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Патент USA US2118097

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May24, 193s.’
Filed Aug. 19, 1936
‘*3 M; 9am SEQ-“Am
Patented May 24, 1938
moment Meek, Milm-ow, England, assigncr to
John lioiroyd & Company Limited, Milnrow,
Appiication August 19, 1936, Serial No. 96,783
2 Claims. (Cl. 22—200)
This invention relates to the casting of hol
low bodies by means of a mould and parallel core,
the core being withdrawn longitudinally from the
mould in a progressive manner to prevent its be
Figure l is a front elevation, with portions
broken away, of a casting machine.
Figure 2 is a side view, with portions broken
away of the same machine.
ing gripped by the cast metal after it has served
its purpose of con?ning the said metal until it
has reached a stage of soli 'ty where it can sus
Figure 3 is a plan View in section thereof.
Figure 4 is a detached fragmentary side View of
a detail regarded from the opposite side to Fig
tain the form imparted thereto by the mould and
ure 2.
To enable my improved machine to be more
To produce castings successfully in the herein
readily understood I will ?rst indicate with
before stated manner it is necessary that the
reference to the machine shown in the drawing
the casting process to which my invention relates.
The said casting process, as performed with the
aid of the said machine consists in pouring metal
core shall lose contact with the partly solidi?ed
metal at a moment when solidi?cation is suffi
ciently advanced to prevent the metal from ?ow
15 ing, but is not so far advanced as to cause the
metal to grip by contraction the core‘ to a degree
which will prevent the core from leaving the
metal without injury to the surfaces of the core
and metal.
It is not possible by present foundry methods to
obtain absolute uniformity in temperature of
metal at the moment of pouring, temperature of
mould and core before and during the casting
operation, rate of cooling, and rate of progression
25 of cooling of the metal in the mould over a re
peated succession of casting operations. The
critical moment in time at which the core must
leave the solidifying metal varies with these fac
A withdrawal of the core by mechanical and
automatic methods and means, even if they per
mit the rate of withdrawal to be varied at will
give no indication of the correct rate and moment
of withdrawal and the momentarily necessary
35 movement or absence of movement to be there
upon immediately attained and consequently the
variations in the said factors are liable to produce
sticking of the core and damaged castings or.
leakage of metal when the hitherto know me
40 chanical and automatic methods and means of
withdrawal of the core during pouring are en ployed.
The main object of my invention is to enable
uniformly good results to be obtained even when
45 there is a lack of uniformity in the casting con
diticns existing during the producing of one cast
ing as compared with those existing during the
production of another casting.
To obtain good results the core is usually
into a removable and preferably quickly rotating
mould l and Withdrawing a suspended parallel
core 2, whilst the metal is solidifying progressive
1y from the bottom upwards, the withdrawal of
the core 2 taking place progressively in conform
ity with the solidi?cation so that the core is al 20
ways operative on the still molten portion of the
metal, but is drawn away from the solidifying
metal before the same can contract itself onto the
core and bind itself to the same to any detrimen
According to my improved machine the lon
gitudinal withdrawal movement of the core is
effected by a gravitational force which is strong
enough to pull the core out of the mould against
the frictional resistance of the metal therein and
to also pull on the hands of an operative, whereby
the said gravitational force indicates to the oper
ative, by the strength of its pull on his hands,
the frictional resistance of the metal to with
drawal of the core, the operative being enabled, 35
by varying the resistance of his hands to the pull
thereon, to vary the strength of the pull on the
core, whereby the behaviour of the metal towards
the core is indicated to the operative through his
hands and the said hands can without delay in 4.0
stantly vary the amount of withdrawal force
acting on the core. Thus, this machine enables
the core to be withdrawn correctly in spite of
lack of uniformity in the rate or time of pro
gressive solidi?cation of the metal, because the 45
said machine has the advantage of gauging and _
indicating at all times during the casting opera
tion, the condition of the metal in contact with
the core.
caused to Withdraw at a slower rate during the
?rst part of the withdrawal movement than at
The said improved machine combines great
?exibility in the controlled longitudinal motion
the subsequent part.’
of the core with a simple and readily perceived
and understood indication to the human sense
of feel for the purpose of producing by the here
I attain this object by the means‘ hereinafter
described and illustrated in the accompanying
55 drawing, wherein—
inbefore speci?ed process uniformly perfect cast
ings notwithstanding lack of uniformity between
weight 9 from actively withdrawing the core by
the temperature, rate of cooling, total time of
pulling it up.
cooling, manner of solidi?cation and so forth of
one pouring of the metal as compared with an
In the drawing I have illustrated a producing
machine which enables the said process to be
utilized for mass production in the foundry.
The core 2 is suspended by a universal joint
10 3 from a. slide 4 which is slidable on parallel
pillars 5 and is suspended from one end of a
rope 6 ‘which runs on a pulley ‘I loosely mounted
on a stationary shaft 8. The other end of the
rope 6 is weighted by an adjustable weight 9
15 provided at each side with a guide groove I9
engaged by the ?anges II of stationary parallel
guide girders I2 which also serve to support the
head I3 which carries the shaft 8. The weight
9 is heavier than the slide 4 and parts suspended
20 therefrom and, therefore operates as a uniform
force acting through the rope B to draw the core
2 upwards and thereby withdraw it from the
mould I.
The slide 4 is also connected to one end of a
25 rope M which has its other end connected to a
winch drum I5 keyed on a shaftIG journalled on
the base I ‘I of the machine. The shaft is con
nected by spur gearing I8, I9 to a shaft 28 which
drives a shaft 2| through a pair of toothed bevel
30 wheels 22, 23, a spindle 24 and a pair of bevel
wheels 25 and 26. The shaft has a hand wheel
2'1’ keyed to it.
