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Патент USA US2117913

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May 17, 1938.
G. É. ssn.
Original Filed Ilarch 18, 1936 .
6 Sheets-Sheet l
G//ßf/Pr ¿T "ST/L , I
May 17, 1938.
G. E. sElL
Original Filed March 18, 1936
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
May 17,v 1938.v
G. E. sElL
Original Filed lax-ch 18, 1936
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
May 17, 1938.
G. E. SEH.
Original Filed llàrch 18, 1936
6 SheetsfSheet 4
l._-. .J
May 17, 1938»
original tiled uren 1a,- 1936
e sheets-sheet 5
May 17, 1938.
G. E seu.
Original Filed laren 18, 1956
"new". "'o
6 Sheets-Sheet 6 n
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'G/¿ifff ¿i sfu ,
lsatcnted May 17, 1938
Gilbert E. Seil, Cynwyd, Pa., asaignor, by mesne
assignments, to Builalo Electric Furnace Cor
poration, Buffalo, N. Y., a corporation of New
Original application March 18, 1936, Serial No.
69,450. Divided and this application August
21, 1937, Serial No. 180,194
4 Claims. (Cl. 13-33ì
This `patent matures from a patent application tiaily a reduced metal carrying therein a metal
carved from my parent patent application Serial oxide. Suchr a reagent, when in liquefied con
No. 69,450,1iled March >18, 1936; and while the dition and mixed with a molten bath of a metal
mixture to be refined, exerts its oxidizing action
specification of that patent application is dupli
cated herein, it is thought that a reader hereof
will be helped to a quicker understanding of the
invention claimed herein as compared to the in
vention claimed in the parent case, by the fol
lowing remarks that are in the nature of a pro
The invention of said parent patent applica
-tion was described, for the purpose of illustra
tion, as an electric furnace having substantially
horizontal rotatable hollow electrodes, through
the bores of which were fed cores of starting ma
terials convertible during their passage through
the arc-heated zone of the electrodes into a met
al refining reagent characterized by comprising
on oxidizable impurities in the bath, such as car
bon, thereby to reduce the content thereof in the
bath. Since there is effected in the heated zone
of the electrode a liquefying of the refining ma
terials, fed thereto in core form, the speed of the
cores to and through the bore of the electrode
must be carefully controlled, as well as the posi
tiveness of the torce used to impel the cores fed
thereto and therethrough.
It is an object of my present invention to pro
vide for such furnaces simple, eifective and de
pendable mechanisms for containing a supply ci?
cores; for discharging cores from such source of
supply in an orderly manner as they are re
a metal having a metal oxide in solution in the
quired, and delivering the same to a positive feed
ing means; to a means for receiving the cores 20
It became apparent during the time that said
parent patent application was being prosecuted,
that there was disclosed therein a multiplicity of
inventions. The ilrst invention related -to mech
anism for supplying and feeding the cores to the
hollow electrodes; whereas another invention re
lated to a new type of electric furnace with par
ticular reference to means for controlling the
rate of feed of the cores in accordance with the
speed of the chemical reaction taking place with
in the electrodes.
The present case is directed to the latter in
This finishes the prologue, so there now fol
lows the main body of the specification copied
from said parent patent application.
This present invention relates to electric fur
naces of the type equipped with one or more
hollow electrodes through which an loxidizing re
agent for the material to be treated in the fur
nace is fed thereto by being impelled through
the bore of the hollow electrode in the form of
briquettes, or more often in the form of cylin
drical cores, and relates more particularly to
45 an improved conveying and propelling means for
and positively feeding the same to and through
the bore of the electrode in a continuous stream
as required, and at a rate of speed which is care
fully controllable in accordance with the speed of
the reducing process being carried out within 25
the furnace; and particularly to a feeding means
for the cores which will permit relative move
ment of the feeding means with respect to the
cores should the cores be stopped in their move
ment through the electrodes.
Other objects are that the assembly of the var
ious instrumentalities for carrying out the above
objects shall have proper cooperating relation
ship; shall have provision to allow for variations
in the dimensions of the individual cores; and
shall permit of ready access to all of the oper
ating parts, in case of need. And a still further
object is that said instrumentalities shall carri!
out adequately,r the functions for which they were
ing means for an electric furnace of the hollow
electrode type wherein the hollow electrode there
positively feeding the cylindrical cores through
the bores of the hollow electrode.
