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Патент USA US2118193

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May 24, 1938.
H GRIESEL
2,118,193
BUILDING CONS TRUCTION
Filed Feb. 18, 1935
2 Shee’cS-Sheeîl l
BXÄWQMWMWAM
May 24, 1938.
H GRlESEL '
2Ä18J93
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
Filed Feb. 18, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented May 24, 193s
2,118,193
UNETEÜ STA'ÉÍES PAT
2,118,193
ÉFFEQE
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
Heinrich Griesel, Berlin, Germany
Application February 18, 1935, Serial Nc. ’7,135
In Germany August 18, 1933
14 Claims.
(Cl. 72-65)
My invention relates to building constructions.
More particularly, it relates to constructions
comprising a pair of flanged supports, normally
over and/or between such layers which are made
in succession, insertions in the shape of individual
rods, netting or the like, for bracing the layers, or
I~iron girders, abutment members or stones sup-
I may arrange pipes or cables built in similarly.
5 ported on the flanges of the supports, load-bearing cover plates inserted between the abutment
members and acting thereon like a vault through
and closing means below the plates which are
10 ñxed by the abutment members. Certain of the
aforementioned features in building construction
are described and claimed in my United States
Patent No. 2,902,347, which issued May 2l, 1935,
and it is an object of this invention to provide an
15 improved building construction of that character.
To this end, I provide slots in the lower ends
of the abutment members which bear on the lower
flanges of the I-iron girders, and in the slots I
insert the ends of battens which also bear on
Q0 the lower flanges and are fixed by the abutment
members. The battens are equipped with means
for holding a lower covering layer. >VPreferably,
the holding means are inserted in the battens
While the battens are made, and the means are
fr, wire loops with projecting ends engaging in the
layer which may be plaster or insulating material.
By inserting the ends of the battens in slots
of the abutment members, I reduce the overall
height of the construction, and, since the ends
Obviously, the distance between the two fianged
supports or girders which is to be spanned by
the aforesaid members, is not the same for vari
ous buildings, ceilings, etc. This involves the
necessity of diamensioning the covering plates
and battens for the span of each individual structure. This is not very important with respect to
the battens but the difficulty is to keep in stock
so many cover plates of various sizes.
It is another object of my invention to over
come this drawback. To this end, I standardize
the elements, i. e., the abutment members and
the cover plates. The various distances between
girders are made up for by suitably varying the
thickness of the abutment members. With such
abutment members, it is only necessary to keep
in stock a few sizes of cover plates. By way of
example, the thicknesses of the standardized
abutment members may vary 2 inches, so that
the spans vary 4 inches, and so the sizes of the
cover plates to be kept in stock differ for 4 in.
from each other.
The joints between the individual parts of my
construction are filled in with mortar.
My invention also relates to the abutment
‘ i of the battens are fixed by the abutment mem-
members or stones, and it is still another object go
bers, the battens are comparatively thin and
light even for large spans.
The battens are preferably made of ñreproof
material, and the holding means which, as menA,
la tioned, are preferably insert/ed while the battens
of my invention to improve such members by
modifying in various ways.
To this end, I provide, in an abutment memn
ber having a diagonal surface at its upper end for
the reception of the corresponding diagonal sur
diagonal surfaces on the members and the plates,
l
are made, may be wire loops, as mentioned, or
they may be of hoop iron, or they may be pointed
like nails to facilitate the penetration of the layer
of plaster or the like. The layer itself is fixed
ì», by bending or winding of the projecting ends of
wire loops or the like, or by wedges or pins inserted in the projecting ends of hoop-iron members. The ends of the members may also be bent
or wound, and then the' said wedges or pins may
5
1n
l5
20
25
face of a cover plate, and a downwardly inclined
face below the diagonal surface; a horizontal face
at the upper end of the diagonal surface, and
not less than one recess in the face of the abut
ment member which is opposite the diagonal sur- 40
face, for the reception of a flange, or the flanges,
of a ‘girden
I may also make the abutment surface so high
that the aforesaid horizontal face beyond which
y, be inserted.
the cover plate extends and on which itis sup- 45
Instead of a single layer of plaster or the like
which is attached to the battens by their holding
means, I may attach a plurality of layers, for
instance, an insulating layer and wire netting for
a», plaster, placed directly one upon the other or
spaced apart at any desired distance, without re~
ported, is at a higher level than the upper flange
of the girder, while, on the other hand, I may
make the downwardly inclined face so long that
the lower end of the abutment member engages
about the lower ñange of the girder.
50
By so selecting the size of the abutment mem
ducing the strength of the structure the fixed
bers that they project beyond the girder flanges,
battens make up together with the other parts
the most favorable proportion of the masses of
of the construction. H
In the manner described, I may also build in
the abutment members and the cover plates in
serted between them, may be obtained.
Y
55
2
2,118,193
ì
Y
i
against the upper portion of the girders I. The
abutment members each have a Vertical outer
face with which they bear against the web and
flanges of the girders l at their inner sides, as
shown in Fig. l, a diagonal surface 25 Yat their
may also be used for ceiling and other structures
of other types, in particular for such structures
in which the aforesaid battens and the layer, or
and the lower faces of the abutment members
and the cover plates inserted between each two
members, make up together a vault or arch, or
they may be used for ceiling and other'structures
in which the cover plates are hollow and the
lower ends of the abutment members themselves
make up the lower end of the construction.
In the accompanying drawings, various con
structions and abutment members and cover
plates embodying my invention are ill strated by
way of example.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a cross section of a construction com- '
prising a solid coverV plate and slotted abutment
members,
Fig. 2 is a cross section showing one half of a
construction comprising a trough-shaped cover
25 plate and abutment members without slots,
Fig. 3 is an elevation showing one of the slotted
abutment members in Fig. 1, partly broken away
and viewed in the direction of arrow III, Fig. l,
Figs. 4a to 4e are sections on the line 1V
IV
30 in Fig. 1 and showing modifications of the con
nection between the covering layer and a batten,
Figs. 5a and 5b illustrate, by way of compari
son, standardized abutment members and cover
plates according to Figs. l and 2, respectively,
Fig. 6 is an elevation of an abutment member
having a horizontal face at the upper end of its
diagonal surface, and a recess for the reception
of the upper girder flange,
Fig. '7 is an elevation of an abutment member
40 which is similar to the one illustrated in Fig. 6,
but divided at the recess,
Fig. 8 is an end elevation, and
Fig. 9 isan elevation, viewed from the left in
Fig. 8, of a hollow abutment member whose diag
45 onal face is grooved and whose ends are equipped
with a projection and a recess, respectively, for
connecting it to other members,
Fig.V 10 is an elevation of an abutment member
with two recesses, one for the upper, and the
50 other for the lower flange of the girder,
Fig. 1l is a cross section showing one half of
a construction which is similar to the one illus
trated in Fig. 1, but whose abutment members
are extended beyond the upper flange of the
55 girder, and stepped insteadof being recessed, for
the upper fiange, and
Fig. 12 is a cross section of the vault-like con
struction referred to in which the abutment mem
bers illustrated in Fig, 6 are used.
Referring now to the drawings, and ñrst to
60
Figs. 1 and 3, the flanged supports are shown as
the I-iron girders of a ceiling at l. 2 is one of
the battens referred to which are placed on the
lower flanges of the girders with their stepped
inner side which extends as far as the Lipper end
of the abutment member, and a downwardly in
clined face 2l which extends from the lower end
of the diagonal surface 25 as far as the lower
end of the abutment member, and isv broken by
the slot s. When the abutment members have
,been placed in position as described, -a solid cover
plate E having diagonal surfaces e, is placed be
tween the- diagonal surfaces 25 of the abutment
members and exerts thrust on them by its vault
like action, at the same time fixing the battens
2 by means of the slots @l in the abutment mem
bers, as described. Thrust is exerted against the
upper portions of the girders I, as mentioned.
The `top of the cover plate 5 is ñat but its base is - '
arched, so that there is a space between the bat
tens 2 and the cover plates. 5.
Steel members 24 are preferably inserted in the
cover plates 5, and connected to corresponding
steel members of the adjacent cover plates, as de
scribed in my said patent, so that a continuous
ceiling or other construction is obtained which is
strong against tension and thrust forces. The
ends of the steel members 26 which are at the
sides of the construction, are anchored in the
walls of the building of which the construction
forms part.Y
Y
The construction has two covering layers 9 and
lll at its lower end. The upper layer il may be
a wire netting or the like for supporting the
plaster, or an insulating layer, and the other
layer is of plaster.
The means for connecting the layers â, le to
the battens 2 will now be described with reference
to Figs. 4a to 4e. The battens 2 are supposed to`
be made of concrete, with a pair of parallel steel
insertions 2’.
Referring now to Fig. 4a, loops l, of wire, hoop
iron, or the like are inserted in the battens with
their lower endsv 8 projecting from the lower face 45
of the batten for some distance, as shown in
dotted lines. When the battens have been in
serted between the girders l, as described, and
the construction has been assembled, the layer 9
is placed cn the projecting ends of the loops which
are preferably pointed to facilitate penetration
through the layer, as shown in Figs. 4d and 4e
for a modified design, and the ends are bent over.
as shown in full lines, whereupon the plaster l5
is applied.
c
Referring now to Fig. 4b, the batten 2 is
yequipped as described but the two layers 9 and
Ill are spaced apart, and spacing members l l are
inserted between the two layers, and held by the
projecting ends. 8 of the loops 1.
In this manner ‘
an insulating cavity is obtained between the lay
ers 9 and I0. Instead of the spacing members l i,
steel members for wire netting may be `inserted
for bracing the intermediate layer il and/or the
3 are the two abutment members which
are allotted to the batten 2, and are slotted in
plaster layer I0.
their lower ends at t, Fig. 3, for the reception of
the corresponding batten end. 'I‘he abutment
l l are provided as described but cables i2 or
65 ends.
members are placed against the inner sides of
70 the girder webs between their upper and lower
flanges, as shown in Fig. 1, and are held in posi
tion by their engagement with the battens which
make a tight ñt in the slot 4. At the same time,
the battens 2 are firmly seated and fixed on the
75
’
Abutment members according to my invention,
layers, which they support, are dispensed with,
35
`
as described above, are preferably used for the
described ceiling and vault constructions, but
Cl
.
lower flanges of girders i, and thrust is exerted
Referring now -to Fig. 4c, the spacing members
pipes l2’ may be inserted between the layers. to
gether with the spacing members l l, or the spac
ing members may be replaced altogether by pipes
or cables.
'
,
Referring now to Figs. 4d and 4e, the project
ing end 88 of a flat member 'i1 which is pointed,
hasa slot for the insertion of a wedge or pin la.
As mentioned, the ends of the loops are prefer 75
3
2,118,193
ably pointed, and 'this is, shown in dotted lines in
Figs. 4d and 4e. When the layer 9, or any other
layer, has been fixed by the wedge la, the pointed
ends of the loops 'I are preferably turned down
on the wedges la, as shown in Fig. 4e.
Referring now to Fig. 2, the girders I and the
covering layers 9 and I0 are provided as described,
and the abutment members 3 are placed between
the flanges of the girders, as also described, but
in this case the lower ends of the abutment mem
bers are without slots, and are extended beyond
the lower flanges of the girders. The face 2'I
is dispensed with, the diagonal surface 25 extend
ing throughout the height of the abutment mem
bers 3. The cover plate 5 which has diagonal sur
faces 6, as described, is trough-shaped and ex
tends in downward direction as far as the lower
ends of the abutment members 3, so that the
lower face of the covering plate supports the
layers 9 and I0, or only the plaster layer I0, and
the battens 2 are dispensed with. The cavity of
the trough-shaped cover plate 5 may be iilled
in with any suitable material such as slag, sand,
or the like, as indicated at I3, and a wooden floor
35 may be placed on the filler.
Referring now to Figs. 5a and 5b, these are
reproductions of Figs. l-and 2, respectively, but
show an example for the standardization referred
to. The thickness of the abutment members 3
illustrated in Figs, 1 and 2 is indicated in dotted
lines, and the members 3’ are thicker than the
members in Figs. 1 and 2. For example, the dis
tance of the full and dotted lines may be 2 in., as
explained above.
35
Various types of abutment members will now
be described with reference to Figs. 6 to 11.
Referring ñrst to Fig. 6, this abutment member
3, which may be partly hollow as shown at 32,
has the diagonal surface 25, the inclined face 3l
and the horizontal face 28, as described, but the
inclined face 21 is not as steep as in Fig. 1 be
cause it is intended to form part of a vault, as
will be described with reference to Fig. 12. The
outer face of the abutment member is recessed
at 29 for the reception of the upper girder flange.
By means of this recess, the abutment members
are threaded on the girders I as shown in Fig, 12,
and the upper portion 2l of each member bears
on the upper flange from above and presents a
horizontal face to the cover plate 5 whose diag
onal surfaces 6 engage the mating surfaces 25
of the abutment members. It will appear that
abutment members, even if large, are firmly
seated between the girder flanges, without being
supported by lagging, before the covering plates
5 are inserted. If desired, this member may be
solid.
Referring to Fig. 7, this abutment member is
similar to- the one illustrated in Fig. 6 as to its
outline, but is divided into a lower portion 33
and an upper portion 3|. The recess 29' is in the
upper portion as shown in full lines, but it may
also be in the lower portion, as shown in dotted
lines.
Referring to Figs. 8 and 9, this abutment mem
ber is also similar to the one in Fig. 6,‘and undi
vided. It has two cavities 32, as seen in Fig. 9,
and its diagonal surface is grcoved at 26 so that
the mortar takes a better hold thereon. To place
the several abutment members in as close a vi
cinity to each other as is practicable, the abut
ments are notched at 33 in one of their end faces
while the other end face has a rib 34 to engage in
the notch 33 of the adjacent member. This
design is not limited to the type of abutment
member illustrated in Figs.~8 and 9 butniay be
adapted to any member, if desired.
.
Referring to Fig. 10, this abutment member
which may be hollow as indicated at 32, has a
recess 22 for the lower girder flange, in addition
to the recess 29 for the upper flange, as described.
It will appear that the girders l are Vprotected
against fire fro-m below by the lower portion or
lug 23 of the abutment member 3.
'
. . .
Referring now to Fig. 11, this abutment mem
ber is similar to the one illustrated in Fig. 1 but
has an upper extension beyond the upper flange
of the girder at I5. This extension I5 places-the
cover plate 5 at a higher level and increases the
height of the space between its arched bottom
and the top 'of battons 2. The layers 9 and I3
are provided as in Fig. l.
.
Referring now to Fig. l2, the abutment mem
bers of Fig. 6 are used in this ceiling structure.
The members are threaded on the girders I, with
the upper girder flanges engaging in recesses 29,
as described. The load-bearing cover plates 5
areinserted between the diagonal surfaces 25 of
the members with their diagonal faces 6, and
make up vaults with the inclined faces 21 of the ii LI
members. The steel members 24 are connected
where they project from the sides of the cover
plates 5, as and for the purpose specified.
By way of example, the ceiling construction in
Fig. 12 has been shown as arranged below an
existing ceiling, or floor, 35, with I-iron girders
36. The ceiling below is provided as a stand-by
in case the ceiling above breaks down as may
occur if a building falls down. 1f the upper por
tions 2I of the members project beyond the upper
girder flanges, as in the example illustrated, the
clearance between the two ceilings can be made
quite low and may be filled in, so that both ceil
ings bear load together.
'
Obviously, I am not limited to the use Vof my 40
abutment members for the constructions shown
in Figs. 1, 2, 11, and 12.
I claim:
1. A building construction comprisinga pair of
flanged supports, an abutment member bearing
on a flange of each support with its lower end
and having a slot in such lower end, and a diag
onal surface at its upper end; a load-bearing
cover plate inserted between, and supported by,
the diagonal surfaces of said abutment members 50
by corresponding diagonal surfaces and exerting
a vault-like side thrust against said abutment
members, a batten inserted in a slot of each abut
ment member supported by the flanges of the
supports said abutment members bear on, and
fixed by said abutment members, a lower cover
ing layer, and means in said batteri for holding
said layer.
2. A building construction comprising a pair of
flanged supports, an abutment member bearing ce
on a flange of each support with its lower end
and having a slot in such lower end, and a diag
onal surface at its upper end; a load-bearing
cover plate inserted between, and supported by,
the diagonal surfaces of said abutment members
by corresponding diagonal surfaces and exerting
a vault-like side thrust against said abutment
members, a batten inserted in a slot of each abut
ment member, supported by the flanges of the
supports said abutment members bear on, and .
fixed by said abutment members, a lower cover
lng layer, a member inserted in said batteri with
lts slotted end projecting therefrom, and a trans
verse member inserted in the slot of the member
for holding said layer.
75
4
2,118,193
3. A building construction comprising'a pair of
flanged supports, an abutment member bearing
on a flange of each support with its lower end and
having a slot in such lower end, and a diagonal
surface at its upper end; a load-bearing cover
plate inserted between, and supported by, the dl
agonal surfaces of said abutment members by
corresponding diagonal surfaces and exerting a
vault-like side thrust against said abutment
members, a batten inserted in a slot of each abut
ment member, supported by the ñanges of the sup
ports said abutment members bear on, and fixed
7. Covering plates and ‘abutment members for
building constructions in which said abutment
members bear on flanges of supports forming
part of said construction and have diagonal
surfaces at their upper ends for supporting load Ul
bearing cover plates with mating diagonal sur
faces, said coveringV plates and abutment mem
bers being provided in sets of different widths
each movement of which Vis in multiples of 1/2
inch, thus being standardized for various dis
tances between said supports.
