close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2117894

код для вставки
‘Mn 11, 1938.
'
HLENEHANI
I‘
.
2,117,894.
REMOTE METERING SYSTEM: ‘
“ Fil'd April 13. 1935
Sheets-Sheet 1
F541
/
.
_Q//
7'0 orVariable
Voltagedune/1%
,
.
'
/6
”
Source
=
//,
.
_
M
/_9
~
/
'
A.
IN;
'
‘1
‘N
20
i?
d
26.
‘I 27
~
.
§~25
2:’ L6
WITNESSES:
4M4
‘
‘
INVENTOR
Earner/"d5 L6’776/7d/2.
May 17, 1938-
B. E. LENEHAN
.
2,117,894.
REMOTE METERING SYSTEM"
-
Filed April 13, 19:55
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
70 Variable
Gar/‘ant or
Voltage _
Sol/me
WITNESSES:
£54,)
WW
I
INVENTOR
Bernardi.’ Lena/2am.
Patented May 17, 1938
‘
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,117,894
REMOTE METERING SYSTEDI
Bernard E. Lenehan, Bloom?eld, N. J., assignor
to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing
Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation
of Pennsylvania
Application April 13, 1935, Serial No. 16,210
14 Claims. (0!. Him-95)
My invention relates, generally, to electric impedance circuit connected to be responsive to
metering systems and it has particular relation
to remote metering systems.
It is desirable to provide remote metering sys~
5
an upsetting of a balanced system which is ar
ranged to substantially instantaneously initiate a
sequence of functioning for restoring the system
terns which are sensitive to changes in the quan-
to the balanced condition without permitting 5 I
tity being measured in order to afford an accurate indication thereof. In the majority of such
systems, a balance mechanism is used, together
with a restoring mechanism,which is arranged to
10 provide a restoring force proportional to the degree of unbalance caused by changes in the quantity being measured. Ameter, arranged to measure this restoring force, may be calibrated in
terms of the quantity being measured, so that an
15 indication thereof is a?'orded. In mechanisms of
this type it is well known that there is a tendency
to hunt on the occurrence of a change in the quantity being measured. Ordinarily, this tendency is
diminished by providing sufficient inertia in the
20 balance mechanism or by providing for damping
its movement.
hunting therein.
Still another object of my invention is to pro
vide for controlling the output of a recti?er in
accordance with the movement of a balance
mechanism from a balanced position to, in turn, 10
control the conductivity of a space discharge
device which is arranged to provide a restoring
force for restoring the balance mechanism to the
balanced condition.
A still further object of my, invention is to pro- 15
vide for utilizing the output of a high-frequency
generator, varied in accordance with the move
ment of a balance mechanism from a balanced
condition, tocontrol the application of a restor
ing force for restoring the balance mechanism to 20
the balanced condition.
Such provisions for preventing hunting render
the system considerably less sensitive to changes
in the quantity being measured, and, therefore,
25 the speed of response is considerably reduced. In
the design of such systems, it has been necessary
Gther objects of my invention will, in part,
be obvious, and, in part, appear hereinafter.
Accordingly, my invention is disclosed in the
embodiment hereof ShOWn in the accompanying 25
drawings comprising the features of construction,
to reach a compromise between a system which is
sensitive to changes in the quantity being measured and the provision of means for preventing
30 hunting on the occurrence of such changes. As
combination of elements and arrangement of
parts which Will be eXempli?ed in the Construc
tion hereinafter set forth and the scope of the
application of which will be indicated in the 30
a result, at the remote point where the meter
appended claims.