In an electric furnace with which this present
yinvention is adapted to cooperate, there is car
of is both rotatable and reciprocable. The man
ner of carrying out the invention generally is
to mount the hollow eiectrode on an automati
ried out the refining of ferro-alloys or other al
means for rotating the electrode. A container’
or reservoir for a supply of the cores is provided
and equipped with a discharging mechanism ar
loys and especially alloys containing chromium,
and wherein the refining of the alloys is carried
out by forming in a heated zone in the hollow
electrode, under- reducing conditions, a highly
65 concentrated oxidizing reagent comprising essen
For the realization of these objects, the inven»
tion revolves about the various components oi’
core reservoir, discharging, conveying and feed
cally reoiprocable carriage provided also with
ranged to prevent jamming of the cores in the
reservoir, or as they are discharged therefrom
into a conveying mechanism.
The conveying mechanism coacts with a core
I¿Feeding mechanism and delivers thereto a plu
oi cores in succession, >and arranged in
axial alignment, and said core feeding mecha
nism subjects each core as received to a gripping
or pinching action which prevents relative move
nient oi the cores with respect to the feeding
mechanism or to each other, and positively pro
end of the hollow electrodes Il and I2, or the
end remote from the gap 22, and is liquefied
within the electrode. Due to the great heat gen~
erated by the arc 2I, and the consequent lique
iaction oi" the reagent material in the electrode,
there is a tendency toward derangement of the
normal ond continuous movement ol the cores
or briquettes 20 through the bore or’ the elec
such cores in succession into the bore of
trodes il and l2 and the flow of liqueiied reagent
therefrom. This invention therefore provides for lli
the positive and uninterrupted movement of
cores or briquettes through the bore ol the elec»
e electrode with the operative force necessary
to positively orosei the saine through the bore.
These various mechanisms derive their motivat
‘î if
.1 - er `from theirnotor or motors used 'for
trodes so long as normal conditions that may
exist therein both for the retardation ii not
‘ocotlng the electrode supporting carriage
_g the electrode.
stoppage of that movement during abnormal
ly, with these ond other objects, as
or” advantage, one embodiment of
invention will be hereinafter described for
‘ative purposes, because obviously the in
capable oi e, number oi embodiments.
forni of
invention chosen
be described
'iustrated in the eccomponylng drawings in
l is e. side elevotion, partly in section, of
Esch electrode il and it has its own inde~
pendent operating means for rotating the some,
moving the same axially to compensate :for the
inevitable erosion due to the maintenance oi’ the
arc 2i, and means for receiving cores or briquettes
from a magazine or reservoir and positively icedu
ing the same through the bore of the electrode.
‘ll‘hese operating means are identical in charac»
fornace cheminer equipped with dlometrically/ ter and construction and therefore a description ~'
ori/posed hollow electrodes, end with my present
invention shown interposed between the core
or reservoir .and the hollow electrodes;
a partial view oi
of but one necessary. Such independent oper»
ating may be so controlled as to operate in syn
chronism with each other, or may be intercon
nected, either by mechanical or electrical means,
3 is o, side eievetion, inslgeleton form. ol’ i so as to operate as a unit. Also, each electrode
the m’lvirig mechanism ¿"'or the material chsrgl is preierobly slightly inclined downwardly toward v
devices, and the rototlng
lor the hol
the furnace, as clearly shown in Fig. 1, the de»
low’ electrodes;
of inclination trom the horizontal being
is „pion view oi’
instrumentalities approximately 3 degrees, in the preferred form
own in lillg. 3;
oi constmctlon.
Fig. 5 is a section, teiten on the line d-él of
Each operating ‘unit is mounted on a iramc
work or carriage 23 provided with wheels 23a
lig. d is
elevation, on an enlarged scale, which troclr. on spaced channel irons 2i and 25,
oi the right hand end of?
l, showing the core and which constrain the carriage 23 to move
elevation, and the core receiv
toward and from the furnace i0 in a iixed path 40
ing conveyor at the discharge end thereof;
whereby the length of the arc may be varied
Fig. ‘2 is an end view oi li‘ig. d;
as desired. Such channel irons 24 and 25 are
Fig. 8 is a side elevation, on an enlarged scale, supported, relative to the furnace Ill, on a iframe
or the positive ¿feeding ineens for the cores, ond work 2t* of structural shapes.