A scale 28 of suitable length is ?xed to one
of the girders I2 and serves, with the aid of an
index mark 29 provided on the slide 4, to enable
the operative to accurately gauge the momentary
position of the lower end of the core 2 and the
speed of movement thereof.
In the hereinbefore described machine the ad"
'As the weight has a constant motive power and
the pull of the weight 9 can be felt by the oper
ator’s hands holding the hand wheel 21, it follows
that when the metal offers no resistance the
whole force of the motive power is indicated to
the operator through his hands holding the hand
wheel, whereas when the metal offers complete
resistance the absence of motive power due to the 10
cancellation thereof by the said resistance, will
be indicated to the operator through his hands,
and that the indication receivedrthrough the
hands will vary between the said maximum and
zero and be different for every different amount 15
of resistance of the metal between non-resistance
and maximum resistance. The strength of pull
felt at each moment by the hands of the oper- ‘
ator therefore indicates to him the momentarily
existing amount of resistance exercised by the 20
The operator thus receives exact information
at each moment of the casting operation about
the strength of the frictional resistance and
therefore the state of the metal in contact with 25
the core 2. As the solidi?cation takes place pro
gressively from the bottom upwards,the resist
ance of the metal to withdrawal of the core 2 is
always exercised on the lower end of the rising
core 2 and it is the state of the metal momen— 30
tarily in contact with the said lower end which is
therefore exactly indicated to the operative.
Consequently the operative, by the strength of
pull on the hand wheel felt by him receives an
exact indication of the correct moment when the 85
said lower end should be withdrawn by the mo
tive power of the weight 9 from the solidifying
metal in order to prevent the metal from seizing
the core after the metal has attained a suf?ciently
justable weight 9 provides the hereinbefore stated
solid state to maintain the form imparted to it
gravitational force and the said force operates
by the mould I and core 2.
core and raises the core from the shown posi-v
By permitting rotationrof the hand wheel 21
by the said weight at a lesser or greater rate, or
momentarily stopping the said hand wheel, or.
even rotating it in reverse direction the operative
tioninto a position where the core 2 is com
pletely withdrawn from the mould I. The man
can vary and control with great accuracy the po
sition speed and direction of the core 2 instanta
ual resistance by the operator to this upward
neously from moment to moment.
actively through the rope 6 on the slide<4 and
core 2 as the motive power which overcomes the
frictional resistance between the metal and the
movement is exerted 'on the slide 4 through the
rope I4 by means of the hand wheel 21, and by
the application of more or less force to the hand
wheel to resist or overcome the force exerted
by the weight 9 the operator can cause the core
2 to move downwards, or'stop or move upwards
55 at any desired speed up to the maximum pro
ducible by the weight 9, according to momentary
requirements and without great exertion. Dur
A successful performance of the said casting
process is therefore made independent of uni 50'
formity in temperature, rate of cooling, behaviour
of the metal in cooling, rate of pouring, and so
forth, because the hereinbefore described means
act as indicators or gauges of the momentary
condition of the metal.
To facilitate reintroduction of the core 2 into
the mould I, the bearing 32 through which the
core extends is arranged so that the core never
ing this control, the operator continuously re-, '
becomes disengaged therefrom. Furthermore the
ceives through his hands an indication of the bearing 32 is provided on a slide 33 which may be
motive power exercised by the weight 9 on his counterbalanced by means of ropes 34, pulleys 35 60
hands in excess of that required to overcome the
and weights 36, and which loosely supports and
said frictional resistance.
It will be appreciated that if metal contained
in the mould I is completely molten, it will offer
no material resistance to the power exerted by
the weight 9 to raise the core 2, whereas if the
said metal has set and cooled round the core,
the consequent frictional resistance will be great
enough to completely resist and equalize the pull-7
ing power of the weight 9, and that between
these two extremes there are conditions of the
metal which will produce correspondingly various
degrees of resistance to and absorb the pulling
power of the weight 9 without preventing the
centers the upper end of the mould 2. When the
mould I is to be removed, the slide 33 is slid up
wards on‘ the pillars 5, the bearing 32 sliding 65
along the core 2 which is then in its raised or
withdrawn position. On replacing the mould the
slide 33 is again slid downwards onto the upper
end thereof and the bearing 32 again sliding
along the core 2 and maintaining the said core in
the correct position to re-enter the mould I when
thehand wheel 21 is turned to again lower the
core 2 into the mould I.
I claim-
1. A machine for casting hollow ‘bodies of metal 75
comprising a rotary mould, a freely rotatable and
axially slidable core for insertion into and with
drawal from the mould, a slide from which the
2. A machine for casting hollow bodies of
metal comprising a rotary mould, a freely rotat
able and axially slidable core for insertion into
core is suspended, a rope connected to the slide,
a bias weight connected to the rope for actuat
and withdrawal from the mould, a slide. from
which the core is suspended, a rope connected to
the slide, a bias Weight connected to the rope for
ing and thereby Withdrawing the core from the
mould, a rope connected to the slide for resisting
the withdrawal action of the bias weight and in
dicating the resistance of the casting to with
10 drawal ofthe core therefrom, a winch drum for
winding on and o? of the second named rope, and
a hand wheel operatively connected to the said
actuating and thereby withdrawing the core from
the mould, in combination with manually oper
ated means acting on the bias .weight for resist
ing the withdrawal action of the bias weight and 10
indicating the resistance of the casting to with
drawal of the core therefrom.
winch drum for preventing and checking rotation
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