voltages induced therein due to ?ux from the
It should be particularly pointed out that while primary winding will be additive, said two re
in describing a relay embodying my ‘invention, I maining legs at said main core being provided
have shown it applied to apparatus for control— , with portions of reduced crow section between the
ling wayside and cab signals by means of coded two coils of said saturation winding and the two
track circuit current because of its particular coils of said ?rst secondary winding to reduce the
adaptability for this purpose, my invention is of ' current which must be supplied‘ to said saturation
general application and may be used wherever a winding to saturate said two remaining legs of
‘II code.
relay which functions in the manner described
said core, and a second secondary winding dis
is needed.
posed on said auxiliary core.
‘Although I have herein shown and described
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