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Патент USA US2117996

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May 17, 1938. '
J. A. sTRoMBERG
2,117,996
HOUSING STRUCTURE AND 1Ts CONSTRUCTION
, Filed Sept. 16, l1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
May 17, 1938.
»
J. A. s'rRoMBl-:RG ’
2,117,996
HOUSING STRUCTURE AND ITS CONSTRUCTION
` Filed sept. 1e. 19:55.Y
35,34
5 sheets-sheet 2
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May 17, 1938.
2,117,996
J. A. sTRoMBERG
HOUSING STRUCTURE AND ITS CONSTRUCTION
Filed sept. 16.4 1935
3 sheets-sheet 5
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ATTORNEY.
Patented May 17, 1938
2,117,996
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,117,996
HOUSING STRUCTURE AND ITS
CONSTRUCTION
John A. Stromberg, Des Plaines, Ill.
Application September 16, 1935, Serial No. 40,664
3 Claims.
'I'his invention relates generally to new and
useful improvements in housing structures and
their construction and has particular reference
to low cost house construction wherein elimina
tion of waste of materials, use of low cost ma
terials, and minimum labor required for erec~
tion, are important factors.
Various attempts have been made to produce
low cost housing by use of pre-fabricated wall
units or pre-cast blocks of concrete, cinders and
other materials, but such attempts have resulted
in most instances with very little or no saving
and with the objectionable inherent features that
such structures have the appearance of tempo
15 rary or portable structures and often present
problems in sealing, joining and securing together
such units. Furthermore, such pre-fabricated
units were bound by physical limitations prevent
ing wide and desirable variation in designs, plans
and arrangements.
One of the objects of this invention is to pro
cellular aggregate wall, floor, ceiling, and roof
slabs;
'
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of an end portion of
the house showing the steel frame before the
walls are poured into place around same, but 5
showing some of the roof slabs in place;
Fig. 3 is a cross-section taken on line 3--3 of
Fig. l;
Fig. 4 is a cross-section taken on line 4_4 of
Fig. l, showing roof slabs;
10
Fig. 5 is a cross-section of the wall taken on
line 5-5 of Fig. 1;
‘
Fig. 6 is a cross-section of a portion of the
end Wall taken on line 6_6 of Fig. 2;
Figs. 7, 8 and 9 are respectively, side elevation 15
bottom view, and a cross-section taken on line
9-9 of Fig. 7, showing the connection of the
roof channels at the ridge;
Fig. 10 is a section taken on line lll-_I0 of Fig.
12 showing the connection of the lower end of
a roof channel with a longitudinal channel cap
vide new structural and constructional features
which overcome the above-stated disadvantages
and channel wall stud;
Fig. 11 is a section taken on line lI-II of
and whereby attractive, durable or permanent
Fig. 10;
425 housing is made possible at low cost through elim
ination of waste, use of low cost materials and
reduction in time and labor required in the erec
tion thereof.
Another object of the invention resides in the
30 novel bent steel plate structural members and
in their connections which can not only be fab
ricated at low cost but the use of which reduces
waste of material and the time required in fieldL
assembly to a minimum. Such connections be
35 tween the various metallic frame members being
made without bolting, riveting or welding; the
interconnecting or securing of the members to
gether being accomplished solely by bending and
interlocking portions during field assembly by
40 means of a hammer.
With the above and other objects in view, my
invention consists in the novel combination, con
struction and arrangement of the various parts
and members shown in preferred embodiment in
45
the attached drawings, described in the follow
ing specification and particularly pointed out
in the appended claims.