1
8. A iloor-and-ceiling construction compris
by said abutment members,'a lower coveringlay
er, means supported by said batten for holding
said layer, and an intermediate layer between
said batten and said lower covering layer.
ing two beams, load carrying covering plates ar
ranged between the two beams, abutment blocks
interpositioned, the plates being supported as in
4. A building construction comprising -a pair of
ilanged supports, anV abutment member bearing
on a flange of each support with its lower end,
and having a slot in such lower end, and a diago
faces engaging corresponding oblique surfaces on
nal surface at its upper end; a load-bearing cover
mately at the level of the lower ilange of> the
beam, the layers constituting the lowermost ele
ments of the construction being secured to this
plate inserted between, and supported by, the di
agonal surfaces of said abutment members by
corresponding diagonal surfaces and exerting a
vault-like side thrust against said abutment
members, a batten inserted in a slot of each abut
ment member, supported by the flanges of the
supports said abutment members bear on, and
fixed by said abutment members, a lower covering
30 layer, means supported by said batten for holding>
said layer, an intermediate layer between said
batten and said lower covering layer which in
termediate layer is spaced from said covering lay
er, and spacing members inserted between said
layers.
'
5. A building construction comprising a pair
of flanged supports, an abutment member bear
ing on a flange of each support with its lower end,
and having a slot in such lower end, and a diag
40 onal surface at its upper end; a load-bearing
cover plate inserted between, and supported by,
the diagonal surfaces of saidabutment members
by corresponding'diagonal surfaces and exerting
Va vault-like side thrust against »said abutment
members, a batten inserted in a slot of each abut
ment member, supported by the Vflanges ofthe
supports said abutment members bear on, and
fixed by said abutment members, a lower covering
layer, means supported by said batten for hold
ing said layer, an intermediate layer between said
batten and said lower covering layer which in
termediate layer is spaced from said covering lay
er, and pipes inserted between said layers for
spacing them.
6. A building construction comprising a pair
of flanged supports, an abutment member bear
ing on a flange of each support with its lower
end, and having a slot in such lower end, and a
diagonal surface at its upper end; a load-bearing
a vaulted construction by means of oblique sur
the abutment blocks, the plates being trough
shaped in such manner that the horizontal low
er surface of each covering plate lies approxi- v
lower surface.
~
'
f
9. A floor-and-ceiling construction according
to claim 4, in which the load carrying covering
plates have lateral extensions which rest on the
upper flanges of the beams, and iron reinforce
ments projecting from these extensions, said rein
forcements being connected with the reinforce- .
ments of adjacent structural elements.
10. In a building construction in which there
is a flanged support and an abutment member
adapted to be placed on the flange of said support
with its lower end, and in which said abutment ..
member has a slot in such lower end and a diago
nal surface at its upper end; an inclined face ex
tending from the lower end of said diagonal sur
face as far as the lower end of said abutment
member.
Y
`
ll. In a building construction, the combina
tion which comprises a flanged support, and an
abutment member, said abutment member having Y
a lower end adapted to be placed upon a flange
of the support, a diagonal surface, and a hori
zontal face adjacent the upper end of the diago
nal surface, said horizontal face extending be
yond the upper end of the support.
'
l2. In a building construction, the combination
which comprises a flanged support, and an abut
ment member, said abutment member having a
lower end adapted to be placed upon a flange of
the support, a diagonal surface, a horizontal face
at the upper end of the diagonal surface, and a
lug extending under the lower flange of the sup 55
port.
.
`
13. In a building construction, the combina
tion which comprises a flanged support and an
abutment member, said abutment member hav
ing a lower end adapted to be placed upon a V60
cover plate inserted between, and supported by,
the diagonal surfaces of said abutment members
by corresponding diagonal surfaces and exerting
flange of the support, a diagonal grooved surface»,
Va Vault-like side thrust against said abutment
members, a batten inserted in a slot of each abut
agonal surface.
14. In a building construction, the combina
ment member, supported by the flanges of the
tion which comprises a flanged support, and an 65
abutment member, said abutment member hav
ing a lower end adapted to be placed upon a
flange of the support, a diagonal surface, and a
horizontal face on the upper end Vof the diagonal
surface, and means at the sides of the abutment
member for connecting it to adjacent abutment
members.
HEINRICH GRIESEL.
supports said abutment members bear on, and
ilxed by said abutment members, a lower cover
ing layer, means supported by said batten for
holding said layer, an intermediate layer between
said batten and said lower covering layer which
70 intermediate layer is spaced from said covering
layer, and spacing members inserted between
said layers and fixed by said layer-holding means.
and a horizontal face at the upper end of the di
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