measuring the restoring force is ordinarily located,
only an average indication of the quantity being
measured is provided. In many instances, this
35 does not afford a sufficiently accurate indication
'
For a more Complete understanding of the
nature and Scope of my invention, reference may
be had to the following detailed description, taken
in connection with the accompanying drawings, 35
of the quantity being measured for the purposes
in which;
'
desired, and,’ therefore, it is desirable to provide
Figure 1 illustrates diagrammatically one form
a system which maybe constructed to be espe~
“any Sensmve to changes in the quantity bemg
at‘ my invention, and
Figure 2 illustrates diagrammatically another
4° and saunas“ ‘*6
to a
The object of my invention, generally stated, is
of
4°
‘ SW0: (“gig to ngluivtrétl?n' I piovide a mgchw
to provide a remote metering system which shall
be Simple, efficient and sensitive in Operation
45 and which may be readily and economically man-
IJXTI’FiK as. a . 8 Wm a am?’ 9r measurmg a
quantity an indication of which is desired at a
Tammie 13mm‘, AS is customary’ the Kelvin bal‘ p.
ufactured and installed_
An important Object of my invention is to pm“
vide for reducing hunting in a metering system
50
' to a minimum.
.
Another important object of my invention is to
rovide an anti-hunting effect in a remote me-
ided with a restoring winding con
necte-d
ies circuit relation with the indicat
h‘"
. eti'ument or motel“ Which may be located at
'
ote point where the indication of thequan
~~ Lg‘ measured is desired- It iS Well known 50
" ~ ‘force required 150 restore the Kelvin bal
tering system which may be applied substantially
o a balanced position is a measure of the
instantaneously with the production of the
upsetting the previous balanced condition.
change causing the hunting.
55
,
Another object of my invention is to provide an
' '
restoring force is applied by means of
storing winding, a measure of the current 55
2
cameos
.
?owing therethroughwill give an indication of
the quantity being measured.
drawings, the reference character In designates,
In one modi?cation of my invention, I provide
a transformer, the primary winding of which may
be connected to.a source of alternating current
and a secondary winding which may be carried
by the movable element of ‘the Kelvin balance and
Kelvin balance provided with stationary windings
ii and movable windings I2-.-»- As illustrated, the
windings H and i2 may be'connected in series
circuit relation and to the current or voltage
source, an indication of which is desired. The
is movable therewith. The movement of the sec
windings l2 may be mounted on a movable sup
ondary winding, in accordance with movements
port arm l3 which is fulcrumed at I4. A restor~
ing winding I5 is mounted on an extension of the 10.
arm 13 and is disposed to cooperate with a per
10 of the Kelvin balance, causes a greater or less
voltage to, be induced therein, depending upon
its position with respect to the primary winding.
The output of the secondary winding may be rec
ti?ed by means of a suitable recti?er and applied,
15 in the form of direct current, to a load circuit.
It will thus be apparent that the direct current
voltage appearing in the load circuit is a func
tion of the quantity being measured by the Kelvin
balance.
20
-
'
v
In series circuit relation with the restoring
winding andv indicating meter is connected a
space discharge device having the usual anode,
cathode and control electrode. A capacitor and
generally, a. measuring device in the form of a
manent magnet I6.
I
As illustrated, the Kelvin balance I0 is provided
with an arm I‘! depending from the support arm
i3. The arm I‘! is arranged to carry a second 15
ary winding I8 of a transformer shown generally
at IS, the primary winding 20 of which may be
connected for energization to an alternating cur
rent source 2|. While a Kelvin balance has been
illustrated and described herein as being pro 20
vided for moving the secondary winding IS, in
accordance with changes in the quantity being
measured, it will be understood that any other
a resistor are connected in series circuit relation
25 between the control electrode and the cathode
and are also connected to be responsive to voltage
suitable means may be provided for effecting this '
same movement.
25
changes in the load circuit previously described.
It will be apparent that the conductivity of the
space discharge device will be regulated in ac
30 cordance with voltage changes in the load de
be recti?ed by means of a recti?er shown gener—
ally at 22, and provided'with an anode 23 and a
vice, and as a result a restoring force may be ap
plied by the restoring winding which is propor
tional'to the force upsetting the balance of the
Kelvin balance.
'
.
