Патент USA US2117983код для вставки
May 17, 1938. » I E. G. REID ' INTERNAL ‘COMBUSTION ' ENGINE Filed Nov. 29, 1935 III,’ I’, ’ Z5 5/ L23 II'III/ / I 3/ 49 27 F374 ,,IIIIII”IIIIIIllllllflallll ‘% j I 2,117,983 ‘ ' Patented May 17, 1938 2,117,983 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,117,983 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE _ Elliott G. Reid, Palo Alto, Calif. Application November 29, 1935, Serial No. 52,224 13 Claims. The present invention relates to internal com bustion engines and particularly to intake mani folds for engines of this class. As is well-known, the present tendency of 5 builders of internal combustion engines is to de sign and construct such engines with relatively numerous cylinders with the end in view of realiz ing the advantage of greater uniformity of power delivery for a given combined cylinder volume, 10 and to obtain other recognized advantages. Especially where such an engine is to be em ployed as a means for supplying power for pro pelling an automotive vehicle is it appreciated that an engine having a considerable number 15 of cylinders has advantages over those employ ing relatively few cylinders. Numerous auto mobile engines now in use have eight cylinders, and some have more. It is also desirable to make use of only ane carburetor or fuel and air mix 2 O ing device and to provide what is designated an inlet or intake manifold by means of which such single carburetor is connected to all of thegcylin ders of the engines for the purpose of supplying each cylinder with the requisite amount of fuel. 25 Naturally, the several pistons being connected to a common crank shaft, the power developed in each cylinder by the ignition of. any explosive charge introduced should be equal in magnitude to the power developed in each of the other cyl 30 inders in subsequent explosions as otherwise non (Cl. 123-52) pressure waves, surges, or oscillations, which travel backwardly from the inlet valves toward the carburetor and which tend to destroy the uniformity of the fuel and air mixing action of the carburetor by varying the velocity of the air ?owing through the carburetor throat. It has previously been suggested that these variations of Velocity at the carburetor throat may be min imized by the insertion, intermediate the car buretor and the conduits which lead to the en gine cylinders, 'of means for damping the oscilla tions mentioned and thus preventing such os cillations from modifying the action of the car buretor. The present invention contemplates the pro the primary purpose of which is to totally elim inate, or at least to so reduce as to render unim portant, the surges or pressure waves previously referred to and which have heretofore so greatly signing the intake manifold so that it has inter mediate the carburetor and the several cone duits which lead to the cylinders of the engine, a chamber in which'a substantial body of the 25 fuel and gas mixture is temporarily con?ned on its way to the engine, this chamber being so de signed and constructed that the temporarily con ?ned body of gas is caused to circulate rapidly along or around a closed or endless path. This U arrangement interposes between the carburetor result. The problem of supplying all cylinders of a “gaseous ?y-wheel” which, like its mechanical multi-cylinder internal combustion engine with has, however, not been an easy one to exactly solve and, while many attempts to bring about this desirable result have heretofore been made, no entirely satisfactory, solution has been 40 reached. Thus it is found that, notwithstanding all precautions which it has heretofore been con sidered possible to take, certain of the cylinders of an engine are frequently supplied with charges which do not have the same power values upon 45 explosion or ignition as have the charges supplied to other cylinders. It will be appreciated that each cylinder is only intermittently charged and that the piston therein is only intermittently driven upon its working stroke by expansion of 50 the ignited charge. In other words, by reason of the action of the inlet valve of such cylinder, the flow of combustible mixture thereto is inter mittently initiated and halted. This intermittent starting and stopping of the ?ow of combustible 55 charge results in what are designated manifold 0 disturbed carburetion. This I accomplish by de uniformity of operation of the engine would 35 equal charges of fuel from a common carburetor 15 vision of an improved means of this character and the engine cylinders what may be called a analogue, continues to rotate at a substantially constant angular velocity despite the application 35 of ?uctuating accelerating and retarding im pulses. Thus the pressure waves originating at the valves are transformed into unimportantly small variations of the velocity of the gaseous fly-wheel and a practically steady, unidirectional 40 flow through the carburetor is maintained. The net result is increased efficiency of operation of the carburetor and more equal distribution of the combustible charges to the several cylinders. Likewise the Volumetric efficiency of an inter 45 nal combustion engine with which the improved manifold is used is considerably increased. The charges flowing to the several cylinders are with drawn tangentially from the whirling or rotating body of the fuel and air mixture instead of being drawn from a body of such mixture which may be stagnant, or even surging away from the cyl inder, at that instant. Superior velocities of flow into the several cylinders, respectively, of the gaseous fuel mixture are therefore realized. 55 2,117,983 2 The speci?c means for accomplishing the ob jects of the invention may be varied somewhat in accordance with the fuel used, the number of cylinders of the engine and other factors, but (II in each instance a chamber will be provided inter mediate the carburetor cr gas and air mixing de vice and the cylinders within which may be tem turned manifold pipe 20 and duct 59 communi cates with the downwardly and inwardly turned manifold pipe 25, the outlet ends of these pipes communicating with chambers l5 and [6, re C1 spectively, previously described. A portion of a carburetor is indicated at 25, this carburetor being positioned above and co porarily trapped a body of the fuel and air mix- ' axially with the toroidal chamber I? and being ture which is caused to move at relatively high 10 velocity along a substantially closed path. I pre of the down-draft type. It will be understood, however, that the invention may be used with full success with carburetors other than those of the down-draft type. The outlet port 26 of the car buretor is in register with a central similarly shaped aperture formed in a flange-like element 2'! and the gaseous mixture ?owing downwardly through the carburetor port 2i? is transmitted to the toroidal chamber through a passage which fer that this chamber shall have a toroidal form and that it shall be substantially circular in ra dial section in order that the frictional resistance to the flow of the fuel and air mixture there through shall be minimized. The volume of the chamber may be varied to suit conditions but here I prefer that it shall not have a volume appre~ ciably less than the volume of any single cylinder ‘ brings this port into communication with all parts to which it is connected. It is best tointroduce of the chamber, 1. e., the passage 25 is brought into communication with a continuous aperture 20 the mixture through spiral passages which open into the toroidal chamber through ports in its or slot‘ 28 formed in what maybe designated the inner wall of chamber l'i. ' ‘ inner wall and the discharge ends of the pas The passage just brie?y referred to is de?ned sages should be uniformly inclined in the same direction so as to deliver streams of mixture as by the generally conical lower wall 29 and the frusto conical upper wall 30, these walls being nearly tangentially into the chamber as is pos preferably formed integrally with the walls 5'! sible; thus unidirectional motion of the en trapped gas is created with the minimum loss of the'toroidal chamber since the entire unit, in of energy. Gas is withdrawn from the toroidal cluding the ducts i?, if), 29 and 2i may conven iently comprise a single casting, thus simplifying chamber through two or more apertures formed in the outer wall of the chamberat equally spaced construction and installation. As shown in Fig 30 ures 2 and 4, the walls 29 and 3G converge as intervals and immediately passes into tangential they approach the circular port 23 so that the ly arranged conduits. These conduits communi passage is constantly reduced in vertical section cate with branch ducts or conduits connected to as it expands circumferentially. The conver the several cylinders. An embodiment of the invention selected for gence of the walls 29 and 30 is such as to maintain disclosure by way of example is illustrated in the the cross-sectional area of the passage leading to the chamber ill at an approximately constant accompanying drawing, in which value at all radii; the speci?c form of the passage Figure 1 is a rather diagrammatic view show ing in plan a multi-cylinder internal combustion will depend upon the actual dimensions and ve engine to which the invention has been applied; Figure 2 is a section on line 2—2 of Figure 1; Figure 3 is a section on line 3-—3 of Figure 2; Figure 4 is a section on line 4-4 of Figure 1; and ' Figure 5 is a partial section on the line 5—-5 of Figure l. ' The cylinder block of the engine diagrammati cally shown in Figure l is illustrated at IE3. No locities involved in its design but the objective of such convergence shall be the reduction of re— sistance arising from skin friction and discon tinuous flow. In order that the down?owing fuel and air mixture moving toward the toroidal chamber 45 shall be directed so as to cause the body ofI mix ture within that chamber to be in a state of rapid rotation about the axis of the toroid, a plurality of curved vanes 3! are provided which vanes, in details of the engine proper are shown but it will be understood that the engine may be of any , effect, divide the down?owing stream of fuel mix 50' type or design which includes inlet valves con ture into a plurality of individual streams, all trolling the ?ow of the fuel and air mixture of which are discharged into the toroidal cham through suitable passages into the several cylin ber in substantially tangential directions. The carburetor employed may be of any de ders, respectively. The engine illustrated is pro— vided with eight cylinders and. the axes of these sired type provided it e?iciently mixes the liquid En C71 cylinders are disposed in a common plane. It fuel with the air passing therethrough and it may will be understood, however, that the invention is applicable to engines with all other cylinder ar rangements as well as to engines of the “in line” 60 type. In this case, the cylinders are arranged in groups of two for fuel feeding purposes, the outermost groups being supplied with combustible charges through conduits H and i2 and the in nermost groups through conduits l3 and M. The inlet ends of conduits l! and i2 communicate re" spectively with a chamber 15 and the inlet ends of conduits I3 and I4 are in communication with a second chamber I8, closely adjacent chamber I5 but not communicating therewith. The to roidal gas chamber is indicated generally at El and the outer wall of this chamber is provided with apertures to permit the outflow of mixture into tangentially arranged ducts or conduits l8 and I9, respectively. Tangential duct l8 com 75 municates with the downwardly and inwardly be supported entirely by the unit including the toroidal chamber. In fact, the chamber 11 and its associated inlet and outlet passages may be formed as a unit suitable for ready application 60 to existing types of internal combustion engines, this unit being merely inserted between the car buretor device and the several conduits which lead to the engine cylinders. V The ?ow of the fuel and air mixture through the several passages just described is of course brought about by operation of the engine, such operation causing the necessary suction. The fuel and air mixture delivered by the carburetor passes at high velocity into the toroidal cham ber ll, the vanes 3| dividing the gaseous stream into smaller streams and directing these smaller streams into this chamber in such manner that the body of mixture therein is causedto circulate rapidly about the axis of the toroid. The mix 75 2,117,983 'ture makes its'escape from the chamber through the tangential passages "If and 'I‘S'and thence passes to- the cylinders through the various ducts shown. By reason of the fact that there is main tained‘within the-toroidal chamber, so long as the ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold comprising a toroidal chamber, adapted to re ceive a mixture of fuel and air and‘ to guide the same along an endless path, means for deliver ing a fuel-air mixture into said chamber in a 5 engine is in operation, a ‘rapidly moving body of fuel and air mixture, the closing of any indi vidual‘ cylinder inlet valve has practically no effect upon the ?ow of air through the carburetor, the said- mixture from said chamber to the engine cylinders, the inlet ends of said conduits being ing effectively damped out when it reaches the ‘,‘gaseous fly-wheel”. The action of the carbure disposed in the'plane of said chamber and ex tending outwardly» from said chamber in direc tions substantially tangential to the said cham 10 pressure wave created by the valve closure be ‘ tor is therefore not influenced‘ by valve closures and the carburetion of the liquid fuel proceeds uniformly at all times. The withdrawal of the fuel mixture tangentially from the toroidal‘ cham ber, and at higher than customary velocity, facil direction to cause movement of the mixture along said path, and conduits for leading streams of ber. . 5. The combination with a multi-cylinder in ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold 15 comprising a toroidal chamber adapted» to receive a mixture- of fuel and air and to guide the itates introduction of‘ the fuel mixture into the same along an endless path, means for‘introduc several cylinders and generally increases the vol ing into said chamber, at the innerside thereof, umetric e?iciency of the engine. In order that a plurality of streams of fuel and air mixture in the maximum ei?ciency of the invention may be directions substantially tangential to the said chamber, and conduits for leading streams of the realized, care should be taken that no single con duit leading from the’ toroidal chamber to the mixture from the said chamber to the engine engine should communicate with cylinders the cylinders, the inlet ends of said conduits com 25 municating with the interior of the chamber inlet valves of which are simultaneously open. through apertures formed in the other side of While I prefer that the toroidal chamber shall the chamber wall. be circular in cross-section, because this mini 6. The combination with a multi-cylinder in mizes loss in velocity due to friction between the ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold so fuel mixture and the walls of the chamber, the comprising a toroidal chamber adapted to receive exact cross-sectional ‘shape of the chamber may a mixture of fuel and air and to guide the same be varied if desired for other reasons and the de along an endless path, means for introducing into sign and arrangement of the component elements said chamber, at the inner side thereof, a plu of the invention may be otherwise modi?ed so rality of streams of fuel and air mixture in di long as a body of continuously circulating fuel rections substantially tangential to the said and air mixture is maintained intermediate the chamber, and conduits for leading streams of the carburetor and engine to accomplish the speci mixture from the said chamber to the engine ?ed functions. cylinders, said conduits having the portions Having thus described the invention, what is thereof adjacent said chamber disposed tangen~ 40 claimed as new and desired to be secured by Let tially thereto in the plane of the chamber, and. ters Patent is: extending outwardly therefrom. ' 1. The combination with a multi-cylinder in .7. The combination with a multi-cylinder in ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold ternal combustion engine, of an inlet manifold comprising a toroidal chamber adapted to receive comprising a toroidal chamber adapted to re 45 a mixture of fuel and air and to guide the same - ceive a mixture of fuel and air and to guide the along a closed unrestricted path, means for de livering a fuel-air mixture into said chamber in a direction to cause movement of the mixture along said path, and conduits for leading streams of said mixture from said chamber to the en gine cylinders. 2. The combination with a multi-cylinder in ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold comprising an elongated chamber of substan tially constant cross-section for guiding a fuel air mixture along a closed unrestricted path, the volume of said chamber being not substantially less than the Volume of one cylinder of the en gine, means for delivering a fuel-air mixture into said chamber in a direction to cause movement of such mixture along said path, and conduits for leading streams of said mixture from said cham ber to the engine cylinders. 3. The combination with a multi-cylinder in - ternal combustion. engine of an inlet manifold comprising an elongated chamber of substantially constant cross-section for guiding a fuel-air mix same along an endless path, means for delivering 25 30 ; 40 45 outwardly into said chamber a substantially tangentially directed stream of such mixture through an aperture formed in the inner wall thereof, apertures in the outer wall of the cham ber through which streams of such mixture may be tangentially withdrawn, and conduits for leading said streams to groups of engine cylin ders, respectively. 8. An inlet manifold for an internal combus tion engine‘ comprising a plurality of conduits for leading streams of fuel and air mixture to groups of cylinders, respectively, and means for sup plying all of such conduits simultaneously from a common body of mixture which moves continu 60 ously and unrestrictedly along a closed path with in a toroidal chamber. 9. An inlet manifold for multi-cylinder inter nal combustion engines comprising, in combina tion, a toroidal chamber for the circulation of a 65 mixture of fuel and air, stationary means having spirally formed passages for introducing such a ture along an endless path, stationary gas guid mixture into said chamber, the in?owing streams ing means for directing into said chamber in being similarly directed by said means, and a directions substantially tangential to the cham plurality of ‘outlet passages for withdrawing ber, a plurality of streams of fuel-air mixture‘ mixture from the chamber, said passages being to create a revolving body of such mixture, and disposed tangentially to the toroidal chamber so conduits for leading streams of said mixture as to permit the ready entry of gases thereinto. from said chamber to the engine cylinders. 10. An inlet manifold for multi-cylinder inter 4. The combination with a multi-cylinder in 10 nal combustion engines comprising a toroidal 2,117,983 chamber, stationary spirally arranged ducts hav ing their outer ends opening into said chamber, said ducts being disposed substantially in_ the plane of the toroidal chamber, a passage for lead ing mixture simultaneously to all ducts, and a plurality of discharge apertures in the outer wall of the toroid. 11. The combination with a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine of an inlet manifold 10 comprising a chamber shaped to guide a fuel air mixture along a closed path, stationary means for delivering a fuel-air mixture into said cham her in a direction to cause movement of the mix ture along said path, said means being designed to insure that the velocity of the in?owing stream is approximately the same at all points, and con duits for leading streams of said mixture from said chamber to the engine cylinders. 12. The combination set forth in claim 11 in which the said means comprises a conduit de ?ned by two mutually facing conical surfaces co axially disposed, said surfaces converging out wardly from the axis toward the chamber. 13. The combination with a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, of an inlet mani fold comprising an elongated chamber of sub stantiallylconstant cross-section for guiding a stream of fuel and air mixture along a closed 10 path, stationary guide means for directing a mov ing stream of fuel and air mixture into said chamber in a direction to cause movement of the mixture along said closed path,~and separate con duits for ‘leading streams of said mixture from said chamber to the engine cylinders. ELLIO‘I'I‘ G. REID.