close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2118173

код для вставки
May 24, 1938.
v
A. F. DHTMEFL>
2,118,173
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
vFiled oct. 1a, 1934
`
'
17 sheets-sheet 1
o' Pfl ì
E y@
><é -f’f/“X '
-oseljf
ae@
)vly I
« “@Q/ EÁQ/ i
'X"
/
@fg/1%@
'ß
_
May 24, 1938.
A. F. D'ITTMER
2,118,173 '
ISEIKONIQ SPECTACLES AND THEIR~MANUFÀCTURE
Filèd oct. 1s, 1934
lvsheets-sheet 2
*I
_May 24, 1938.
A
l
`
,
ISEIKONIC
A. F. DITTMER
‘
2,118,173
SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed Oct. 18,' 1954
17 Sheets-Sheet 5
à
EYE
1
@ß
‘
,/H' /fff f H”
î
'
,
/
l
,WAK
`
May 24, l1931s.
A, ..-_ Dn-TMÈR‘
'
2,118,113
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed Oct. 18, 1934
\
_
17 Sheets-Sheet 4
_Arthur j? ßa'ttmer(
Ü- fw]
May 24, 1938.
A. F. DITTMER
¿ ‘
2,118,173
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed oct. 18, 1954
I 0"
'
0.70 60 J0
30°
.
'
17 sheets-Sheet 5
/a’a
40 30 20/ m20 30l '4a .Ja 60706
¿6565/451
'May 24, 1938.
A. F. lam-MERA
ì
2,113,173
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed oct. 1s, 19:54
17 sheets-sheet ves
_laval/'@7120 7 '
'May 24, 1938.
A. F. DWTMER
2,118,113
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed Oct. 18, 1934
17 Sheets-Sheet ’7
May 24, 1938.
A. F. lDrrTMERV
2,118,173
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed oct. 1s, 19:541
17 Sheets-Sheet 8
„w
MW
May 24, 1938.
_ A. F. DITTMER
2,118,173 _,
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed Oct. 18,'1934
17 Sheets-Sheet 10
,
y
-l0
-af
-20
d0
May 24, 1938.
.
A_ E „.TTMER ' Y
,
I'SEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
2,118,173
May 24, 1938.
A_ F'_ DH1-MER
2,118,173
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed Oct. 18, 1934
(72
73J
74
17 Sheets-Sheet 13
dif
64
n
`
1761997376071'
Ú Aî'tìz ur Ã’ßz'tí/mer l
.
ÜM
^
@Qi/254
,MM
AM
May 24, 1938-
A. F. Dl'r'rMl-:R
2,118,173
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THÉIR MANUFACTURE
Filed oct. 18, 1934 ' _
l
Ufff/4M ¿Ms
17 sheets-sheet 14
@6
22 = 4.50 5:40006: M1?.
\\
J
/0
\\\ \\\\\\\
T
-Af'
May 24, 1938.
v
2,118,173
A. F. DITTMER
IsEIKoNlC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed Oct. 18, 1934
1'7 Sheets-Sheet 15
May 24, 1938.
2,118,173
A. F. DITTM ER
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES 'AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
Filed Oct. 18, 1934
17 Sheets-Sheet 16 _
May 24, 1938H
A. F. DITTMER
2,118,173
ISEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE
AFiled Oct. 1s, 1934
à
17 Smets-sheet 17
à
N
I
NQYMWNi”
á
a
Q@
Q.
lo
2,118,173
Patented May 24, 1938
UNITED STATES
'PATENT ori-‘ics
2,118,173
KSEIKONIC SPECTACLES AND THEIR MANEJ
FAC TURE
Arthur F. Dittmer, Hanover, N. H., assignor to
Trustees of Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H.,
a corporation of New Hampshire
Application October 18, 1934, serial No. 748,788
16 Claims.
The human eyes are subject to refractory de
fects which can be corrected by the well known
eyeglasses prescribed for this purpose, and in ad
dition to defects involving differences in the size
5 and/or shape of the ocular images, which may
be described as the impressions formed in the
higher brain centers through the vision of each
eye, and are determined not only by the proper
ties of the dioptric images that are formed on
the retinas of the eyes, but also by the modifications imposed upon those images bythe anatom
ical properties and physiological processes which
(o1. iss-54)
and are also unsightly and hard toV clean.
The y
said patent, therefore, also contemplates the use
of single lenses effecting all necessary corrections,
and of lens combinations, where four surfaces co
operate in correcting the defects, whereas any
lens element alone does not have any specific
function, as for example size correction only. In
the very large majority of cases, it is possible to
compute and to manufacture spectacles with
lenses of this typ'e which are not unduly differ 10
ent from the customary eyeglasses, nor too heavy,
or otherwise inconvenient. However, the compu
tation of such lenses could heretofore only be
Herein, the conditions which have to do with ' carried out by haphazard and ve`ry tedious meth
.i differences in the size and/or shape of the ocular ods, mainly by trial and error, which made the
images will be called “eikonic” conditions. The procedure diiiicult and expensive. Therefore, the,
condition in which the size and shape of the for obvious reasons desirable, widespread use of
the new and very beneficial spectacles, necessarily
ocular images of a person are equal will be re
ferred to as “iseikonia”, whereas the condition based on a commercial supply of prescriptions
2 in which the size and/or shape of the ocular and of the eyeglasses themselves, was severely 20
images are unequal will be termed “aniseikonia”. handicapped not only by excessive cost but also by
As explained in Letters Patent No. 1,933,578, the difficulty of securing persons trained and able
of November '7, 1933, to Adelbert Ames, Jr. and to make the necessary involved and lengthy cal
Gordon' H. Gliddon, aniseikonia may not only culations.
Also, the lenses cited in the aforementioned 25
impair binocular vision, but also the general well
being of the person having such defects, and patent were contemplated to correct overall and
meridional aniseikonia only. In many cases there
glasses eliminating or at least alleviating anisei
konia, or “iseikonic lenses”, are described and also exist irregular size differences and differ
claimed in this patent. As also pointed out in ences in the angular position of lines in the
30 the aforesaid patent, the ratio of Aocular images ocular images which may in many cases be of 30
such magnitude as to be very injurious to the
may be the same in all meridians (overall anisei
konia) or it may be symmetrical to one meridian patient. In these cases it is in general not pos
sible completely to correct all the differences with
(meridional aniseikonia). The ocular image dif
practical eyeglasses. It is however, possible to
ferences may also be quite irregular and unsym
carry them to these centers.
C.: Dl metrical, in which case they are referred to as
ocular image “shape” differences. Herein, all
three types of ocular image differences will be
shortly referred to as “aniseikonia”, unless it is
specifically stated that only one of these several
types of differences (which may, and often are, co
existent) is discussed in any particular instance,
when they will be termed “overall”, “meridional”
and “irregular” aniseikonias, respectively.
In many cases, aniseikonia is co-existent with
refractive defects and is often partly or wholly
caused by these defects and/or the means effect
ing corrections thereof. Therefore, refractive de
fects and eikonic differences must be correlated
for optimum correction. For this purpose com
;,0- bined iseikonic lenses, as described in the afore
mentioned patent. with one element correcting
ñnd the best practical eyeglasses which will sub 35
stantially correct some of the diilerences, and
partially correct the others, the choice as to which
differences are to be wholly corrected, and which
are to be only partially corrected being largely
determined by known facts regarding the relative 40
importance of these differences in the function
ing of the eyes in binocular vision.
It is, therefore, the main object of the present
invention to provide practical eyeglasses, that ìs
eyeglasses that can be practically computed, 45
manufactured and worn, for the correction of
all types of refractive defects and eikonic dif
ferences, which substantially correct the defects
and diiîerences found and measured when `test
ing the eyes, and to provide methods for quickly,> 50
eiliciently, and reliably producing such eyeglasses,
recting only image differencesI (inherent and/or
starting with the clinician’s test record and end
ing with the practical iseikonic eyeglass perma
introduced by the refractory correction) can be
nently worn by the patient, and devices for car
worn.
rying out such methods.
all refractive defects and a superposed lens cor
These, however, are‘often cumbersome
55
2
2,118,173
These and other objects, aspects and features
will be apparent from the following detailed ex
planations of the invention which refer to draw
ings in which:
.