In the drawings forming part hereof:
50
(CI. 18S-_36)
Fig. 1 is an illustration showing two vertical
half cross-sections of a house embodying my in
vention; the left-hand cross-section being taken
on line l-I of Fig. 2, and showing the steel fram
ing and the right-hand cross-section being a
55 similar opposite side cross-section showing the
Fig. l2 is a section taken on line |2-l2 of 25
Fig. 10;
Fig. 13 is a side elevation showing the connec
tion of a horizontal floor or ceiling channel with
the vertical channel wall stud;
Fig. 14 is a cross-section taken on line Ill-I4 30
of Fig. 13;
Fig. 15 is a cross-section taken on line I5-I5
of Fig. 13;
'
Fig. 16 is a, side elevational view of typical con
nection of the foot of a channel wall stud and
a base plate showing the integral base plate
anchors imbedded in a concrete footing;
Fig. 17 is an end View of the connection shown
in Fig. 16;
Fig. 18 is a cross-section taken on line l8-l8 40
of Fig. 17;
.
Fig. 19 is a plan view of the top of the base
plate showing the manner of cutting same to
form the connection portions.
Referring now to the illustrations shown par- 45
ticularly in Figs. 1 to 19 inclusive, the house here
shown as an example of my invention, includes
a steel frameconsisting of a plurality of side
wall studs comprising spaced channels 30 sup
ported on base plates 3| and provided with lon- 50
gitudinal cap channels 32. The channel studs
of the side walls are cross-connected by channel
floor joists 33 and channel ceiling joists 34. The
roof channels or rafters 35 are angularly disposed,
as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and connected together 55
2
2,117,996
at the ridge and also to the caps 32 and studs
30. The steel frame also includes end wall studs
consisting of channels 36 which are secured to
the floor and ceiling channels by clamps 31. The
Cil bridging between the floor and ceiling channels
consists of spaced pairs of fiat bars 39 each ex
tending longitudinally of the house and alter
nately over and under the channel joists.
I shall now proceed to describe the various
connections between the'members above-stated.
In Figs. 7, 8 and 9, the connection of the
channel rafters 35 at the roof ridge consists
in an extended central web portion 35A of one
channel which extension is bent inwardly and
15 slotted as at 35B to permit extension therethrough
of a narrower web portion 35C of the other chan
nel 35. The web portion 35C is then bent parallel
to the portion 35A to thus securely interlock the
opposed rafters at the ridge.
The connection of the lower end of the rafters
20
35 with the channel plate or cap 32 and stud 30
is shown in Figs. 10, l1 and 12 and consists in
recessing the rafter web, as at 35D and bending
a portion of the lower flange angularly as at 35E
25 for support on the cap 32. A portion 30A of the
web of the stud channel 30 is extended to pass
through a slotted opening 32A of the cap 32 and
through a slotted opening 35F in the rafter 35
and then bent over the bent flange 35E to se
30 curely interlock the rafter, cap and stud.
Figs. 13, 14 and 15 illustrate the connection
between the horizontal iioor o-r ceiling joists 33
and 34 and the wall studs 30 and consists in
channellike openings 30B in both ñanges of the
35 Vertical studs 30; the lower end of the opening
30B on the inner side of the building being en
larged as at 36C and a portion of the flange be
ing bent inwardly to form a support 30D. The
plate which are adapted to be embedded in the
concrete foundation 4D. The portions compris
ing the anchors being bent downwardly and out
wardly to form L-shaped anchors. 'I'he plate
3| is punched or cut along lines as indicated in
Fig. 19, to provide a pair of portions SIB and 3|C
which are adapted to be bent upwardly to posi
tions shown in Fig. 17 to securely retain the lower
end of the stud 30.
The portion 3lC is cut from within the general 10
configuration of portion 3 IB and then bent right
angularly to engage the back of the web of the
stud 30 as shown in Figs. 16, 17 and 18.
The free end of portion SIB is slightly wider
than the integral section to form spaced end por
tions 3ID adapted to be bent over a right-angu
larly bent web portion 30E at the lower end of
the stud; the portions SID being arranged to in
terñt closely between the flanges of the stud 30
and to engage the inner face of the stud web. As 20
clearly shown in Figs. 16, 17 and 18 the lower end
of the stud is securely conñned against move
ment in all directions.
The lateral bracing or bridging 39 shown in
Figs. 1, 2 and 3 consists of spaced pairs of flat 25
bars extending longitudinally of the building
across the joists 33 and 34 in such manner that
each bar 39 alternately engages the upper and
lower flanges of the spaced joists and the pairs
of bars 39 also engaging opposite flanges of each 30
joist. Each of the bars 39 is formed with side
portions 39A and 39B which are cut from the
body of bar 39 and bent to form integral means
adapted to securely clamp the bridging to the
ilange of the joists; the clamping portion 39A 35
being bent angularly o-ver the flange against the
back of the web of the joist and the clamping
portion 39B being bent U-shaped to securely en
end portions of the flanges of each joist 33 and Y gage the outer and inner face of the flange of a
40
34 are recessed inwardly from the edge, as at 38, joist as clearly shown in Fig. 3.
to decrease the width of the end portions of the
flanges to permit the ends of the joists to be
inserted through> both flanges of the stud 30
for support on the bent flanged portion 30D.
The lower ñange to be bent downwardly, as at
45
38B, over the edge of the support 30D to securely
lock the joist to the stud.
It will -be noted by reference to Figs. 7 to 15
inclusive that the illustrated connections con
sist in all cases of an integral extension of a de
50 fined portion of one of said members which is
inserted through an opening or openings, re
spectively, in a like-defined portion of one or
more of the other members of the frame work
and then bent to interlock or interconnect the
55
members together. It will also be noted that
such bent integral extensions are in all cases of
less width than the portion from which they
extend, and that when such bent integral exten
60
sion is a portion of the web of one of the mem
bers it extends through the web or webs, re
spectively, of the other member or members and
in the case of such bent integral extension being
a portion of a ñange of one of said members it
therefore extends through the flange or flanges
respectively of the other member or members,
that is, in all connections either the web or
flange portions of thel members are intercon
nected.
The connection of the studs 36 to their base
70
plates 3| is illustrated in Figs. 16 to 19 wherein
the base plate 3l is fabricated from a single piece
of sheet metal and consists of a substantially
square plate formed with extended spaced in
15 tegral anchors BIA on two opposite sides of the
Referring now particularly to Figs. 1, 2 and
6, I will now describe the manner in which the
end wall studs 39 are secured in place by means
of clamps 31. The studs 36 are supported on
the foundation 40 and secured to the floor and 45
ceiling joists and rafters by clamps 31.
Each
clamp consists of a flat twisted bar having ends
bent U-shape to securely grip one flange of the
stud 36 and one flange of the joist or rafter.
From the above description of the various
standard structural members and their connec
tion one to the other, it will be apparent that
the structural frame members can be readily
pre-fabricated with such slotted and bendable
portions that the members can be assembled and 55
erected at the site of installation into a sub
stantially rigid frame without the use of bolts,
rivets or welding and at a comparatively low cost
due to the minimum of labor required.
Figs. 1, 2 and 4 illustrate the improved pre 60
cast roof slabs 4I of cellular aggregate or other
suitable material made in suitable widths and
lengths to conform to the spacing of the rafters
35. As clearly shown in Fig. 4, these slabs 4I 65
are designed to provide a support for the side
MA upon the entire face of the upper ñange of
the rafter 35. The opposite side ¿IIB is provided
with a depending portion 4IC which is supported
upon the entire face of the lower flange of the
rafter 35. The depending portion is adapted to
interñt between the rafter flanges and is there
fore formed with angularly disposed faces 4ID,
¿IlE and IHF. Above the face AIF the slab is pro
vided with an angular recess 4IG to permit the
3
2,117,996
side MA of an adjacent slab to reset upon the
upper flange of the rafter.
The section shown in Fig. 6 shows a brick ex
buildings such as factories or various industrial
terior finish.
The invention contemplates the use of cellu
lar aggregate for the walls, floors and ceiling and
the pouring of same at the site of installation
walls in a manner to afford Wide variation in
in pre-fabricated steel forms which may be re
used on other construction projects of similar
10 kind.
It is also contemplated to build the interior
partitions of any suitable fire-proof tiles and
Where the partition Vwould carry any load to re
inforce same with suitable metallic members
15 similar to the wall studs.
The cellular aggregate floors of 21/2" to 3"
thickness may be readily ñnished in tile, linole
um, wood or other suitable flooring. The inte
rior of the walls may be finished in plaster or
20 constructed of other suitable interior ñnishes.
The ceiling may be finished in tile or plaster on
wire lath or in any suitable material. The exte
rior of the walls may be covered with brick, tiles,
wood or other suitable exterior covering. The
25 Various interior or exterior finishes are not
shown in the drawings, except that Figs. 2 and
6 show a brick exterior in part.
In the ordinary small house of flve to seven
rooms, I prefer to use 4” x 1%” x 1%” channel
30 studs made from bent copper-bearing steel plate
of about number 12 gauge and 8” x 2" x 2"
channel joists and rafters of bent copper-bearing
steel plate of number 10 or 12 gauge.
As shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the walls 5| consist
35 of poured cellular aggregate with spaced tubular
passages 52 extending vertically of the Wall.
These passages may be arranged to extend from
the basement to the roof to provide air ducts forY
controlled force draft for Ventilating and cool
ing purposes but they also obviously reduce the
amount of the cellular aggregate used in such
walls.
From the above description and attached draw
ings it will be readily apparent that the structural
45 frame members constituting the steel skeleton are
connected together by interframing portions of
members within or through other members and
interlocking the portions by hammer-bent sec
tions to thus interlock the frame members with
50 out the use of rivets, bolts or welding Vand to
afford rapid and permanent assembly of the
buildings.
The invention permits use of pre
fabricated steel and poured cellular aggregate
architecture and individuality in design.
I am aware that various changes and modifi
cations can be made in the details of construc
tion without departing from the spirit or prin
ciples of this invention and I therefore do not
wish to be understood as limiting myself to the 10
exact details shown by way of example in the
attached drawings. It is my intention to claim
the invention as broadly as the state of the prior
art will permit under the law of patents.
I claim:
15
1. In a metallic skeleton framework, a vertical
channel stud having a web and flanged sides,
one of the flanged sides having an aperture
therein, a channel joist disposed angularly to
said stud and having portions of the flanges 20
of its end cut to decrease their width to permit
said end to be projected through said aperture
in said stud, one of said flanges of decreased
width being cut to permit a section thereof to
be bent to thereby interlock said joist with said
stud.
2. In a metallic skeleton framework, a vertical
channel stud having a web and flanged sides,
one of the flanged sides having an aperture
therein, a channel joist disposed angularly to 30
said stud and having portions of the flanges of
its end cut to decrease their width to permit said
end to be projected through said aperture in
said stud, said stud having a portion of the
apertured flange bent to form a support for the 35
end of the joist, one of said flanges of decreased
width being cut to permit a section thereof to
be bent over said stud bent portion to thereby
interlock said joist with said stud.
3. In a metallic skeleton framework, a vertical 40
channel stud having a web and flanged sides,
each of said stud flanged sides having an aper
ture therein, a channel joist disposed angularly
to said stud and having portions of the flanges
of its end cut to decrease their width to permit 45
said joist end to >be projected through both of
said stud apertures, said stud having a portion
of one of the apertured flanges bent to form a
support for the joist end, and one of the joist
flange portions of decreased width being cut to
structural members at the site into a rigid
permit a section thereof to be bent over said
skeleton.
While the illustrations show an adaption of
55 the invention to a house, it is obviously adapt
able to the construction of other structures and
stud bent portion to thereby interlock the joist
with the stud.
°
JOHN A. STROMBERG.
55
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