Due, in part, to the inertia of the Kelvin hal»
ance, there is the usual tendency for it to over~
,shoot the position at which it will ?nally be bal
anced. The restoring force which tends to bring
the Kelvin balance back to this position, will be
delayed somewhat since its action depends upon
the Kelvin balance being moved from a previously
balanced position. There is thus a tendency for
the Kelvin balance to hunt about the final posi~
tion which is undesirable. '
In order to reduce the hunting to a minimum
and'to apply the restoring force as quickly as
possible, it is desirable that the changes in voltage
‘as applied to the load circuit, be re?ected in
changes in the current ?owing through the re
storing winding substantially instantaneously.
The output of the secondary winding l8 may
cathode 24. The cathode 24 may be connected
for energization to a secondary winding 25 of a 30
transformer, shown generally at 26, having a pri
mary winding 21 connected for energization to
the alternating current source 2|. The trans
former 26 may also be provided with an addi
tional secondary winding 28, the purpose of which 35
will be set forth hereinafter.
The recti?er 22 is arranged to feed a load clrcult comprising a resistor 29 and a capacitor 30.
It will be understood that the voltage appearing
across the load circuit comprising the resistor 29
and the capacitor 30 will depend upon the posi 40
tion of the secondary winding 58, which, in turn,
will depend upon the value of the quantity being
measured. Thus, the voltage appearing across
the load circuit is a function of the quantity being
measured.
In order to control the current ?owing through
the restoring winding IS, a space discharge de~
vice
is connected in series circuit relation
therewith having an anode 32, a grid 33 and a
When the capacitor and resistor circuit is used,
cathode 34. A recording or indicating meter 35,
as set forth, between the control electrode and
the cathode of the space discharge device, such
action will take place. This action is due to the
which may be located at a remote point, may also
be connected in series circuit relation with the
restoring winding 45 and the space discharge de
vice iii to indicate at the remote point, the value
of the quantity being measured. Current for en 55
fact that, during transient conditions, the volt“
age change in the capacitor and resistor circuit
~ takes place initially almost entirely inthe resis
_ tor. This causes instantaneously a corresponding
ergizing the restoring winding 15 may be obtained
from the secondary winding 28.
change in the conductivity of the space dis
order to control the conductivity of the
60 charge device and as a result, the current ?ow
space discharge device 3|, a transfer circuit
ing in the restoring winding is correspondingly
changed.
-
~
In order to provide a more sensitive system, the
Kelvin balance may be arranged to utilize the
65 output of a high-frequency generator, such as a
‘ Hartley oscillator, and apply it to a powerful sun
pli?er- device which is arranged to energize the
previously described load circuit with direct cur»
rent. The changes in voltage appearing in the
70 load circuit, in response to changes in the quan~
tity being measured, are re?ected in corresponding changes in conductivity of the space diu
charge device which is connected in the circuit
to the restoring winding and indicating meter
Referring now particularly to Fig, i, :1
75
comprising a resistor 36, a capacitor 31 and a
resistor 38 is connected across the load circuit
comprising the resistor ‘29 and the capacitor 30.
As shown, the capacitor 31 and the resistor 38
are connected in series circuit relation and be
tween the control electrode 33 and the cathode 34.
In operation, assuming that the quantity being
measured by the Kelvin balance l0 has increased
and that the secondary winding I8 is moved in
the direction indicated by the arrow 39, a decrease 70
in the recti?ed output of the rectifier 22 takes
place, since the voltage induced in the secondary
winding iii is reduced. As a result, the voltage
across the load circuit comprising the resistor
29 and the capacitor 30 is correspondingly re 76
3
2,117,894
duced, For. an instant, the voltage across the
capacitor 31 remains unchanged and the entire
change in voltage takes place across the resistor
38. The control electrode 33 suddenly becomes,
more positive with respect‘ to the cathode 34 and
there is a sudden increase in the conductivity of
the space discharge device 3|. The current ?ow
through the restoring winding i5 is then im
mediately increased to apply a restoring force to
the Kelvin balance i0. With the proper adjust
ment of the system, it is possible to apply the
restoring force substantially instantaneously with
the occurrence of an unbalance 'in the Kelvin
balance due to change in the quantity being
15 measured. It will be apparent that, the Kelvin
_ balance l8 may be made very sensitive and slight
changes will immediately be indicated by the
meter 35.
