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Патент USA US2118058

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May 24, 1938.
G. L. RILEY
2,118,058
‘
AUXILIARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed Jan. 24, 1956
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Patented May 24, 1938
2,118,058
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ‘
' 2,118,058
AUXILIARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES‘
Glenn L. Riley, New Orleans, La., assignor, by
direct and mesne assignments, to Riley Dir
velopment Corporation, a corporation of L0ui~
siana
Application January 24, 1936, Serial No. 60,693
4 Claims. (Cl. 123-191)
This invention relates to new and useful im
provements in the combustion chambers of in
forming part of the combustion chamber and ex
tending substantially over the greater part of
ternal combustion engines.
The main object of the invention is to provide
part1‘! of the said combustion chamber .
the cylinder bore l2 to connect with the main
The main part I1 of the combustion chamber is
5 the combustion chamber of an internal combus
tion engine with auxiliary fuel and ignition cham
located above the intake port [8 which is con
trolled _by a poppet valve l9 normally closed by a
spring 29 and opened by the usual tappet and
cam shaft mechanism (not shown). It will be
understood, of course, that the block is provided 10
with the usual exhaust valve operated in properly
timed relation with the intake Valve l9.
bers designed to effect ignition and rapid burn
ing of the fuel in the engine cylinder with ap
proximately constant compression at all speeds
10 of the engine.
Another object of the invention is to provide
an attachment adapted to be secured in the spark
plug opening of internal combustion engines, to
make possible the satisfactory use of low grade
15 iuel oil in internal combustion engines using the
VDirectly above the chamber 11, the cylinder
head 15 is provided with an internally screw~
threaded aperture 2| adapted to receive the ex 15
regular electrical ignition systems designed for
ternally screwthreaded end 22 of a ?tting 23 cast
to form auxiliary fuel and ignition chambers.
The aperture 2| may be the aperture commonly
provided in the cylinder heads to receive a spark
plug, or the ?tting 23 may be cast integral with
the cylinder head as shown in Figure 10 of the
drawing.
The, ?tting 23 is provided at its upper end with
a laterally extending boss 24, internally screw
use on engines using gasoline only.
Other objects of the invention will appear as
the following description of a preferred and prac
N 9 tical embodiment thereof proceeds.
In the drawing: Figure 1 is a fragmentary
vertical section through the upper part of the
cylinder and the cylinder head of an L-head in
ternal combustion engine, with the present in
threaded to receive a spark plug 25 of usual 25
construction. The boss 24 and the upper end of
the ?tting 23 are bored to form a cylindrical
25 vention applied as an attachment thereto;
Figure 2 is a central vertical section, to an
enlarged scale, of the said attachment;
primary ignition chamber 26 having its axis sub
stantially parallel to the cylinder head. The ?t
ting 23 is cast to form a conical fuel chamber 21 30
Figure 3 is a vertical transverse section taken
on the line 3—3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a bottom plan view of the attach
30
ment as shown in Figure 2;
'
Figure 5 is a central vertical section through‘
a modi?ed form of the said attachment;
Figure 6 is a central vertical section of another
35 modi?ed form of the invention;
Figure 7 is a horizontal section taken on the
line ‘2-1 of Figure 6;
Figure 8 is a central vertical section through
still another modi?cation of the invention;
Figure 9 is a horizontal section taken on the
40
line 9—9 of Figure 8; and
Figure 10 illustrates a form of the invention
similar to that shown in Figure l of the drawing,
but in which the improvement is made integral
45 with the cylinder head.
In Figure 1 of the drawing, the reference nu
meral ll indicates the cylinder block, provided
with the cylinder bore 12 in which the piston. 13
is adapted to reciprocate in the usual manner to
convert its reciprocating motion through connect
ing rod it into rotary motion of a crank shaft
(not shown). The upper end of the block H has
the head i5 suitably and detachably secured
thereto. As usual in devices of this character,
55 the head I5 is provided with a clearance space It
communicating at its lower and wider end with
the combustion chamber I1, and at its upper end
with the primary ignition chamber 26.
As will be apparent from Figure 3 of the draw
ing the axis of the conical fuel chamber 2'! is 35
inclined to the axis of the ?tting so that vaporized
liquid fuel is passed into the primary ignition
chamber 26 substantially at a tangent to the cy
lindrical wall of the said chamber. It will be
apparent from Figures 1 and 2 of the drawing 40
that when the vaporized liquid fuel in the cham
ber H is compressed, part of that vaporized fuel
will be forced through the restricted opening 28
at the upper end of the conical chamber 21 at
greatly increased speed tangentially against the 45
cylindrical wall of the ignition chamber 26; This
injection of the fuel sets up a whirling or turbu
lence of the vaporized fuel in the chamber 26,
causing the heavy particles of the fuel to whirl
around the cylindrical wall of the chamber. The 50
more gaseous part of the fuel is concentrated
nearer to the center of the chamber, and with a
somewhat increased temperature is in condition to
be ignited by a spark from the electrodes of the
spark plug 25.
55
2
2,118,058
The ignition of the gas in the chamber 26 im
mediately sets up a rapid burning of the gas or
vapor in the auxiliary combustion chamber 21;
and this burning gas is projected forcibly through
chamber 27 into the combustion chamber I‘i.
Since the chamber 21 is wider at its lowest end,
the igniting ?ame is greatly expanded and con
tacts with the fuel in chamber I‘! over a compara
tively large area and sets up a rapid. burning of
10 the fuel in the cylinder.
The form of the invention illustrated in Figure
5 is substantially the same as that shown in
Figures 1, 2 and 3. The ?tting 29, however, is
screwthreaded at its upper end to receive the
15 spark plug which seats in the upper end with
its axis substantially in alignment with the axis
of the ?tting.
'
The form of the invention shown in Figure 6
of the drawing is similar to that shown in Figure 5
except that the ?tting 36 shown in Figure 6 has
a spherical ignition chamber 3| instead of a cylin~
drical chamber shown in the preceding ?gures of
the drawing.
The form of the invention shown in Figure 8
includes a ?tting 32 adapted to be detachably
secured in the spark plug opening. In this form
of the invention, the auxiliary fuel chamber 33
has its axis extending substantially perpendicular
to the‘ cylinder head; and, communicates atv its
30 upper end with a cylindrical ignition chamber 34
having its axis coincident with the axis of the
conical chamber 33. The upper end of the cham
ber 34 is screwthreaded to receive a spark plug
having its axis aligned or coincident with the axis
of the said ignition chamber 34.
The ?tting 23, 'or the other ?ttings corre
sponding thereto, should be of sufficient length to
locate the spark plug at some substantial distance
from the comparatively hot cylinder head; and,
the
material of the ?tting should be such as to
40
radiate heat‘rapidly in order to avoid excessive
heating of the vaporized fuel during its passage
to the spark plug ignition chamber. The length
7 . of the‘auxiliary fuel chamber and the cross sec
tional area of the aperture 28 will vary with the
size of the engine to which the invention may be
trode casing of practically all spark plugs. The
diameter of the auxiliary ignition chamber 26 is
the same.
These dimensions are obviously re
quired, since the ?tting is intended to replace
the spark plug on the cylinder head, and the
chamber 26 is designed to receive a similar spark
plug. Variations of dimensions will be necessary
when adapting the ?tting to existing engines, but
new engines may be provided with standard ?t
tings of the most efficient type and size.
It will be understood that the dimensions of
the fittings will vary with the different makes
of cars and engine sizes. In any case, the various
elements of the ?ttings should be varied corre
spondingly to give the best results. It is not ab
solutely necessary that the auxiliary fuel chamber
should be conical; it may be cylindrical or a
closerapproximation to cylindrical. In 'all cases,
it is essential that the passageway from the com
bustion chamber of the cylinder shall be re
stricted relatively to the diameter of the aux
iliary ignition chamber, in order that the com
pressed liquid fuel will be projected into the said
ignition chamber with such force as to cause the
heavier particles of the vaporized liquid fuel to
whirl around against the wall of the said cham
ber, with the central part of said liquid gasi?ed,
and adjacent to the electrodes of the spark plug.
It is preferable, however, to have the fuel cham
ber 21 made conical in order that the ?ame re
sulting from the ignition of the gas in the cham
ber 26 shall have the greatest area of contact
with the vaporized fuel in the combustion cham- ,
ber in the cylinder head.
The theory of operation of the device is as
follows:
,
V
The supply of fuel in the form of atomized oil
mixed with the proper proportions of air having 40.
been drawn into the motor cylinder in the usual
manner, after passing through the carburetor, or
through a mixing valve, is still in non-explosive
form. The mixture is then in the condition
'known as saturated or wet. As the piston comes
up on the compression stroke it forces a quantity
applied; and, must be determined empirically in
of this wet mixture into the auxiliary fuel cham- .
order to produce the best result. The base of the
cone forming the‘lower end of the fuel chamber
2‘! should be'as large as possible in order that the
flame issuing therefrom might impinge on large
areas of the vaporized'fuel in chamber I1. It is
ber of the device. The decreasing cross sectional
area of this fuel chamber causes the mixture to
travel faster as it progresses'toward the primary
ignition chamber-until high velocity of the en
tering mixture is attained, and it strikes the
curved surface of the primary ignition chamber
essential in all cases that the aperture 28 be re
stricted su?iciently in comparison with the cross
sectional area of the lower end of the conical
chamber as to insure the projection of the vapor
ized liquid fuel at such speed into the ignition
chamber as to throw the heavier particles out
wardly against the wall of that chamber and to
60
The diameter of the lower end of the chamber
21 is substantially the same as that of the elec
gasify the central part of the charge contacting
with the electrodes of the spark plug.
at high speed.
The atomized oil is forced into the primary 55
ignition chamber so rapidly through thersmall
opening at the end of the fuel chamber that it is
vaporized and is now in explosive form. Inthis
primary ignition chamber the fuel, now vaporized,
is ignited by an electric spark—and converted 60
into ?ame. Should any of the particles of fuel
fail to be vaporized in their travel through the
vIt is di?icult, or may be impossible, to set out
mathematically the relative dimensions of the _fuel chamber, they are thrown against the inner
‘auxiliary combustion and ignition chambers in surface of the primary ignition chamber by cen
the ?tting forming the subject matter of this trifugal force, assuring positive non-fouling con
invention. However, as the result of experiment
dition for the spark plug or sparking device, but
ing with many models of various'dimensions, a said particles will ignite when the vaporized fuel
?tting of the type shown in Figure 1 and having has been converted into a ?ame.
' 1
the following dimensions was found satisfactory:
The fact that the fuel particles rotate at high
70
-
Inches
1. Diameter of lower open end of chamber 2L
%
2. Diameter of upper end of chamber 2'I'___
1/;
3. Length of
chamber 21 _______ ___ _____ _'__ 2'
4. Length of ignition chamber 26 _______ __ 1
5. Diameter of chamber 26 _______________ __ 3A
speed in the primary ignition chamber and thus 70
produce a low pressure area at their vortex or
center allows the spark plug or sparking device
to operate at better advantage. As electrical re
sistance is governed by pressure, the spark will
take place more readily in this low pressure area.
3
2,118,058
Since the fuel in the primary ignition chamber
is then vaporized and highly combustible, when
the spark occurs the charge in the primary igni
tion chamber ignites. As it ignites, it expands,
increasing the pressure in the primary ignition
chamber during its expansion. The ?ame travels
back down the connecting passage, through the
fuel chamber and into the engine combustion
chamber, and ignites the charge in the cylinder,
10 causing the full charge to burn very rapidly.
The expansion of the burning gases forces the
piston down and turns the engine shaft in the
the cylinder head and having a cylindrical igni
tion chamber formed at the end thereof remote
from said head, the axis of the cylindrical igni
tion chamber being inclined to the axis of the
cylinder, a conical passageway tangentially com
municating with said ignition chamber for con
ducting vaporized fuel under pressure from the
combustion chamber with whirling motion into
the ignition chamber, the base of the conical pas
sageway communicating with said combustion 10
chamber, and ignition means coaxial with said
usual manner to derive power from the fuel. It
will be noted that an explosion does not occur in
the motor cylinder but instead there is a very
rapid burning of the fuel.
-
3. In an internal combustion engine having a
cylinder and a piston operating therein and a
head for the cylinder forming a combustion 15
chamber over the piston, a casing connectedto
While I have in the above description disclosed
what I believe to be preferred and practical forms
of the invention, it will be understood to those
skilled in the art that the speci?c construction
and arrangement of parts are merely by way of
example and not to be construed as limiting the
the cylinder head and having an ignition chamber '
of circular cross section formed at the end thereof
remote from said head, a conical passageway
scope of the invention as shown in the appended
claims.
What I claim is:
1. In an internal combustion engine having a
cylinder and a piston operating therein and a
head for the cylinder forming a combustion
chamber over the piston, a casing connected to
ISO the cylinder head and having a cylindrical igni
tion chamber formed at the end thereof remote
from said head, said casing having a conical pas
sageway tangentially communicating with said
ignition chamber for conducting vaporized fuel
under pressure from the combustion chamber
with whirling motion into the ignition chamber,
the base of the conical passageway communicat
ing with said combustion chamber, and ignition
means coaxial with said ignition chamber for
~10
igniting the vaporized fuel.
2. In an internal combustion engine having a
cylinder and a piston operating therein and a
head for the cylinder forming a combustion
chamber over the piston, a casing connected to
ignition chamber for igniting the vaporized fuel.
tangential to said ignition chamber for conduct
ing vaporized fuel under pressure from the com,
bustion chamber tangentially against the wall of
the ignition chamber, the base of the conical pas
sageway communicating with said combustion
chamber, and ignition means coaxial with said .25
ignition chamber for igniting the vaporized fuel.
4. In an internal combustion engine having a
cylinder and a piston operating therein, and an
intake valve controlling the supply of liquid fuel
to said cylinder and a head extending over said 30
cylinder and recessed to form a combustion
chamber directly over said piston and valve, a
casing connected to the cylinder head directly
over said valve and having an ignition chamber
of circular cross section formed atthe end there' 35
of remote from said head, a conical passageway
tangential to said ignition chamber for conduct
ing vaporized fuel under pressure from the come
bustion chamber, the base of the conical pas
sageway communicating with said combustion 40
chamber, and ignition means coaxial with said
ignition chamber for igniting the vaporized fuel.
GLENN L. RILEY.
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