45 located between the discharge end, of the core
Mounted on a frame H8, suspended from the 45
conveyor and the entrance end of the hollow carriage 23, is a motor Il9. This motor has a
drive shalt lill which extends outwardly from
lï‘ig. 9 is an end elevation of Fig. ti;
Fig. 10 is a plan View of
9, and
Fig. l1 is a detail illustrating the construction
oi the conveyor belt employed in structure shown
in Figs. 8 and 9.
each end of the motor, and on each end is se
cured a pinion I2I. Secured to the channels 24
and 25, and extending for a distance commensu 50
rate with the desired length of travel of the car
riage 23, are racks i522, with which the pinions
IZI mesh. The motor H9, being fixed to the
carriage 23, the rotation of the shaft §20, of the
Referring' to the drawings, and particularly to
Fig. l, there is shown a type of electric :furnace
to which the present invention hss been applled.
Such furnace comprises essentially a chamber
I0, into which, and from the opposite sides there
motor will cause a movement of the carriage 23,
along the channels 24 and 25, toward and from
the furnace IIB, it being assumed that the motor
H9, is of the reversible type, and that control
means is provided, not only for accomplishing
this result, 'out also for controlling the speed of 60
travel of the carriage 23, in accordance with the
of, extend tubular or hollow open ended elec
trodes Il and I2. The chamberl? is usually a
metal casing or shell lined with a. suitable re
lractory material Il, and supported on suitable
base members, such as the base member I6.
Within the chamber I0 is a hearth Il arranged
'to receive a bath oi’ metal I8 normally covered
with a layer of slag I9. Oxidizing reagent ma
terial 20, in liquid form, drops onto the layer of
slag I8 from hollow electrodes through the arc
2I formed in the gap 22 between the spaced ends
of the electrodes II and I2. The reagent mate
rial 20 is obtained from cores fed through the
hollow electrodes I I and I2 and reduced to liquid
form in the heated zone of the electrodes.
The reagent forming material 20, in the form
0I cores or briquettes, as will be apparent from
75. an, inspection
of Fig. 7, is fed into the entrance
rate of erosion of the electrode I l or due to the
maintenance of the desired extent of arc 2l.
'I’he framework or carriage 23 is provided at
the end adjacent the furnace I0, with spaced
bearings 2l, in which is rotatably mounted a
sleeve 28. This sleeve ís provided at one end
with a flange 29, for removable attachment to
the entrance end of the hollow electrode II,
and at the other end with a gear 30.
to the sleeve 28, is a. slip ring 3|, _with which
engages a brush 32, that is connected to a sult
able source of power for supplying power or cur
rent to the electrode II. The bearings 21, and
the Slip ring 3|, are so constructed as to permit 75
shaft |04, brings the handle |04’ to the full line
position shown in Fig. 8, where it will be noted
that the center of the eccentric portion of the
shaft |04 is above the center of rotation of ‘such
The arms I0| are therefore locked in
engaging position with shaft 88.
Attached to one end of the upright 04 is a cas»
ing IIB in which is a bearing IIS, in which turns
the shaft 88. Secured to the shaft 04, within the
10 casing IIB, is a worm wheel |20.
Formed in the
casing IIB are bearings I 2| in which is rotatably
mounted one end of a shaft |22, this shaft being
of such electrodes.
A supply of cores 20 is placed in the magazine
4I and power is then turned into the motor 3l,
and also into the motor I I9. The speed of the Q;
motor H3, is controlled to provide for the proper
reciprocating longitudinal movement of the ele-ew
trodes II and IE, to maintain the proper width
of gap 22, therebetween. The speed of titre motor
is controlled
of rotation
so oí
as the
to maintain
also slow'
connected by the insulating coupling |23, tok the
and oi’
the cores
the 2li,
bore or the
shaft 14, driven from the transmission 30. On
the shaft |22, between the bearings I2i, is se
electrodes to bring the same into the iniiuen
of the heat generated by the are 2|, wherein W
cured a worm |24 which meshes with and drives
the worm wheel |20, and therefore the shaft 39.