'
If the anti-hunting circuit comprising the ca
, pacitor 31 and the resistor 38 is not used, the
change in ?ow of current through‘ the restoring
winding i5 on change of position of the Kelvin
balance I8 may cause hunting in the position
ing arm il in somewhat the same manner as the
secondary winding I8 is carried thereby, as illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawings.
The movable plate 48 may be connected to a
control electrode 48 of an ampli?er shown gen~
orally at 50. The ampli?er 50 is of the type which
is adapted to provide a high degree of amp1i?~
cation and is further provided with an anode 5|,
a suppression grid 52, a screen grid 53 and an
indirectly heated cathode 54. The plate potential
for the ampli?er 58, for the oscillator 45 and for‘
the space discharge device 3i may be provided by
means of a full-wave recti?er, shown generally
at 55, and which may be energized from a second
ary winding 56 on the transformer 26.
The output of the ampli?er 58 is applied to
a load circuit which, in this instance, comprises
the previously described resistor 29. The circuit
comprising the resistor 36, capacitor 31 and re
15
sistor 38 is connected across the load device
comprising a resistor 29 in a manner and for the
purpose set forth hereinbefore. An additional
small capacitor 51 is provided in shunt circuit
of the Kelvin balance. At the instant when a relation with the resistor 38 in order to ?lter out
the high-frequency oscillations from the oscil
change in the current ?owing through the wind
ings of the Kelvin balance takes place, the forces lator 45, which would otherwise be applied to the
exerted thereby and by the restoring winding are control electrode 33.
As illustrated, the ampli?er 50 has applied
no longer equal. The difference between these
thereto high-frequency oscillations from the os~
forces accelerates the movement of the balance. cillator 45 through a capacitor 50. The control
arm ii in moving to a new balanced position.
electrode 49, which is connected to the movable
However, when the balanced position is reached, plate 48 has applied‘to it an alternating volt
the balance arm l3 continues to move due to its age, the magnitude and direction of which vary
inertia and thus a hunting action takes place.
with the position of the plate 48. If the control
When the anti-hunting circuit comprising the electrode 48 and anode 5| are simultaneously
capacitor 31 and the resistor 38 is employed, positive with respect to their average voltages.
“ the change in value of the control potential ap
the plate voltageis high and a corresponding
plied to the grid 33 on change in the position of current flows through the load circuit compris
the balance arm l3 takes place slowly due to the ing the resistor 29. If the control electrode 49
effect of the capacitor 31 but the resistor 38 is negative when the anode 5| is positive, the
introduces a component of control potential pro
current ?owing through the load circuit com
portional to the capacitor charging current which prising the resistor 28 is oi’ a very low value or
in turn is proportional to the movement of the of zero value. Stated differently, the oscilla
balance arm
I 3 from the balanced position.
Hence, the- change in control potential is propor
tional to the velocity or space rate of movement
of the balance arm l3. This component of con
trol potential is transient and causes, in turn, a
transient force to be set up by the restoring
g I5,:Mathematically the transient force
and hehsulting momentum may be represented
by the well known formula: J‘ Fdt=M V. It will
thus be apparent that this transient force, exerted
50 wi
by the restoring winding i5, eliminates the effect
55 of momentum, no hunting occurs, and there is
no apparent inertia of the balance arm l3.
Referring now particularly to Fig. 2 of the
drawings, it will be' observed that the Kelvin
balance [8 is arranged to control the conduc»
60
tivity of the space discharge device 3i’ through
a somewhatdifferent agency than that illus~
trated in Fig. 1 and described hereinbefore. In
this modi?cation of the invention an oscillator,
tions from the oscillation generator 45 are ap
plied across the anode>5l and the cathode 54
of the ampli?er 58. The amount of direct cur
rent conducted by the amplifier 58 will depend
upon the magnitude and phase relation of the
potential applied to the control grid 48 relative
to the potential applied to the anode 5|. These
functions are controlled by the relative position
0! the plate 48 with respect to the plates 41
which, as illustrated, are connected to opposite
terminals of the oscillator inductor 8|. As a
result, in response to slight movements of the
movable plate 48, corresponding ' ampli?ed
changes in current ?ow through the load device
comprising the resistor 29 take place. These
changes are re?ected in changes in the poten
tial of the control electrode 33, as set forth here
inner’:
the Kelvin balance iii to a balanced po
shown generally at 45, is provided for producing
65 high-frequency oscillations such as at the rate
sition. In this embodiment, the capacitor 31 and
of 10,000 cycles per second. The oscillator 45
illustrated in Fig. 2 of the drawings, is of the
conventional Hartley type and since its nature
and function are well known, a description there~
70 of will not be set forth in detail herein.
