close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2117983

код для вставки
May 17, 1938.
»
I
E. G. REID
'
INTERNAL
‘COMBUSTION
'
ENGINE
Filed Nov. 29, 1935
III,’ I’,
’
Z5 5/ L23
II'III/ /
I
3/ 49
27 F374
,,IIIIII”IIIIIIllllllflallll
‘% j
I
2,117,983
‘
'
Patented May 17, 1938
2,117,983
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,117,983
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
_ Elliott G. Reid, Palo Alto, Calif.
Application November 29, 1935, Serial No. 52,224
13 Claims.
The present invention relates to internal com
bustion engines and particularly to intake mani
folds for engines of this class.
As is well-known, the present tendency of
5 builders of internal combustion engines is to de
sign and construct such engines with relatively
numerous cylinders with the end in view of realiz
ing the advantage of greater uniformity of power
delivery for a given combined cylinder volume,
10 and to obtain other recognized advantages.
Especially where such an engine is to be em
ployed as a means for supplying power for pro
pelling an automotive vehicle is it appreciated
that an engine having a considerable number
15 of cylinders has advantages over those employ
ing relatively few cylinders. Numerous auto
mobile engines now in use have eight cylinders,
and some have more. It is also desirable to make
use of only ane carburetor or fuel and air mix
2 O ing device and to provide what is designated an
inlet or intake manifold by means of which such
single carburetor is connected to all of thegcylin
ders of the engines for the purpose of supplying
each cylinder with the requisite amount of fuel.
25 Naturally, the several pistons being connected to
a common crank shaft, the power developed in
each cylinder by the ignition of. any explosive
charge introduced should be equal in magnitude
to the power developed in each of the other cyl
30 inders in subsequent explosions as otherwise non
(Cl. 123-52)
pressure waves, surges, or oscillations, which
travel backwardly from the inlet valves toward
the carburetor and which tend to destroy the
uniformity of the fuel and air mixing action of
the carburetor by varying the velocity of the air
?owing through the carburetor throat. It has
previously been suggested that these variations
of Velocity at the carburetor throat may be min
imized by the insertion, intermediate the car
buretor and the conduits which lead to the en
gine cylinders, 'of means for damping the oscilla
tions mentioned and thus preventing such os
cillations from modifying the action of the car
buretor.
The present invention contemplates the pro
the primary purpose of which is to totally elim
inate, or at least to so reduce as to render unim
portant, the surges or pressure waves previously
referred to and which have heretofore so greatly
signing the intake manifold so that it has inter
mediate the carburetor and the several cone
duits which lead to the cylinders of the engine,
a chamber in which'a substantial body of the 25
fuel and gas mixture is temporarily con?ned on
its way to the engine, this chamber being so de
signed and constructed that the temporarily con
?ned body of gas is caused to circulate rapidly
along or around a closed or endless path.
This U
arrangement interposes between the carburetor
result.
The problem of supplying all cylinders of a
“gaseous ?y-wheel” which, like its mechanical
multi-cylinder internal combustion engine with
has, however, not been an easy one to exactly
solve and, while many attempts to bring about
this desirable result have heretofore been
made, no entirely satisfactory, solution has been
40 reached. Thus it is found that, notwithstanding
all precautions which it has heretofore been con
sidered possible to take, certain of the cylinders
of an engine are frequently supplied with charges
which do not have the same power values upon
45 explosion or ignition as have the charges supplied
to other cylinders. It will be appreciated that
each cylinder is only intermittently charged and
that the piston therein is only intermittently
driven upon its working stroke by expansion of
50 the ignited charge. In other words, by reason
of the action of the inlet valve of such cylinder,
the flow of combustible mixture thereto is inter
mittently initiated and halted. This intermittent
starting and stopping of the ?ow of combustible
55 charge results in what are designated manifold
0
disturbed carburetion. This I accomplish by de
uniformity of operation of the engine would
35 equal charges of fuel from a common carburetor
15
vision of an improved means of this character
and the engine cylinders what may be called a
analogue, continues to rotate at a substantially
constant angular velocity despite the application 35
of ?uctuating accelerating and retarding im
pulses. Thus the pressure waves originating at
the valves are transformed into unimportantly
small variations of the velocity of the gaseous
fly-wheel and a practically steady, unidirectional 40
flow through the carburetor is maintained. The
net result is increased efficiency of operation of
the carburetor and more equal distribution of the
combustible charges to the several cylinders.