Fig. l is a -diagrammatical representation of
one of the tests upon which the present inven
tion is based;
the eikonic test target with fused binocular vision
10 when only an overall size difference is present;
Fig. 3 is a diagram similar to Fig. 2 showing
the appearance when a simple type of meridional
`
Fig. 4 is a diagram similar to Fig. 2 showing
the appearance when only an overall angular
difference is present;
Fig. 5 is a diagram similar to Fig. 2 showing the
appearance when an irregular angular difference
is present;
20
Fig. 6 is a diagram similar to Fig. 2 showing
the appearance when both an irregular size and
an irregular angular difference are present;
Fig. 7 is a schematical View of the opthalmo
eikonometer testing means before each eye;
25
Fig. 8 is a diagram explaining the notation of
size difference;
Fig. 9 is a diagram explaining some of the terms
used in the present description.;
Fig. 10 is a diagram explaining the conditions
30
»which must be fulfilled in or'der to correct the
measured refractive defects;
Fig. 39 is a table giving the specifications of _a
particular lens of type (4);
Fig. 40 is a chart for obtaining modified y 5
values;
Fig. 41 is a chart for obtainingmodified LM
~
Fig. 2 is a diagram showing the appearance of
size difference is present;
Fig. 38 is a diagram of a special interpolation .
,.
ruler used with the A and B charts;
4
y
values;
'
-
Fig. 42 is a flow diagram explaining the method
according to the present invention; and
Figs. 43 and 44 show spectacle lensesaccording
to my invention with inserts, and inserts and
slipover lenses, respectively.
'
The refractive defects and eikonic differences
to be corrected with eyeglasses of the type above
discussed are detected and their magnitude de
termined with instruments as for example de
scribed in Letters Patent No. 1,944,871, of Janu
ary 30, 1934, to Adelbert Ames, Jr. and Gordon
H. Gliddon, No. 1,946,925, of February 20, 1934,
to Adelbert Ames, Jr. No. 2,063,015 of Deo. 8,
1936 and No. 2,095,235 of Oct. 12, 1937.
These in
struments, called ophthalmo-eikonometers, yield
test data which measure the defects and differ
ences present, that is, the ordinary and astigmatl'c
refractive defects as measured by spherical and
cylindrical dioptric test lenses with the aid of
dioptric test targets, and the eikonic differences
present, after correction of the refractive defects
vwith the dioptric test lenses, as measured by
suitable iseikonic test lenses with the aid of the
Fig. 11 is a diagram explaining the conditions ' peculiar test targets described in the above-iden
which must be fulfilled in order to correct the tiñed patents and applications.
As diagrammatically shown in Fig. 1, test target
measured defects in size and/or shape;
Figs. 12 and'12a are diagrams explaining some appearances AL and AR are represented to the 35
left and right eyes, respectively, with similar and
of the terms used in the present description;
therefore fusible fixation objects fl and fr, and '
Fig. 13 is a diagram explaining the general con
dissimilar non-fusible test patterns pl and pr
ditions of equivalence for parallel principal me
40.ridians;
v
which, however, are arranged similar with re
ì
Figs. 14 and 15 show nomographic diagrams
employed for purposes of this invention;
Fig. 16 shows superimposed diagrams Figs. 14
and 15;
45
Fig. 17 is a diagram explaining the nomo
graphic diagram shown in Fig. 16;
spect to their fixation objects. In fused binocu-` 40
lar vision, the appearance of the test patterns
relative to each other and to the fused fixation
object permits exact determination of the eikonic
differences present, and controlled measurement 45
thereof. For example if LR of Fig. 1 is the ap
Fig. 18 is another nomographic diagram em.- V pearance of the test means after application of
ployed for purposes of the present invention;
Fig. 19 is a diagram somewhat similar to Fig. 9;
Fig. 20 is part of a so-called “A chart”; for
50
lenses of type (1);
Figs. 21 and 22 .are tables explaining the A
chart part of which is shown in Fig. 20;
Fig. 23 is part of a so-called “B chart”’for
55 lenses of type C);
Figs. 24 and 25 are tables similar to Figs. 21rand
22, explaining the A and B charts for lenses of
type (2);
60
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
'
26 is a diagram showing
27 is a diagram showing
28 is a diagram showing
29 is a diagram showing
and (5);
lenses
lenses
lenses
lenses
of type (1) ;
of type (2) ;
of type (3) ;
of types (4)
ize the size and/or shape of the ocular images,
equality of distance al and ar, and bl and br,
respectively, indicates that the image size diiïer- `
ences have been completely eliminated in the
horizontal and vertical meridians. The ñgure
also shows that image size differences have been 55
eliminated in the 45° and 135° meridians and that
lines joining the-similarly placed non-fusible test
objects represented to the right and left eyes
would appear parallel to one another in the four
meridians shown.
The appearance of the test target in fused
binocular vision when aniseikonia of various
kinds is present is shown in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
_
Figs. 30 and 31 are tables similar to Figs. 21
65 and 22, explaining the A and B charts for lenses
of types (3), (4) and (5);
. -
Fig. 32 is a part of the A chart for lenses of
type (4) ;'
the dioptric lenses which correct the refractive
errors and suitable iseikonic test lenses to equal
‘
Fig. 2 shows the appearance when overall
aniseikonia is present. In this case the image 65
seen by the right eye is larger than that seen
by the left eye.
Fig. 3 shows the appearance when a simple ,
Fig. 33 is a part of the B chart for‘lenses of
type of meridional aniseikonia is present. In this
70 type (4);
case the image seen by the right eye is larger 70
Figs. 34 and 35 show, in top and sectional views >than that seen bythe left eye in the vertical
respectively, the manner in which the A and B '_ meridian. In the forty-five degree (45°) and one
charts are preferably mounted for use;
hundred and thirty-five degree (135°) meridians
Figs. 36 and 37 are charts used in connection
75 with the A chart for lens'es of type (4);
the difference is made up of a difference in the
size of the images and a difference in the angular 75
3
2,118,173
position of lines connecting the similarly placed
test objects.
Fig. 4 shows the appearance when an overall
angular difference is present.
Fig. 5 shows the. appearance when an irregular
angular difference is present.
Fig. 6 shows the appearance when both irregu
-lar size differences and irregular angular differ
ences are present.
10
This ophthalmo-eikonometer measurement is
accomplished with the aid of lenses having ver
gence power (this term being employed to desig
nate the effect of changing the image distance)
in all meridians and in selected meridians of
15 astigmatism (of the same or different inclination
for both eyes), lenses without power which
change the size in all meridians and in selected
meridians, and lenses without power which
change the relative angular positioning of the
20 ocular images of any selected meridian.
ure of the angular difference in the meridian in
which it is being measured.
I
The angular difference measured by lens sys
tem 5 may be only the remainder after some or
all of the size differences have been eliminated
with lens systems 3 and '4. In general vthe axis
setting of lens system 5 together with the known
lens systems I, 2, 3, 4, before both eyes gives a
measure of the angular difference present, as will
be apparent from the following explanation re
ferring to Fig. 8.
10
`
There may be in addition test lenses 6 and/or
l and/or 8 taking care of special corrections, for
example certain large steps of eikonic correction,
(auxiliary iseikonic lenses) used to extend the 15
range of the adjustable iseikoníc lenses or cer
tain small steps in dioptric correction, used to
obtain smaller steps than are usually furnished in
dioptric test sets. Since the use of these lenses
is immaterial with regard to the following de 20
scription, they will be omitted therefrom in order
to simplify it.
Thus, after having examined the patient. the
clinician has a measurement of the refractive de
fects of the patient in terms of dioptric test lenses 25
25 supported in a holder as shown in the above
mentioned Patent No. 2,095,235. There will be l and 2, and measurements of the dilferences,
further a calibrated lens system 3 for changing both size and angular, of the ocular images in
terms of lenses or lens systems 3, 4 and 5. It
the overall size of the ocular image and a cali
brated lens system 4 for changing the size of should be understood that a single setting of lens
systems 3 and 4 may eliminate only the size dif 30
30 the ocular image in a single meridian but leav
ing the size unchanged in the meridian ninety v ferences in two meridians at right angles to each
degrees (90°) removed from that single meridian. other, while a single setting of lens or lenses 5
Systems 3 and 4 may be elements of trial sets may eliminate only the angular difference in a
comprising stepped glasses effecting known single meridian. Hence a complete measurement
35 changes of image size, or, preferably, they are of a single patient may consist of more than one 35
lens sets for the continuous change of- image size record of the settings of lenses 3 and 4, if that is
without change of power (also called “adjustable necessary to eliminate the size differences in more
than two meridians at right angles to one an
iseikonic lenses”), as described- and claimed in
the copendlng application Serial No. 713,701, ñled other, and more than one record of the setting
of lens or lenses' 5 if that is necessary to eliminate 40
40 March 2, 1934, and they-are so indicated in Fig. '7.
Generally speaking, there will be placed in
front of each eye dioptric test lens I, for spheri
cal refractive correction, and dioptric test lens
2 for astigmatic correction as indicated in Fig. 7,
There will also be test lens or lenses 5. These
are'lenses without power which change the size
in a single meridian by a fairly large amount,
e. g. four per cent (4%) leaving the size ln the
meridian ninety degrees (90°) removed un
changed or at most very slightly changed. These
lenses are used to measure the angular differ
ences of the ocular images in the following man
ner. They are mounted so as to be free to ro
50 tate about their optic axes. If it is desired to
measure the angular difference in any single
meridian, e. g. the horizontal meridian, the test
lens 5 is rotated about its optic axis until a line
joining the two dark spots Which are in the hori
55 zontal meridian of the eikonic target would ap
pear parallel to a line joining the two light
points in the horizontal meridian of the eikonic
target. The amount of angular difference pres
ent after the refractive errors have been cor
60 rected with the dioptric test lenses can be found
from the’ record of the axis setting of lens 5
necessary to correct it, by well known optical
rules. If it is desired to measure the angular dif
ference in any other meridian, a separate meas
urement is made with lens or lenses 5.
The angular difference may also be measured
with the ophthalmo-eikonometer described in the
above-identified Letters Patent No. 1,946,925, by
rotating one of the eikonic targets until lines
joining the non-fusible test objects in the merid
ian in which the difference is being measured
would appear parallel in fused binocular vision.
The amount of rotation, as read on the cali
brated scale of the rotated target, necessary to
make such lines appear parallel is then a meas
the angular difference in all meridians.
Tests are made for distant Vision and for read
ing position. The test for distant vision is usually
made with the fusible objects in the eikonic test
target (or its image as formed by lenses) at a 45
distance. of six meters (6 m.) from the eyes on a
horizontal line which is perpendicular to and bi
sects the line joining the poles of the corneas of
the patient’s eyes. The test for reading position
is usually made with the fusible objects in the 50
eikonic test target (or its image as formed by
lenses) at a distance of forty centimeters (40
cms.) from the eyes on a line inclined twenty
degrees (20°) downward from the horizontal and
which is perpendicular to and bisects the line
joining the poles of the corneas of the patient’s
eyes.
It is to be understood that the above means for
detecting and measuring the refractive defects
and eikonic differences are here given for pur- 60
poses of illustration only and that the method of
quickly and easily providing practical eyeglasses
which correct these measured refractive defects
and eikonic differences as completely as possible
is not restricted to these methods of measure
ment, but is applicable to any measurements of
the refractive defects and the ocular image dif
ferences which may be available.
It should be kept in mind that the data of test
lenses Iy and 2 signify a certain refractive defect
and in addition an eikonic difference that may
»be introduced by the lens which corrects the re
fractive defect, and that the data of lenses 3, 4
and 5 ordinarily import only image size changes
and angular changes which measure the inherent 75
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
5 142 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа