Патент USA US2118058код для вставки
May 24, 1938. G. L. RILEY 2,118,058 ‘ AUXILIARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Jan. 24, 1956 5... w W ”E2 8.. 0,_ _ _ _ _ _ 5 3 ifnlr p/V In“PM,.+4“: |- . . "an Patented May 24, 1938 2,118,058 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ‘ ' 2,118,058 AUXILIARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES‘ Glenn L. Riley, New Orleans, La., assignor, by direct and mesne assignments, to Riley Dir velopment Corporation, a corporation of L0ui~ siana Application January 24, 1936, Serial No. 60,693 4 Claims. (Cl. 123-191) This invention relates to new and useful im provements in the combustion chambers of in forming part of the combustion chamber and ex tending substantially over the greater part of ternal combustion engines. The main object of the invention is to provide part1‘! of the said combustion chamber . the cylinder bore l2 to connect with the main The main part I1 of the combustion chamber is 5 the combustion chamber of an internal combus tion engine with auxiliary fuel and ignition cham located above the intake port [8 which is con trolled _by a poppet valve l9 normally closed by a spring 29 and opened by the usual tappet and cam shaft mechanism (not shown). It will be understood, of course, that the block is provided 10 with the usual exhaust valve operated in properly timed relation with the intake Valve l9. bers designed to effect ignition and rapid burn ing of the fuel in the engine cylinder with ap proximately constant compression at all speeds 10 of the engine. Another object of the invention is to provide an attachment adapted to be secured in the spark plug opening of internal combustion engines, to make possible the satisfactory use of low grade 15 iuel oil in internal combustion engines using the VDirectly above the chamber 11, the cylinder head 15 is provided with an internally screw~ threaded aperture 2| adapted to receive the ex 15 regular electrical ignition systems designed for ternally screwthreaded end 22 of a ?tting 23 cast to form auxiliary fuel and ignition chambers. The aperture 2| may be the aperture commonly provided in the cylinder heads to receive a spark plug, or the ?tting 23 may be cast integral with the cylinder head as shown in Figure 10 of the drawing. The, ?tting 23 is provided at its upper end with a laterally extending boss 24, internally screw use on engines using gasoline only. Other objects of the invention will appear as the following description of a preferred and prac N 9 tical embodiment thereof proceeds. In the drawing: Figure 1 is a fragmentary vertical section through the upper part of the cylinder and the cylinder head of an L-head in ternal combustion engine, with the present in threaded to receive a spark plug 25 of usual 25 construction. The boss 24 and the upper end of the ?tting 23 are bored to form a cylindrical 25 vention applied as an attachment thereto; Figure 2 is a central vertical section, to an enlarged scale, of the said attachment; primary ignition chamber 26 having its axis sub stantially parallel to the cylinder head. The ?t ting 23 is cast to form a conical fuel chamber 21 30 Figure 3 is a vertical transverse section taken on the line 3—3 of Figure 2; Figure 4 is a bottom plan view of the attach 30 ment as shown in Figure 2; ' Figure 5 is a central vertical section through‘ a modi?ed form of the said attachment; Figure 6 is a central vertical section of another 35 modi?ed form of the invention; Figure 7 is a horizontal section taken on the line ‘2-1 of Figure 6; Figure 8 is a central vertical section through still another modi?cation of the invention; Figure 9 is a horizontal section taken on the 40 line 9—9 of Figure 8; and Figure 10 illustrates a form of the invention similar to that shown in Figure l of the drawing, but in which the improvement is made integral 45 with the cylinder head. In Figure 1 of the drawing, the reference nu meral ll indicates the cylinder block, provided with the cylinder bore 12 in which the piston. 13 is adapted to reciprocate in the usual manner to convert its reciprocating motion through connect ing rod it into rotary motion of a crank shaft (not shown). The upper end of the block H has the head i5 suitably and detachably secured thereto. As usual in devices of this character, 55 the head I5 is provided with a clearance space It communicating at its lower and wider end with the combustion chamber I1, and at its upper end with the primary ignition chamber 26. As will be apparent from Figure 3 of the draw ing the axis of the conical fuel chamber 2'! is 35 inclined to the axis of the ?tting so that vaporized liquid fuel is passed into the primary ignition chamber 26 substantially at a tangent to the cy lindrical wall of the said chamber. It will be apparent from Figures 1 and 2 of the drawing 40 that when the vaporized liquid fuel in the cham ber H is compressed, part of that vaporized fuel will be forced through the restricted opening 28 at the upper end of the conical chamber 21 at greatly increased speed tangentially against the 45 cylindrical wall of the ignition chamber 26; This injection of the fuel sets up a whirling or turbu lence of the vaporized fuel in the chamber 26, causing the heavy particles of the fuel to whirl around the cylindrical wall of the chamber. The 50 more gaseous part of the fuel is concentrated nearer to the center of the chamber, and with a somewhat increased temperature is in condition to be ignited by a spark from the electrodes of the spark plug 25. 55 2 2,118,058 The ignition of the gas in the chamber 26 im mediately sets up a rapid burning of the gas or vapor in the auxiliary combustion chamber 21; and this burning gas is projected forcibly through chamber 27 into the combustion chamber I‘i. Since the chamber 21 is wider at its lowest end, the igniting ?ame is greatly expanded and con tacts with the fuel in chamber I‘! over a compara tively large area and sets up a rapid. burning of 10 the fuel in the cylinder. The form of the invention illustrated in Figure 5 is substantially the same as that shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3. The ?tting 29, however, is screwthreaded at its upper end to receive the 15 spark plug which seats in the upper end with its axis substantially in alignment with the axis of the ?tting. ' The form of the invention shown in Figure 6 of the drawing is similar to that shown in Figure 5 except that the ?tting 36 shown in Figure 6 has a spherical ignition chamber 3| instead of a cylin~ drical chamber shown in the preceding ?gures of the drawing. The form of the invention shown in Figure 8 includes a ?tting 32 adapted to be detachably secured in the spark plug opening. In this form of the invention, the auxiliary fuel chamber 33 has its axis extending substantially perpendicular to the‘ cylinder head; and, communicates atv its 30 upper end with a cylindrical ignition chamber 34 having its axis coincident with the axis of the conical chamber 33. The upper end of the cham ber 34 is screwthreaded to receive a spark plug having its axis aligned or coincident with the axis of the said ignition chamber 34. The ?tting 23, 'or the other ?ttings corre sponding thereto, should be of sufficient length to locate the spark plug at some substantial distance from the comparatively hot cylinder head; and, the material of the ?tting should be such as to 40 radiate heat‘rapidly in order to avoid excessive heating of the vaporized fuel during its passage to the spark plug ignition chamber. The length 7 . of the‘auxiliary fuel chamber and the cross sec tional area of the aperture 28 will vary with the size of the engine to which the invention may be trode casing of practically all spark plugs. The diameter of the auxiliary ignition chamber 26 is the same. These dimensions are obviously re quired, since the ?tting is intended to replace the spark plug on the cylinder head, and the chamber 26 is designed to receive a similar spark plug. Variations of dimensions will be necessary when adapting the ?tting to existing engines, but new engines may be provided with standard ?t tings of the most efficient type and size. It will be understood that the dimensions of the fittings will vary with the different makes of cars and engine sizes. In any case, the various elements of the ?ttings should be varied corre spondingly to give the best results. It is not ab solutely necessary that the auxiliary fuel chamber should be conical; it may be cylindrical or a closerapproximation to cylindrical. In 'all cases, it is essential that the passageway from the com bustion chamber of the cylinder shall be re stricted relatively to the diameter of the aux iliary ignition chamber, in order that the com pressed liquid fuel will be projected into the said ignition chamber with such force as to cause the heavier particles of the vaporized liquid fuel to whirl around against the wall of the said cham ber, with the central part of said liquid gasi?ed, and adjacent to the electrodes of the spark plug. It is preferable, however, to have the fuel cham ber 21 made conical in order that the ?ame re sulting from the ignition of the gas in the cham ber 26 shall have the greatest area of contact with the vaporized fuel in the combustion cham- , ber in the cylinder head. The theory of operation of the device is as follows: , V The supply of fuel in the form of atomized oil mixed with the proper proportions of air having 40. been drawn into the motor cylinder in the usual manner, after passing through the carburetor, or through a mixing valve, is still in non-explosive form. The mixture is then in the condition 'known as saturated or wet. As the piston comes up on the compression stroke it forces a quantity applied; and, must be determined empirically in of this wet mixture into the auxiliary fuel cham- . order to produce the best result. The base of the cone forming the‘lower end of the fuel chamber 2‘! should be'as large as possible in order that the flame issuing therefrom might impinge on large areas of the vaporized'fuel in chamber I1. It is ber of the device. The decreasing cross sectional area of this fuel chamber causes the mixture to travel faster as it progresses'toward the primary ignition chamber-until high velocity of the en tering mixture is attained, and it strikes the curved surface of the primary ignition chamber essential in all cases that the aperture 28 be re stricted su?iciently in comparison with the cross sectional area of the lower end of the conical chamber as to insure the projection of the vapor ized liquid fuel at such speed into the ignition chamber as to throw the heavier particles out wardly against the wall of that chamber and to 60 The diameter of the lower end of the chamber 21 is substantially the same as that of the elec gasify the central part of the charge contacting with the electrodes of the spark plug. at high speed. The atomized oil is forced into the primary 55 ignition chamber so rapidly through thersmall opening at the end of the fuel chamber that it is vaporized and is now in explosive form. Inthis primary ignition chamber the fuel, now vaporized, is ignited by an electric spark—and converted 60 into ?ame. Should any of the particles of fuel fail to be vaporized in their travel through the vIt is di?icult, or may be impossible, to set out mathematically the relative dimensions of the _fuel chamber, they are thrown against the inner ‘auxiliary combustion and ignition chambers in surface of the primary ignition chamber by cen the ?tting forming the subject matter of this trifugal force, assuring positive non-fouling con invention. However, as the result of experiment dition for the spark plug or sparking device, but ing with many models of various'dimensions, a said particles will ignite when the vaporized fuel ?tting of the type shown in Figure 1 and having has been converted into a ?ame. ' 1 the following dimensions was found satisfactory: The fact that the fuel particles rotate at high 70 - Inches 1. Diameter of lower open end of chamber 2L % 2. Diameter of upper end of chamber 2'I'___ 1/; 3. Length of chamber 21 _______ ___ _____ _'__ 2' 4. Length of ignition chamber 26 _______ __ 1 5. Diameter of chamber 26 _______________ __ 3A speed in the primary ignition chamber and thus 70 produce a low pressure area at their vortex or center allows the spark plug or sparking device to operate at better advantage. As electrical re sistance is governed by pressure, the spark will take place more readily in this low pressure area. 3 2,118,058 Since the fuel in the primary ignition chamber is then vaporized and highly combustible, when the spark occurs the charge in the primary igni tion chamber ignites. As it ignites, it expands, increasing the pressure in the primary ignition chamber during its expansion. The ?ame travels back down the connecting passage, through the fuel chamber and into the engine combustion chamber, and ignites the charge in the cylinder, 10 causing the full charge to burn very rapidly. The expansion of the burning gases forces the piston down and turns the engine shaft in the the cylinder head and having a cylindrical igni tion chamber formed at the end thereof remote from said head, the axis of the cylindrical igni tion chamber being inclined to the axis of the cylinder, a conical passageway tangentially com municating with said ignition chamber for con ducting vaporized fuel under pressure from the combustion chamber with whirling motion into the ignition chamber, the base of the conical pas sageway communicating with said combustion 10 chamber, and ignition means coaxial with said usual manner to derive power from the fuel. It will be noted that an explosion does not occur in the motor cylinder but instead there is a very rapid burning of the fuel. - 3. In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder and a piston operating therein and a head for the cylinder forming a combustion 15 chamber over the piston, a casing connectedto While I have in the above description disclosed what I believe to be preferred and practical forms of the invention, it will be understood to those skilled in the art that the speci?c construction and arrangement of parts are merely by way of example and not to be construed as limiting the the cylinder head and having an ignition chamber ' of circular cross section formed at the end thereof remote from said head, a conical passageway scope of the invention as shown in the appended claims. What I claim is: 1. In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder and a piston operating therein and a head for the cylinder forming a combustion chamber over the piston, a casing connected to ISO the cylinder head and having a cylindrical igni tion chamber formed at the end thereof remote from said head, said casing having a conical pas sageway tangentially communicating with said ignition chamber for conducting vaporized fuel under pressure from the combustion chamber with whirling motion into the ignition chamber, the base of the conical passageway communicat ing with said combustion chamber, and ignition means coaxial with said ignition chamber for ~10 igniting the vaporized fuel. 2. In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder and a piston operating therein and a head for the cylinder forming a combustion chamber over the piston, a casing connected to ignition chamber for igniting the vaporized fuel. tangential to said ignition chamber for conduct ing vaporized fuel under pressure from the com, bustion chamber tangentially against the wall of the ignition chamber, the base of the conical pas sageway communicating with said combustion chamber, and ignition means coaxial with said .25 ignition chamber for igniting the vaporized fuel. 4. In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder and a piston operating therein, and an intake valve controlling the supply of liquid fuel to said cylinder and a head extending over said 30 cylinder and recessed to form a combustion chamber directly over said piston and valve, a casing connected to the cylinder head directly over said valve and having an ignition chamber of circular cross section formed atthe end there' 35 of remote from said head, a conical passageway tangential to said ignition chamber for conduct ing vaporized fuel under pressure from the come bustion chamber, the base of the conical pas sageway communicating with said combustion 40 chamber, and ignition means coaxial with said ignition chamber for igniting the vaporized fuel. GLENN L. RILEY.