Secured to the other end of the shaft 80 is a
gear |25, which meshes with and drives a similar
20 gear |25, secured to the shaft 95. The gears |25
and |20 are housed in a casing |21, secured to
the upright 04.
By means of the gears |25 and |26 and the worm
and worm wheel |24 and |20 respectively, oppos
25 ingk reaches of the conveyor belts 9i and 9e are
driven in the same direction at the same speed,
and in timed relation to the speed of the conveyor
belt 68, by the power transmitted through the
transmission 38.
the arc 2|, in the gap 22, between adjacent ends
Should it be desired to obtain access to "
both chemical and physicai action they are ce Y
verted into an active oxidimng agent in
form, and drop
'the slag bed I9, to v
instrumentaiities on the carriage 2S, and op“
erated by the motor til, is auch that all auch in.m
atrumentaiities operate in synchronism withd
each other and at the proper speeds, such spea .i
“being predetermined in accordance with the spseg
of iiquefaction of the cores in the arc'îti.
The cores 20,
delivered in groups from t“ 'Y
megamne 43, at time
mism operated
veg/"or ät, and fr
to the posi-tive
conveyor 93, or to the entrance end of .the e“
trode II, or to any structure interposed betwe
thesuperposed conveyors 93 and 99 and the e
trance end of the electrode | I, the si.
35 moved in a counter-clockwise or upw
tion, as viewed in Fig. 8, to relieve the .
’atus is continuous ani
erruptien until the ca
the spring |08. This permits the arms
some mechanic
96 may
95 to
parts of the mechanism.
Preferably the entrance end of the bore ci ‘
electrode il is spaced apart from the omino"
end of the superposed conveyors 03
bridge the gap thus formed there :is proie-r
their passage
a guide
and the
for the 93
to the bore of the electrodes II. Such guide a ff'
support is composed of some heat resistance
terial like “Alberene” and is made in 'two pai
a lower part || I and an upper part i i2.
pivotally mounted on opposite sides of the lov
part II I rest in vertical grooves in the sides
the upper part H2, and are threaded to receive
he dot „ma d i
n Eig. ii.
eiectric turn ce
~ ow
Wing nuts |I4 for maintaining the parte :in open»
ative relation with each other. Acting as a unit,
the parts III and H2 are provided with here
eagent forming '
cited form.
l"uses a zone of
I I5 inbore
H5 is with
the boreatofthe
60 This
f reducing
' to a materiais
reaction inii,tine
the conveyors
93 Iand
I6. The
99, as
part is provid.n
' ed with a handle II'I.
With the apparatus constructed and arranged
as above described,l and assuming the bath Iâ,
o1’ molten metal, to be refined, to be located with
-in the furnace I0 and covered with a layer of
slag I9, the operation will be as follows: the
hollow electrodes || and I2, have one end there~
zo of
inserted into the furnace I0, and are attached,
at their other end, to the sleeve 20, by means of
the ñange 29. Power is applied from a suitable
. source to the electrodes through the slip ring 3|,
ïg‘ff'and brush 32, to the electrodes II and I2, to form
e or burden in the eiectrode as Well as iirst
a iiqueiying and
a dissolving action so that
iiquid issues
enti of the aelectrodes
iitginid. re2a
duced `metal having a metai~oxide carried thereby
and therein. This .reagent formed in the elecd
'trede drops onto the molten metal bath on the
furnace hearth and. through the slag thereon, by '
virtue of which the impurities or undesirable ox»
idizable constituents of the bath of metal on the
hearth which is to be refined, are oxidized and
removed therefrom.
Said oxidizing reagent is produced by having
the cores fed to the electrode bores, made up of
tween constituents of the electrode burden, which
carefully proportioned starting materials of a
metal oxide, insumcient carbon to reduce all of
terial adapted to provide the electrode burden;
the metal oxide to metal, and a corrective. ¿is
cores approach the heated zone of the electrode,
lchemical reaction takes place between some or
the metal oxide and the carbon which yields a
reduced metal and carbon monoxide, leaving un»
reacted some met-al oxide and the corrective.
The reduced metal becomes molten and would
flow out from the open end of the electrode bore
were it not for the corrective which being rion
the inciting point oi' the metal prevents
it. ".lFoe molten metal is thus retained in the
lili heated none until it attains a superl’ieat of some
/idlio lil. above its melting point whereat it ex»
liiibi‘l-s7 deilnite solvent properties for the unren
duced metal oxide present, which goes into solo@
tion in the metal at those temperatures. At
about this temperature the corrective becomes
mobile or eren )fluid and permits the newly
med oxidizing agent
í‘low from
trow e.
core ree-ding means-_belts S33 and
liti-»must feed the cores of starting material in
oereíuily timed relation 'to these chemical and
physical actions otherwise these actions will not
all have been completed before the material is
forced from the electrode bore So’ii there be
slowing' down or retardation oi’ these actions,
particularly the chemical reaction, the fe^ "
lng oi new cores to that zone must be cornespond~
ingly lessened. This is done automatically due
to slippage oi' the belts il@ and @ci past the cores
comprises a reservoir for cores of starting ma
L‘Oîesitlve means :for feeding cores at a predeter
mined normal rate from lsaid reservoir to and
into the bore oi’ said electrode in a contiguous
sequence; means for automatically varying said
rate of the feeding of the cores into the hollow
electrode below and baci: to normal; a recipro
cable carriage on which are mounted said hollow
electrode, said reservoir, said feeding means and
said controlling r‘ieans; and means for recipron
eating said carriage for thereby controlling the
speed of the el
’cai reaction taking place with»
in the electrode b re.
2. „fm electric rurriaee having a pair of oppo~
sltely directed electrodes of which at least one
i<` a rotatable, substantially horizontal, hollow
electrode wherein the electrode burden is treated,
which com
'ses a reservoir for cores ci starting 20
material adapted 'to provide the electrode bur~
for lfeeding cores from said reservoir
to and into the bore oi said hollow electrode in
a contiguous sequence; and means for changing
rate oi’ feed
said cores without changing
the speed oi operation oi? said feeding means au»
tomatically operable upon variation troni normal
oi' resistance encountered by the cores entering
said electrode be I.
¿in electric furnace having a pair of oppo~
sitely directed electrodes oí which at least one is
a rotatable, substantially horizontal, hollow elec~
trede wherein is treated the electrode burden,
therebetween to leave the cores stationary, as
which com' "ises a reservoir for cores of starting
heretofore described.
material adapted to provide the electrode burden; 35
substantially uniformly speeded means for feed
ing cores from said reservoir to and into the bore
But as soon as any such
abnormal vcondition passes, as indicated by a
lessening ci the resistance to forward progress oi
the cores, the belts grip the cores once more and
i’econtinue or restore their rate of feeding.
lFor preventing localization or” erosion at the
are ends or the electrodes, they are caused to
be rotated during operation oi the furnace, and in
order to control the desired length of the are
(and thereby the heat generated by the arc) the
45 electrodes are reciprocated toward and away from
each other. For this double purpose, each elec
trode is mounted on a reciprocaiole carriage which
is also equipped with driven mechanism for- ro
tating the electrode. Also mounted on the pro
pelled carriage and reciprocating therewith as a
unit, are the various components of this inven
tion, including the hollow electrode, means for
rotating it, the core magazine, the core conveyor,
the core discharger, and the core feeding means,
55 all heretofore described both as to structure and
oi said hollow electrode in a contiguous sequence
against normal resistance; and means for vary
ing the rate oi feed oi the cores automatically 40
operable to lessen the rate due to greater than
normal resistance encountered by the cores and to
restore the rate upon return to normal of that
d. An electric furnace having a pair of oppo»
sitely directed electrodes of which at least one is
a rotatable, substantially,horizontal, hollow elec
trode wherein the electrode burden is treated,
which comprises a reservoir for cores of starting
material adapted to provide the electrode burden;
a substantially uniformly speeded pair of coact
ing conveyors for feeding cores from said reser
voir to and into the bore of said hollow electrode
against normal resistance; and means for render-'
ing said speeded conveyors inoperative to feed 55
said cores against greater than normal resistance
and for returning said conveyors to operative
What is claimed is:
l. An electric furnace having a pair of opposite- , core feeding upon return of such resistance to
ly directed electrodes of which at least one is a normal.
rotatable, substantially horizontal, hollow elec
trede wherein chemical reaction takes place be
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