Likewise the Volumetric efficiency of an inter 45
nal combustion engine with which the improved
manifold is used is considerably increased. The
charges flowing to the several cylinders are with
drawn tangentially from the whirling or rotating
body of the fuel and air mixture instead of being
drawn from a body of such mixture which may
be stagnant, or even surging away from the cyl
inder, at that instant. Superior velocities of flow
into the several cylinders, respectively, of the
gaseous fuel mixture are therefore realized.
55
2,117,983
2
The speci?c means for accomplishing the ob
jects of the invention may be varied somewhat
in accordance with the fuel used, the number of
cylinders of the engine and other factors, but
(II
in each instance a chamber will be provided inter
mediate the carburetor cr gas and air mixing de
vice and the cylinders within which may be tem
turned manifold pipe 20 and duct 59 communi
cates with the downwardly and inwardly turned
manifold pipe 25, the outlet ends of these pipes
communicating with chambers l5 and [6, re
C1
spectively, previously described.
A portion of a carburetor is indicated at 25,
this carburetor being positioned above and co
porarily trapped a body of the fuel and air mix- ' axially with the toroidal chamber I? and being
ture which is caused to move at relatively high
10 velocity along a substantially closed path. I pre
of the down-draft type.
It will be understood,
however, that the invention may be used with full
success with carburetors other than those of the
down-draft type. The outlet port 26 of the car
buretor is in register with a central similarly
shaped aperture formed in a flange-like element
2'! and the gaseous mixture ?owing downwardly
through the carburetor port 2i? is transmitted to
the toroidal chamber through a passage which
fer that this chamber shall have a toroidal form
and that it shall be substantially circular in ra
dial section in order that the frictional resistance
to the flow of the fuel and air mixture there
through shall be minimized. The volume of the
chamber may be varied to suit conditions but here
I prefer that it shall not have a volume appre~
ciably less than the volume of any single cylinder ‘ brings this port into communication with all parts
to which it is connected. It is best tointroduce of the chamber, 1. e., the passage 25 is brought
into communication with a continuous aperture
20 the mixture through spiral passages which open
into the toroidal chamber through ports in its or slot‘ 28 formed in what maybe designated the
inner wall of chamber l'i.
'
‘
inner wall and the discharge ends of the pas
The passage just brie?y referred to is de?ned
sages should be uniformly inclined in the same
direction so as to deliver streams of mixture as by the generally conical lower wall 29 and the
frusto conical upper wall 30, these walls being
nearly tangentially into the chamber as is pos
preferably formed integrally with the walls 5'!
sible; thus unidirectional motion of the en
trapped gas is created with the minimum loss of the'toroidal chamber since the entire unit, in
of energy. Gas is withdrawn from the toroidal cluding the ducts i?, if), 29 and 2i may conven
iently comprise a single casting, thus simplifying
chamber through two or more apertures formed
in the outer wall of the chamberat equally spaced construction and installation. As shown in Fig 30
ures 2 and 4, the walls 29 and 3G converge as
intervals and immediately passes into tangential
they approach the circular port 23 so that the
ly arranged conduits. These conduits communi
passage is constantly reduced in vertical section
cate with branch ducts or conduits connected to
as it expands circumferentially. The conver
the several cylinders.
An embodiment of the invention selected for gence of the walls 29 and 30 is such as to maintain
disclosure by way of example is illustrated in the the cross-sectional area of the passage leading to
the chamber ill at an approximately constant
accompanying drawing, in which
value at all radii; the speci?c form of the passage
Figure 1 is a rather diagrammatic view show
ing in plan a multi-cylinder internal combustion will depend upon the actual dimensions and ve
engine to which the invention has been applied;
Figure 2 is a section on line 2—2 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a section on line 3-—3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a section on line 4-4 of Figure 1;
and
'
Figure 5 is a partial section on the line 5—-5
of Figure l.
'
The cylinder block of the engine diagrammati
cally shown in Figure l is illustrated at IE3. No
locities involved in its design but the objective
of such convergence shall be the reduction of re—
sistance arising from skin friction and discon
tinuous flow.
In order that the down?owing fuel and air
mixture moving toward the toroidal chamber 45
shall be directed so as to cause the body ofI mix
ture within that chamber to be in a state of rapid
rotation about the axis of the toroid, a plurality
of curved vanes 3! are provided which vanes, in
details of the engine proper are shown but it will
be understood that the engine may be of any , effect, divide the down?owing stream of fuel mix 50'
type or design which includes inlet valves con
ture into a plurality of individual streams, all
trolling the ?ow of the fuel and air mixture of which are discharged into the toroidal cham
through suitable passages into the several cylin
ber in substantially tangential directions.
The carburetor employed may be of any de
ders, respectively. The engine illustrated is pro—
vided with eight cylinders and. the axes of these sired type provided it e?iciently mixes the liquid
En C71
cylinders are disposed in a common plane. It
fuel with the air passing therethrough and it may
will be understood, however, that the invention
is applicable to engines with all other cylinder ar
rangements as well as to engines of the “in line”
60 type. In this case, the cylinders are arranged
in groups of two for fuel feeding purposes, the
outermost groups being supplied with combustible
charges through conduits H and i2 and the in
nermost groups through conduits l3 and M. The
inlet ends of conduits l! and i2 communicate re"
spectively with a chamber 15 and the inlet ends
of conduits I3 and I4 are in communication with
a second chamber I8, closely adjacent chamber
I5 but not communicating therewith. The to
roidal gas chamber is indicated generally at El
and the outer wall of this chamber is provided
with apertures to permit the outflow of mixture
into tangentially arranged ducts or conduits l8
and I9, respectively. Tangential duct l8 com
75 municates with the downwardly and inwardly
be supported entirely by the unit including the
toroidal chamber. In fact, the chamber 11 and
its associated inlet and outlet passages may be
formed as a unit suitable for ready application 60
to existing types of internal combustion engines,
this unit being merely inserted between the car
buretor device and the several conduits which
lead to the engine cylinders.
V
The ?ow of the fuel and air mixture through
the several passages just described is of course
brought about by operation of the engine, such
operation causing the necessary suction. The
fuel and air mixture delivered by the carburetor
passes at high velocity into the toroidal cham
ber ll, the vanes 3| dividing the gaseous stream
into smaller streams and directing these smaller
streams into this chamber in such manner that
the body of mixture therein is causedto circulate
rapidly about the axis of the toroid. The mix 75
2,117,983
'ture makes its'escape from the chamber through
the tangential passages "If and 'I‘S'and thence
passes to- the cylinders through the various ducts
shown. By reason of the fact that there is main
tained‘within the-toroidal chamber, so long as the
ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold
comprising a toroidal chamber, adapted to re
ceive a mixture of fuel and air and‘ to guide the
same along an endless path, means for deliver
ing a fuel-air mixture into said chamber in a 5
engine is in operation, a ‘rapidly moving body
of fuel and air mixture, the closing of any indi
vidual‘ cylinder inlet valve has practically no effect
upon the ?ow of air through the carburetor, the
said- mixture from said chamber to the engine
cylinders, the inlet ends of said conduits being
ing effectively damped out when it reaches the
‘,‘gaseous fly-wheel”. The action of the carbure
disposed in the'plane of said chamber and ex
tending outwardly» from said chamber in direc
tions substantially tangential to the said cham
10 pressure wave created by the valve closure be
‘ tor is therefore not influenced‘ by valve closures
and the carburetion of the liquid fuel proceeds
uniformly at all times. The withdrawal of the
fuel mixture tangentially from the toroidal‘ cham
ber, and at higher than customary velocity, facil
direction to cause movement of the mixture along
said path, and conduits for leading streams of
ber.
.
5. The combination with a multi-cylinder in
ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold 15
comprising a toroidal chamber adapted» to receive
a mixture- of fuel and air and to guide the
itates introduction of‘ the fuel mixture into the same along an endless path, means for‘introduc
several cylinders and generally increases the vol
ing into said chamber, at the innerside thereof,
umetric e?iciency of the engine. In order that a plurality of streams of fuel and air mixture in
the maximum ei?ciency of the invention may be directions substantially tangential to the said
chamber, and conduits for leading streams of the
realized, care should be taken that no single con
duit leading from the’ toroidal chamber to the mixture from the said chamber to the engine
engine should communicate with cylinders the cylinders, the inlet ends of said conduits com
25
municating with the interior of the chamber
inlet valves of which are simultaneously open.
through
apertures formed in the other side of
While I prefer that the toroidal chamber shall
the chamber wall.
be circular in cross-section, because this mini
6. The combination with a multi-cylinder in
mizes loss in velocity due to friction between the ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold
so fuel mixture and the walls of the chamber, the comprising a toroidal chamber adapted to receive
exact cross-sectional ‘shape of the chamber may a mixture of fuel and air and to guide the same
be varied if desired for other reasons and the de
along an endless path, means for introducing into
sign and arrangement of the component elements said chamber, at the inner side thereof, a plu
of the invention may be otherwise modi?ed so rality of streams of fuel and air mixture in di
long as a body of continuously circulating fuel rections substantially tangential to the said
and air mixture is maintained intermediate the chamber, and conduits for leading streams of the
carburetor and engine to accomplish the speci
mixture from the said chamber to the engine
?ed functions.
cylinders, said conduits having the portions
Having thus described the invention, what is thereof adjacent said chamber disposed tangen~
40 claimed as new and desired to be secured by Let
tially thereto in the plane of the chamber, and.
ters Patent is:
extending outwardly therefrom.
'
1. The combination with a multi-cylinder in
.7. The combination with a multi-cylinder in
ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold ternal combustion engine, of an inlet manifold
comprising a toroidal chamber adapted to receive comprising a toroidal chamber adapted to re
45 a mixture of fuel and air and to guide the same - ceive a mixture of fuel and air and to guide the
along a closed unrestricted path, means for de
livering a fuel-air mixture into said chamber in
a direction to cause movement of the mixture
along said path, and conduits for leading streams
of said mixture from said chamber to the en
gine cylinders.
2. The combination with a multi-cylinder in
ternal combustion engine of an inlet manifold
comprising an elongated chamber of substan
tially constant cross-section for guiding a fuel
air mixture along a closed unrestricted path, the
volume of said chamber being not substantially
less than the Volume of one cylinder of the en
gine, means for delivering a fuel-air mixture into
said chamber in a direction to cause movement of
such mixture along said path, and conduits for
leading streams of said mixture from said cham
ber to the engine cylinders.
3. The combination with a multi-cylinder in
- ternal combustion. engine of an inlet manifold
comprising an elongated chamber of substantially
constant cross-section for guiding a fuel-air mix
same along an endless path, means for delivering
25
30
;
40
45
outwardly into said chamber a substantially
tangentially directed stream of such mixture
through an aperture formed in the inner wall
thereof, apertures in the outer wall of the cham
ber through which streams of such mixture may
be tangentially withdrawn, and conduits for
leading said streams to groups of engine cylin
ders, respectively.
8. An inlet manifold for an internal combus
tion engine‘ comprising a plurality of conduits for
leading streams of fuel and air mixture to groups
of cylinders, respectively, and means for sup
plying all of such conduits simultaneously from
a common body of mixture which moves continu
60
ously and unrestrictedly along a closed path with
in a toroidal chamber.
9. An inlet manifold for multi-cylinder inter
nal combustion engines comprising, in combina
tion, a toroidal chamber for the circulation of a 65
mixture of fuel and air, stationary means having
spirally formed passages for introducing such a
ture along an endless path, stationary gas guid
mixture into said chamber, the in?owing streams
ing means for directing into said chamber in being similarly directed by said means, and a
directions substantially tangential to the cham plurality of ‘outlet passages for withdrawing
ber, a plurality of streams of fuel-air mixture‘ mixture from the chamber, said passages being
to create a revolving body of such mixture, and disposed tangentially to the toroidal chamber so
conduits for leading streams of said mixture as to permit the ready entry of gases thereinto.
from said chamber to the engine cylinders.
10. An inlet manifold for multi-cylinder inter
4. The combination with a multi-cylinder in
10
nal combustion engines comprising a toroidal
2,117,983
chamber, stationary spirally arranged ducts hav
ing their outer ends opening into said chamber,
said ducts being disposed substantially in_ the
plane of the toroidal chamber, a passage for lead
ing mixture simultaneously to all ducts, and a
plurality of discharge apertures in the outer wall
of the toroid.
11. The combination with a multi-cylinder
internal combustion engine of an inlet manifold
10 comprising a chamber shaped to guide a fuel
air mixture along a closed path, stationary means
for delivering a fuel-air mixture into said cham
her in a direction to cause movement of the mix
ture along said path, said means being designed
to insure that the velocity of the in?owing stream
is approximately the same at all points, and con
duits for leading streams of said mixture from
said chamber to the engine cylinders.
12. The combination set forth in claim 11 in
which the said means comprises a conduit de
?ned by two mutually facing conical surfaces co
axially disposed, said surfaces converging out
wardly from the axis toward the chamber.
13. The
combination with a multi-cylinder
internal combustion engine, of an inlet mani
fold comprising an elongated chamber of sub
stantiallylconstant cross-section for guiding a
stream of fuel and air mixture along a closed 10
path, stationary guide means for directing a mov
ing stream of fuel and air mixture into said
chamber in a direction to cause movement of the
mixture along said closed path,~and separate con
duits for ‘leading streams of said mixture from
said chamber to the engine cylinders.
ELLIO‘I'I‘ G. REID.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
671 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа