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Патент USA US2118076

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May 24,’ 1938.
wis. FARR
2,118,076
SURFACING STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR MAKING SAME
Filéd Feb. 28, 1935
IN VEN TOR
W4 LTER 6. FA RR
"Y Maw“!
’
ATTORNEY
Patented May 24, 1938‘
2,118,076
UNITED STATES PATENT. OFFICE
_ 2,118,076
~
SURFACIN G STRUCTURE AND METHOD FbR
MAKING SAME
Valter G. Farr, South Orange, N. J., assignor to
Congoleum-Naim Inc., a corporation of New
York
Application February 28, 1935, Serial No. 8,583
15 Claims. (Cl. 154-49)
The present invention relates to smooth sur
adhesive is clay 55%, lignin 42%, and glycerine
face coverings of linoleum, felt base or the like
and more particularly to floor and wall surfacing
structures of the type. described and claimed in
5
3%. The term “lignin” refers to an article of
commerce obtained by evaporation‘of waste sul
phite liquors from the wood pulp industry. The
cement may be prepared ‘for application to the
A. W. Hawkes and R. D. Bonney, such surfacing back of the surface covering by forming a paste
structures being characterized by a cementitious _ consisting of three to four parts of the above clay
layer on the back thereof and being ready-to-lay lignin-glycerine ‘mixture and one part of water.
in bonded relation to ‘a sub-surface without the Following the application of this paste to the back
Patent #l,970,503, granted August 14, 1934, to
10 employment of additional paste or cement.
of the surface covering the water is caused to 10
Pre-formed floor surfacing structures of the
type referred to comprise in composite form a
body portion having a wearing or ornamental sur
face, in combination with a layer of cementitious
material applied to the back or lower face of the
evaporate‘ leaving a dry, non-sticky, and non
tacky layer of the adhesive- Such cementitious
material is readily activated upon application of
body portion and adapted to bond the body por
upon evaporation of the water to form a rela
tively rigid or semi-rigid bond between the sur
face covering and the sub-surface.
tion to a sub-surface which is to be protected or
decorated. As a more specific example such ?oor
surfacing structure may comprise a body portion
consisting of a strain-resisting foundation mem—
her having on'one face a surfacing layer and on
the other face such a layer of cemen'titious mate
rial. The surfacing layer of the body portion may
be wear-resisting or ornamental or both and may
be of paint, linoleum, or equivalent composition
constituting a layer carried upon and integral
with one side of the foundation member. The
foundation member is preferably a sheet-like ma-.
terial suitable as a backing for the surfacing com
a substantial quantity of water, possesses high
bonding strength when activated, and 'hardens 15
Under ordinary conditions of storing, shipping,
and merchandising floor and wall coverings of 20
this type, the cementitious material above de
scribed is substantially una?ected by normal tem
perature and humidity variations and requires no
protection. It is not infrequent, however,v that
in warehousing or distributing such coverings 25'
there may occur abnolatmospheric condi
tions such as excessively high humidity, which,
if continued for a period, ‘will soften the adhesive
layer and prematurely render it sticky. My in
vention contemplates an improved surface cover 30
impregnated felt, or a combination of dry or im
ing of the type described in which this hazard is
pregnated felt and a woven fabric, to the end that ' overcome and wherein the cementitious layer is
position, as for example, burlap, cotton sheeting,
the foundation member will be resistant to tear—
provided with a protective film of a moisture re
ing and stretching. The cementitious material
pellent composition which materially retards the
35 may be of a normally non-sticky, non-tacky char
acter but adapted to be activated, as by the ap
plication of an appropriate solvent, to impart
adhesive properties thereto.
Among the suitable cementitious materials of
the solvent activated type, adhesives which are
adapted to be activated by the application of
water are to be preferred for numerous reasons.
The foremost advantage is the ready availability
of water in any desired amount for activation of
45 the adhesive, whereas in the case of special adhe
sives and special activating solvents it is neces
sary to supply the correct amount of such solvent
with each unit of surface covering. Furthermore,
the ?re hazard and the disagreeable odor, both of
which accompany the use of special‘ organic sol
vents, are avoided.
.
One suitable type of water. activated cementi
absorption by the adhesive of moisture from the 35
air “under abnormal conditions of excessive hu
midity, and which forms at?exible coati'ig over
the surface of the adhesive that remains non
sticlnv even though the adhesive becomes softened
by continued exposure to abnormal humidity con 40
ditions, yet which is easily broken down upon the
application of a substantial quantity of water to
permit rapid and complete activation of the ad
hesive when the surface covering is to be installed.
My invention further contemplates an improved -
method‘ of applying such protective. film to the
adhesive layer, which method comprises the steps .
of ?rst applying to the cementitious material an
adherent deposit of the discrete" solid particles of
t e protective’ composition and thereafter ?ux 50
i g such discrete particles with heat to fuse them
together and to form a substantially uniform ?lm
tious material comprises a mixture of clay and ' of ultra thinness.
lignin with the addition of a plasticizing agent
/
One ‘preferred embodiment of my invention‘
such as glycerine. A typical formula for Such bomprises au?oor or wall surfacing structure
2
2,1 18,076
the-general type above described having a layer
ticable method, to obtain a substantially con- ,
of water activated cementitious material integral ' tinuous and uniform ?lm of such ultra thinness
I‘ with the back thereof, such adhesive layer being by a spray application of a solution of the wax
oil composition. The high cost of the very large
' coated with a protective ?lm, not substantially
greater than .0004 inch in thickness, and con
sisting of a composition comprising a water-in
soluble organic material, e. g., para?ine Wax. The
preferred protective coating composition em
ployed in this embodiment of my invention com
10 prises a low melting point para?ine wax and a
mineral‘oil. The proportion of mineral‘ oil may
be varied depending upon its viscosity and upon
the desired melting point of the ?nal composition.
To facilitate application of the protective coating
15 and for other practical advantages I have found
it desirable to add to the paraf?ne wax su?ici'ent
mineral oil, to yield a composition having a melt
ing point between 100° F. and 120° F. One satis
factory composition comprises ?ve parts of a par
20 a?ine wax known as “crude scale wax” having
a melting point of 123° F. and one part of a
mineral motor oil of S. A. E. 30 viscosity. This
composition has a melting point of approximately
105° F.
25
.
The improved method of applying the protec
tive coating comprises ?rst melting the com
position, dispersing the molten mass into tiny
globules under such conditions that they quickly
5 freeze or solidify, and depositing the discrete
30 solidi?ed particles upon the adhesive layer to be
protected.
The dispersion, solidi?cation, and
deposition of the solid discrete particles of the
protective composition may be readily effected by
means of an air spray and one suitable type of
35 equipment for carrying out this part of my inven
40
' amount of solvent required for the deposition of
such a minimum quantity of wax, and the high
cost of equipment for safe removal of explosive
vapor are prohibitive factors.
The accompanying drawing illustrates one em- '
bodiment of my product invention and pictures 10
diagrammatically a method of producing such
product. The ?gure is a perspective view with
sections broken away to show the laminated
structure of my improved product. Referring to
the drawing the numeral l indicates the base 15
web or strain-resisting foundation member, as
for example burlap, of my improved surface
covering. On one side of the base web is a wear
resisting or ornamental drying oil composition
such as linoleum, indicated by the numeral 2. 20
Upon the back or opposite side of the foundation
member is a layer of cementitious material 3 in
tegral therewith, such cementitious material be
ing of the water-activated type above described.
In applying the protective ?lm the surface cover 25
ing is conveyed beneath a spray device “A” of
the type heretofore referred to. The spray de
vice uniformly applies to the cementitious mate
rial 3 an adherent deposit of discrete solid par
ticles‘ of the para?ine wax-oil composition. The 30
surface coveringis then passed beneath a gas
?ame “B” where the discrete particles are fused
and spread to form an ultra thin butsubstantially
uniform ?lm 5 completely coating the adhesive
layer 3.
‘
35
tion is described in U. S. Patent #1,592,100
granted July 13, 1926. By this method and with
The moisture repellent character of the pro
tective coating, the ultra thinness of the film
such equipment the amount of protective coat
ing composition per unit area can be limited to a
thereof, and the manner of applying the ?lm to
the cementitious layer, are all essential features
of my invention. By the preparation of a com 40
position of the type above described and by con
trolling the thinness of the ?lm, I provide a pro
very low quantity while obtaining substantially
uniform distribution. The adherent deposit of
discrete particles of the solidi?ed para?ine-oil
composition thus obtained is, however, non-con
tinuous and of ‘no value as a protective ?lm. The
?nal step in my improved method, therefore, con
sists in applying heat to such deposit of discrete
particles to reduce the composition again to the
liquid phase and to cause it to spread over the
surface of the adhesive whereby a substantially
50 uniform and ultra thin protective ?lm is obtained
which completely coats the cementitious layer.
The liqui?cation of the discrete particles of wax
oil composition is most easily accomplished by the
direct application of heat to the particles as by
means of‘ a gas ?ame or radiant heater.
After ‘
the protective composition fuses and spreads to
uniformly coat the adhesive layer, it may be resolidi?ed by a blast of cool air.
I have found that the ultimate protective ?lm
60 of moisture repellent composition should prefer
ably be of a thickness of approximately .0001 of
an inch and for practical purposes not substan
tially outside the range of .0004 to .00004 of an
inch. Films of less thickness do not provide ade
65 quate protection of the adhesive layer_under ab
' normal humidity conditions whilei?lms of sub
stantially greater thickness impede the activation
tective coating for the adhesive layer which
strongly resists the absorption of‘ moisture from
the air during periods of excessive humidity and 45
which keeps the surface of the adhesive layer non
sticky even though the adhesive may become
somewhat softened from continued exposure to
highly humid air. Yet, in spite of the protection
thus afforded, the ?lm is easily broken down 50
upon the application of a substantial quantity
of water thus permitting the adhesive to be quick
ly and thoroughly activated when the surface
covering is to be installed.
Modi?cations in the practice of my invention 55
will undoubtedly suggest themselves to those
skilled in the art and I do not wish to limit the
scope of the same'except asde?ned in the ap
pended claims.
'
‘
'
I claim_:—,
60
1. As a new article of manufacture a pre
formed surfacing structure for ?oors or walls
ready-to-lay in bonded relation to a sub-surface
comprising a body portion one face of which con
stitutes a wearing surface; a layer of normally 65
non-sticky cementitious material integral with
the opposite face of said body portion and adapt
ed to be activated with water to impart thereto
adhesiveness to bond the body portion to the sub
of the adhesive when the surface covering is to be
installed. To obtain a protective ?lm of the pre
ferred thickness the amount of protective coat
surface to which it may be applied; and a pro
ing composition applied should be controlled
tective ?lm, consisting of a compositioncompris
within the limits of .0015 to .015 pound per square
ing paraf?ne wax in major proportion having a '
yard and preferably should approximate .004
pound per square yard. In this connection I
melting point between 100° F. and 120° F., coat
ing said cementitious material and adapted to
resist the absorption of moisture by the cemen 75
75 have found that it is impossible, by any prac
3
2,1 18,078
titious material under abnormal humidity condi
tions and being of such thinness as to be easily
broken down when it is desired to activate the
cementitious material with water.
Cir
~
2. As a new article of manufacture pre-forme
formed surfacing structure of the character here
ing described for ?oors or walls ready-to-lay in
bonded relation to a sub-surface comprising a
body portion one face of which constitutes a wear
ing surface; a layer of normally non-stick cemen
surfacing structure of the character herein de-' titious material integral with the opposite face
scribed for ?oors or walls ready-to-lay in bonded of said body portion and adapted to be activated
relation to a sub-surface comprising a body por-'
tion one face of which constitutes a wearing sur
face; a layer of normally non-sticky cementitious
material integral with the opposite face of said
body portion and adapted to be activated with
water to impart thereto adhesiveness to bond the
body portion to the sub-surface to which it may
15 be applied; and a protective ?lm, not substan
tially greater than .0004 inch in thickness, con
sisting essentially of a water insoluble and mois
ture repellent organic composition having a melt
ing point between 100° F. and 120° F., coating
20 said cementitious material and adapted to resist
the absorption of moisture by the'cementitious
material under abnormal humidity conditions and
to be easily broken down upon the application
of a substantial quantityof water thus permit
25 ting the cementitious material to be quickly and
thoroughly activated when the surfacing struc
with water to impart thereto adhesiveness to bond.
the body portion to the sub-surface to which it
may be applied; and a protective ?lm consisting 10
of a water insoluble and moisture repellent com
position and containing a major proportion of
wax, said ?lm being disposed as a coating upon
the outer surface of said cementitious material
and being adapted to resist the absorption of 15
moisture by the cementitious material under ab
normal humidity conditions and being of such
thinness as to be easily broken down upon the
application of a substantial quantity of water
thus permitting the cementitious material to be 20
quickly and thoroughly activated when the sur
facing structure is to be installed.
6. As a new article of manufacture a pre
formed surfacing structure of the character here
in described for floors or walls ready-to-lay in 25
bonded relation to a sub-surface comprising a
body portion one face of which constitutes a
ture is to be installed.
,
wearing surface; a layer of normally non-sticky
3. As a new article of manufacture a pre
cementitious material integral with the opposite
' formed surfacing structure of the character here
30 in described for ?oors or walls ready-to-lay in face of said body portion, said cementitious ma 30
bonded relation to a sub-surface comprising a terial comprising lignin, clay and a plasticizing
body portion one face of which constitutes a agent and. adapted to be activated with water to
wearing surface; ‘a layer of normally non-sticky impart thereto an adhesiveness to bond the body
cementitious material integral with the opposite portion to the sub-surface to which it may be ap
plied; and a protective ?lm, not substantially 35
face of said body portion and adapted to be acti
vated with water to impart thereto adhesiveness greater than .0004 inch in thickness, consisting of
to bond the body portion to the sub-surface to ‘ a composition comprising a major proportion of
which it may be applied; and a protective ?lm, not wax and having a melting point between 100° F.
substantially greater than .0004 inch in thickness, and 120° F., coating said cementitious material
‘ and adapted to resist the absorption of moisture 40
40 consisting of a composition comprising paraf?ne
wax in a major proportion and a mineral oil and by the cementitious material under abnormal hu
having a melting point between 100° F. and midity conditions and adapted to be easily broken
120° F., coating said cementitious material and down upon the application of a substantial quan—
adapted to resist the absorption of moisture by tity of water thus permitting the cementitious
the cementitious material under abnormal material to be quickly and thoroughly activated
humidity conditions and to be easily broken down when the surfacing structure is to be installed.
'7. As ‘a new article of manufacture a pre
upon the application of a substantial quantity of
water thus permitting the cementitious material formed surfacing structure of the character de
to be quickly and thoroughly activated when the scribed for floors or walls ready-to-lay in bonded
surfacing structure is to be installed.
'
4. As a new article of manufacture a pre
formed surfacing structure of the character here
in described for ?oors or walls ready-to-lay in
bonded relation to a sub-surface comprising a
body portion one face of which constitutes a
wearing surface; a layer of normally non-sticky
cementitious material integral with the opposite
face of said body portion and adapted to be ac
tivated with water to impart thereto adhesive
60 ness to bond the body portion to the sub-surface
material integral with the opposite face of said
body portion, said cementitious material com
prising lignin, clay and a plasticizing agent and 55
adapted‘to be activated with water to impart
thereto an adhesiveness to bond the body por
tion to the sub-surface to which it may be ap
plied; and a protective ?lm consisting essentially
of a water insoluble and moisture repellent or
60
to which it may be applied; and a protective ?lm
ganic composition solid at normal temperatures
containing in major proportion an organic water
insoluble and moisture repellent material solid
at normal temperature and not‘ substantially
greater than .0004 inch in thickness, said ?lm be -
terial and being adapted to resist the absorption 65
ing disposed as a coating upon the outer surface
of said cementitious material and being adapted
to resist the absorption of moisture by the oc
mentitious material under abnormal. humidity
conditions and being adapted to be easily broken
down upon the application of a substantial quan
tity of water thus permitting the cementitious
material to be quickly and thoroughly activated
when the surfacing structure is to be installed.
75
relation to a sub-surface comprising a body por 50
tion one face of which constitutes ‘a wearing sur
' face; a layer of normally non-sticky cementitious
5. As a new article of manufacture a pre
and not substantially greater than .0004 inch in
thickness, said ?lm being disposed as a coating
upon the. outer surface of said cementitious ma
of moisture by the cementitious material under
abnormal humidity conditions and being adapted
to be easily broken down upon the application of
a substantial quantity of water thus permitting
the cementitious material to be quickly and thor 70
oughly activated when the surfacing structure is
to be installed.
.
8. As a new, article of manufacture a pre
formed surfacing structure of the character here
in described for ?oors and'walls ready-to-lay in
4
armors
bonded relation to a sub-surface comprising a
body portion characterized by a sheet?like strain
resistant foundation member and a surface layer
of linoleum composition on one side of said foun
dation member constituting the upper or wearing
surface; a layer of normally non-sticky cementi
tious material integral with said body portion and
adapted to be activated by Water to impart there
to an adhesiveness to bond the body portion to
10 _ the sub-surface to which it may be applied; and
a protective ?lm consisting essentially of a water—
insoluble and moisture repellent organic compo
sition solid at normal temperature, said ?lm be
ing disposed as a coating upon the outer surface
15 of said cementitious material and being adapted
thus permitting the cementitious material to be
quickly and thoroughly activated when the sur
facing structure is to be installed.
11. In a method of making a surfacing struc
ture of the character herein described compris
ing a body portion of which one face constitutes a
wearing surface, and a layer of normally non-g
sticky cementitious material preformed in in
tegral relation with the opposite face of said body
portion and adapted to be'activated with water‘
to impart adhesiveness for bonding said body
portion to a subsurface, the steps comprising
forming the said structure having said layer of
cementitious material, and coating said layer of
cementitious material with a protective ?lm of 15'
to resist the absorption of moisture by the ce- ' water-insoluble and moisture repellent material
mentitious material under abnormal ' humidity containing a major proportion of wax solid at nor
conditions and being of such thinness as to be mal temperatures by spraying the material in a
easily broken down upon the application of a sub
'20 stantial quantity of water thus permitting the
cementitious material to be quickly and thorough
ly activated when the surfacing structure is to be
‘ installed.
9. As a new article of manufacture a pre
25 formed surfacing structure for iioors and walls
ready-to-lay in bonded relation to a sub-surface
comprising a body portion characterized by a
sheet-like strain-resistant foundation member
and a surface layer of linoleum composition on
30 one side of said foundation member constituting
the upper or wearing surface; a layer of nor
mally non-sticky cementitious material integral
with said body portion and adapted to be acti
vated by water to impart thereto an adhesiveness
35 to bond the body portion to the sub=surface to
which it may be applied; and a protective film,
not substantially greater than‘ .0004 inch in thick
ness, consisting of a composition comprising pare
a?ine wax in major proportion and having a melt
40 ing point between 100° F. and 120° F., coating
said cementitious material and adapted to resist
the absorption of moisture by the cementitious
material under abnormal humidity conditions but
to be easily broken down when it is desired to
activate the cementitious material with water.
10. In a method of making a surfacing struc
ture of the character herein described compris
ing a body portion of which one face constitutes
a wearing surface, and a layer of normally sub
50 stantially non-sticky cementitious material pre
formed in integral relation with the opposite face
of said body portion and adapted to be activated
with Water to impart thereto adhesiveness for
bonding said body portion to a subsurface, the
55 steps comprising applying said cementitious ma
terial to said body portion when mixed with suffi
cient water to afford a sticky spreadable mass,
causing said cementitious material to dry to a
60
substantially non-‘sticky condition, and then coat
ing said cementitious material with a protective
film of organic wateruinsol'uble and moisture re
melted condition, depositing particles of the
sprayed material on the cementitious material 20
and subjecting the particles deposited on the oc
mentitious material to heat to cause the par
ticles to coalesce and to become, more uniformly
spread over the cementitious material, the water
insoluble material being deposited on said ce
mentitious material in such quantity that the re
sulting film of water=insolub1e material is ap
proximately .00004 to approximately .0004 inch
in thickness, thereby producing a protective ?lm
of said watersinsoluble material ‘adapted to resist 30
absorption of moisture from the atmosphere by
the cementitious material and adapted to be easily
broken down upon the application of a substantial
quantity of water thus permitting the cementi
tious material to be quickly and thoroughly acti 35
vated when the surfacing structure is to be in
stalled,
v
12. As a new article of manufacture, a pre
formed surfacing structure of the character here
in described for ?oors or walls and ready-to-lay 40
in bonded relation to a subsurface, comprising a '
body portion of which one face constitutes a
wearing surface, a layer of normally substantially
non-sticky cementitious material integral with
the opposite face of said body portion and adapted 45
to be activated with water to impart thereto ad
hesiveness for bonding said body portion to a
subsurface; and a protective ?lm containing in
major proportion a substantially water-insoluble
and moisture repellent organic material, said ?lm 50
being disposed as a coating upon the outer sur
face of said layer of cementitious material and
being adapted. to resist absorption of moisture
from the atmosphere by said cementitious mate
rial and being of such thinness as to be easily 55
broken down upon the application of a substantial
quantity of water thus permitting the cementi
tious material to be quickly and thoroughly
activated when the surfacing structure is to be
installed.
60
13. An article of manufacture of the character
herein described comprising a body portion, a
layer of normally non-sticky cementitious mate
rial'integral with one face of said body portion
and adapted to be activated with water to impart 65
adhesiveness thereto for bonding said body por
pellent meltable material solid at normal tem
peratures by spraying the material in a melted
condition, depositing particles of the sprayed ma
65 terial on said cementitious material,‘ and sub
jecting the particles deposited on said cementi
tious material to heat to cause the deposited par tion to a subsurface and a substantially water
ticles to coalesce and to become more uniformly _ insoluble and moisture repellent protective ?lm
spread over the cementitious material, thereby containing a major proportion of water-insoluble
producing a protective v?lm of waterminsoluble and moisture repellent organic material solid at
material adapted to resist absorption of moisture normal temperatures, said ?lm being disposed as 70
by the‘ cementitious material under abnormal a coating upon the outer surface of said cementi
humidity conditions, said ?lm being deposited in tious material and being adapted to resist absorp
such thinness as to be easily broken down upon tion of moisture from the atmosphere by the
‘the application of a substantial quantity of water cementitious material and being of such thinness
75
2,118,076
as to be easily broken down upon the'application -
of a substantial quantity of water thus permitting
the cementitious material‘ to be quickly and
thoroughly activated when the surfacing struc
ture is to be installed.
I
14. As a new article of manufacture a pre
formed surfacing structure of the character here
in described for ?oors and walls ready-to-lay in
bonded relation to a sub-surface comprising a
10 body portion characterized by a sheetlike strain
resistant foundation member and a surface layer
of linoleum composition on one side of said
foundation member constituting the upper or
wearing surface; a layer of normally non-sticky
15 cementitious material integral with the opposite
face of said body portion, and adapted to be
5
15. As a new article of manufacture a pre
formed surfacing structure of the character here
in described for floors and walls ready-to-lay in
bonded relation to a sub-surface comprising a
body portion characterized by a sheetlike strain
resistant foundation member and a surface layer
of linoleum composition on one side of said
foundation member constituting the upper or
wearing surface; a layer of normally non-sticky
cementitious material integral with the opposite 10
face of said body portion, and adapted to be
activated with water to impart thereto an ad
hesiveness to bond the body portion to the sub
surface to which it may be applied; and a pro
tective ?lm, not substantially greater than .0004 15
inch in thickness, consisting of a water-insoluble
moisture repellent composition containing a
activated with water to impart thereto an ad
major proportion of wax having a melting point
hesiveness to bond the body portion to the sub
between 100° F. and 120° F. coating said cementi
surface to which it may be applied; and a pro
tious materialv and adapted to resist the ab 20
20 tective ?lm consisting of a meltable water in
soluble and moisture repellent organic composi- ’ sorption of moisture by the cementitious material
tion coating said cementitious. material and under abnormal humidity conditions and adapted
adapted to resist the absorption of moisture by to be easily broken down upon the application
of a substantial quantity of water thus permitting
the cementitious material under abnormal hu
midity conditions, and being of such thinness as the cementitious material to be quickly and 25
to be easily broken down upon the application of thoroughly activated when the surfacing struc
a substantial quantity of water thus permitting ture is to be installed, said water-insoluble and
the cementitious material, to be quickly and moisture repellent composition in said ?lm being
in the form of a multiplicity of particles fused
thoroughly activated when the surfacing struc
80
ture is to be installed, said water-insoluble and together.
WALTER
G.
FARR.
moisture repellent composition in said ?lm being
in the form of a multiplicity of particles fused
together.
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