The output of the oscillator 45 is applied to
a capacitor 46 comprising ?xed plates 41 between
which a plate 48 may be moved in accordance
with the movement of the Kelvin balance i0. As
rovide the same rapid current change
space discharge device 3i, as previ
cribed.
shown, the plate 48 may be carried by the depend~
the 2" W‘
r 38 function during the transient 65
'
'tain further changes may be made
regoing construction and different em 70
:15 the invention may be made without
g ‘mm the scope thereof, it is intended
matter shown in the accompanying draw
d described hereinbefore shall be inter
iilustrative and not in a limiting sense.
4
2,117,894
I claim as my invention;
the voltage obtained from said source, a restor
_
1. A metering system comprising, in combi
nation, balance means disposed to be responsive
to variations in a quantity to be measured, ther
ing winding disposed to restore said balance
means to a balanced condition on departure
therefrom, circuit means for connecting said re
mionic means for applying and measuring the
storing winding to a current source, a space
force required to restore said balance means to
a balanced condition when changes in said quan
discharge device interposed in said circuit means
tity occur thereby providing an indication of said
quantity, said thermionic means including a
10 space discharge device having an anode, a cath
ode and a control electrode, circuit means in
cluding reactance and resistance means con
nected in series circuit relation between said
cathode and control electrode, and means for
15 connecting said circuit means to be continuous
ly responsive to a voltage variable in accordance
with the movement of said balance means.
2. A metering system comprising, in combine,»
tion, balance means disposed to be responsive to
20 variations in a quantity to be measured, ther~
mionic means for applying and measuring the
force required to restore said balance means to
a balanced condition when changes in said quan
tity occur thereby providing an indication of
said quantity, said thermionic means including
a space discharge device having an anode, a
cathode and a control electrode, a capacitor and
a resistor connected in series circuit relation
between said cathode and control electrode
30 whereby changes in voltage applied across said
series circuit are substantially instantaneously
re?ected in corresponding changes in the output
of said space discharge device, and circuit means
for connecting said series circuit to be continu
35 ously responsive to a voltage variable in accord—
ance with the movement of said balance means.
3. A metering system comprising, in combina
tion, balance means disposed to be responsive
to variations in a quantity to be measured, a re
40 storing winding for restoring said balance means
having an anode, a cathode and a control elec
trode, and a capacitor and a resistor connected
in series circuit relation between said cathode
and control electrode and to be continuously re 10
sponsive to said regulated voltage whereby
changes in said voltage are substantially in
stantaneously re?ected in corresponding changes
iiIr-the output of said space discharge device to
provide an anti-hunting eifect in said restoring
‘winding.
6. A metering system comprising, in combina
tion, balance means disposed to be responsive to
variations in a quantity to be measured, a re
storing winding on the balance means disposed 20
to restore said balance means to a balanced con
dition on departure therefrom, a meter, a trans
former having a primary winding connected to a
source of alternating current and a secondary
winding movable with respect to said primary 25
Winding in accordance with the movement of said
balance means, a unidirectional conducting space
discharge device and a load circuit connected in
series circuit relation with said secondary wind
ing, circuit means for connecting said restoring 30
winding and meter in series to a current source,
and space discharge means for controlling the
flow of current to said restoring winding and
meter in accordance with voltage variations ap
pearing across said load circuit for restoring said
balance means to a balanced condition and ac
tuating the meter in accordance with the quantity
measured.
7. A metering system comprising, in combina—
tion, balance means disposed to be responsive to 40
circuit means for connecting said restoring
variations in a quantity to be measured, a re
storing winding on the balance means disposed
winding to a current source, a space discharge
to restore said balance means to a balanced con
device interposed in said circuit means having
dition on departure therefrom, a meter, a trans
former having a primary winding connected to 45
to a balanced condition on departure therefrom,
an anode, a cathode and a control electrode,
circuit means including reactance and resistance
means connected in series circuit relation be
tween said cathode and control electrode, and
means for connecting said last-named circuit
50 means to be continuously responsive to a volt
age variable in accordance with the movement
of said balance means. ‘
4. A metering system comprising, in combina—
tion, balance means disposed to be responsive
55 to variations in a quantity to be measured, a
restoring winding for restoring said balance
a source of alternating current and a secondary
winding movable with respect to said primary
winding in accordance with the movement of
said balance means, a unidirectional conducting
space discharge device and a load circuit com 50
prising a resistor connected in series circuit rela
tion with said secondary winding, circuit means
for connecting said restoring winding and meter
in series to a current source, and space discharge
means interposed in said circuit means and dis
-means to a balanced condition on departure
therefrom, circuit means for connecting said re
storing winding to a current source, a space dis‘;
posed to be responsive to voltage variations ap
pearing across the resistor in said load circuit for
correspondingly controlling the current ?ow
through said restoring winding and meter to re
60 charge device interposed in said circuit means
having an anode, a cathode and a control elec—
tion and actuate the meter in accordance with
, trode, a capacitor and a resistor connected in se"
ries circuit relation between said cathode and
control electrode whereby changes in voltage ap~
65 plied across said series circuit are substantial“
ly ‘instantaneously re?ected in corresponding
changes in the output of said space discharge
device, and circuit means for connecting said
series circuit to be continuously responsive to a
voltage variable in accordance with the move
ment of said balance means.
5. A metering system comprising, in combine.
tion, a voltage source, balance means disposed
in
to be responsive to variations in a quantity "
measured for regulating in accordance ti]
be
store said balance means to a balanced condi
the quantity measured.
(ii)
I
S. A metering system comprising, in combina
tion, balance means disposed to be responsive to
variations in a quantity to be measured, a re
storing winding disposed to restore said balance
means to
balanced condition on departure
therefrom, a transformer having a primary wind
ing connected to a source of alternating current
and a secondary winding movable with respect K] 0
to said primary winding in accordance with the
movement of said balance means, a
unidirec
tional conducting space discharge device and a
load circuit connected in series circuit relation
with said secondary Winding, circuit means for
5
2,117,894
connecting said restoring winding to said source
connected to said movable plate'oi said capacitor,
of alternating current, a space discharge device
interposed in said circuit means having an anode,
a cathode and a control electrode, and a capaci
a load circuit for said ampli?er the voltage across
which is a function of the conductivity of said
amplifier as controlled by the position of said
movable plate, circuit means for connecting said. 5
tor and a resistor connected in series circuit re
lation between said cathode and control electrode ' restoring winding to a current source, a space
and to be responsive to variations in voltage ap
discharge device interposed in said circuit means
pearing across said load circuit whereby said having an anode, a cathode and a control elec
voltage variations are substantially instantane
trode, and a capacitor and a resistor connected
10 ously re?ected in corresponding changes in the
in series circuit relation between said. cathode and
current ?owing through said space discharge de
control electrode and to be responsive to varia
vice to'provide a restoring and anti-hunting effect tions in voltage appearing in said load circuit
in said restoring winding.
whereby said voltage variations are substantial
9. A metering system comprising, in combina
ly instantaneously re?ected in corresponding
15 tion, balance means disposed to be responsive to
changes in the current ?owing through said space
variations in a quantity to be measured, a re
discharge device to provide a restoring and anti
storing winding disposed to restore said balance
hunting eifect in said restoring winding.
means to a balanced condition on departure
12. A metering system comprising in combi
nation, balance means disposed to be responsive
therefrom, a source of high frequency current,
a capacitor comprising a pair of plates connected
to said source of high-frequency current and‘
a plate positioned therebetween and movable in
accordance with the movement of said balance
means, a space discharge ampli?er having an
anode and a cathode connected to said source
of high-frequency current and a control elec
trode-connected to said movable plate of said
capacitor, a load circuit for said ampli?er the
voltage across which is a function of the con
ductivity of said amplifier as controlled by'the
position of said movable plate, circuit means for
connecting saidrestoring winding to a current
source, and means for controlling the ?ow of
current ‘to said" restoring winding in accordance
with voltage variations appearing across said
load circuit for restoring said balance means to
a balanced condition.
10. A metering system comprising, in combina
tion, balance means disposed to be responsive to
variations in a quantity to be measured, a re
storing winding disposed to restore said balance
means to a, balanced condition on departure
therefrom, a source of high-frequency current,
a capacitor comprising a pair of plates connect
ed to said source of high-frequency current and
a plate positioned therebetween and movable in
accordance with the movementof said balance
means, a space discharge ampli?er having an
anode and a cathode connected to said source of
high-frequency current and a ~control electrode
connected to said movable plate of said capacitor,
21. load circuit for said amplifier the voltage across
which is a function of the conductivity of said
ampli?er as controlled by the position of said
movable plate, circuit means for connecting said
restoring winding to a current source, and space
discharge means interposed in said circuit means
and disposed to be responsive to voltage varia
tions appearing in said load circuit for corre
spondingly controlling the current flow through
said restoring winding to restore said ‘balance
means to a balanced condition.
11. A metering system smprising, in combi
nation, balance means disposed to be responsive
to variations in a quantity
be measured, a re
storing winding disposed to restore said balance
means to a balanced condition on ‘departure
'
to variations in a quantity to be measured, said 20
balance means having a direct current balancing
element, an-energizing circuit for the balancing
element, a thermionic device in said energizing
circuit for controlling the degree of energization
of the balancing element, an energized circuit in
eluding a load resistor, means actuated in ac
cordance with the movements of the balance
means for continuously controlling the flow of
current through the load resistor, and circuit
means interposed between the thermionic device
and the load resistor for controlling the conduc~
tivity of said thermionic device in accordance
with the voltage drop across said resistor.
13. A metering system comprising, in combi
nation, balance means disposed to be responsive
to variations in a quantity to be measured, said
balance means having a balancing element, a
meter connected in series circuit relation with
the balancing element, a space discharge device
having a voltage responsive control element for 40
controlling the energization of the balancing ele
ment and meter, 9. load resistor, a circuit includ
ing means for energizing the load resistor with
direct current and including means actuated by
the balance means for continuously controlling
the voltage impressed on said circuit in accord-.
ance with the movement of the balance means,
and means for connecting the control element of
the space discharge device to be responsive to the '
voltage drop across said load resistor, said means
being adapted to effect substantially instanta
neous changes in the conductivity of the space
discharge device in response to any movement of
the balance means.
-
14. A metering system comprising, in combina
tion, a Kelvin balance disposed to be responsive
to variations in a quantity to be measured and
having a direct-current balancing element, a
source of alternating-current voltage, a load cir
cuit including a recti?er device connected to said
source, means actuated by the balance for con
tinually varying the voltage impressed on the
load circuit in accordance with the movements
of the balance, a circuit connecting the balanc
ing element to said source, a space discharge
device connected in said circuit for controlling
the ?ow of current through the balancing ele
ment, and circuit means connecting the space
discharge device to the ‘load circuit to control
the conductivity of said device, whereby the en 70
therefrom, a source of izighvfrequency current,
a capacitor comprising a pair of plates connected
to said source oi’ high-frequency current and a
plate positioned therebetween and. movable in ergization of the balancing element is continu
accordance with the movement
said ‘balance ally controlled in accordance with the voltage
means, a space discharge ampli?er having an _ impressed upon the load circuit.
anode and a cathode connected to said. source of
high frequency current and a control electrode
BERNARD E. mam.
II
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
963 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа