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Патент USA US2118279

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May .24, 1938--
s. D. VIGREN El‘ AL
2,118,279
ARRANGEMENT RELATING TO TELEPHONE, TELEGRAPH, AND SIGNAL SYSTEMS
'
Filed July 16, [1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
S-fen Dan/'e/ l/l'gf’d?
Hc/ge 5705f
INVENTORS
BY WAN/c.
751w» ATTORNEY
May 24, 1938.
s. D. VIGREN ETIAL
2,118,279
ARRANGEMENT RELATING TO TELEPHONE, TELEGRAPH,‘ AND SIGNAL SYSTEMS
Filed July 16, 1935 -
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
5/2,? Uam'c/ 1/49/12”
Hrs/ye F057‘
INVENTOR5
tzulv ATTORNEY.
May 24, 1938.
s. D. VIGREN ET AL
2,118,279
ARRANGEMENT RELATING TO TELEPHONE, TELEGRAPH, AND SIGNAL SYSTEMS
Filed July 16, 1935
'
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Helge. Rt>s+
‘halu' ATTORNEY.
Patented May‘ 24, 1938
r 2,118,279
' - UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,118,279
ARRANGEMENT RELATING TO TELEPHONE,
‘
TELEGRAPH, AND SIGNAL SYSTEMS
Sten Daniel Vigren, Stockholm, Sweden, and
Helge Root, Mexico, D. F., Mexico
Application July 16, 1935, Serial No. 31,582
In Sweden July 24, 1934
l?claims. (Cl. 178-69)
for instance, copper-oxide recti?ers, in such a
The present invention relates to new and use
manner that disturbing ground currents are sup
ful improvements in telephone, telegraph and sig
naling systems and particularly to systems of the pressed or are permitted to circulate only in a
type using trunk lines for two-way traffic between direction that will not materially affect normal v
exchanges or stations.
In two-way trunk tra?lc over the same line be
tween, for instance, two automatic telephone ex
changes or between two telegraph stations diffi
culties have always been encountered heretofore
in obtaining distinct and reliable transmission of
signals between said exchanges, stations, etc.
These difficulties have especially been trouble
20
~
5
Sometimes these recti?ers must not remain
connected with the line after a call or signal has
been transmitted. According to this invention
the recti?ers are disconnected when the call or
some in view of the following circumstances:
the series of impulses have been transmitted and 10
reconnected to the trunk line when the latter is
restored to normal, i. e., the condition prevailing
before the initiation of the call.
(a) Different ground potentials at the inter
communicating exchanges or stations, which cir
cording to this invention, established over single 15
Calls over two-way telephone trunks are, ac
line and ground return or over a metallic loop
cumstance causes a current to flow in a grounded
line from one exchange or station to the other.
(b) An induced current may arise ?owing from
ence is further reduced due to the interconnec
the ground of one exchange or station to that of
tion of rectiiiers as aforementioned.
the other, said current passing through the line.
(0) The voltage of the grounded battery of one
The preferred form of the present invention 20
provides connection of recti?ers in series with a
exchange or station may be different from that of
the battery of the other exchange or station. In
system.
such a case, a current will constantly flow through
source or a grounded receiver or both at one or
N) CI the connecting line if both batteries are grounded.v
In order to avoid these di?iculties, especially
under idle (non-operating) circuit conditions, in
exchanges and stations using grounded batteries,
which are connected to both ends of a trunk line,
30 several remedies have been proposed, but the de
vices used were costly, cumbersome and not en
circuit, whereby the danger of outside interfer
'
receiver and/or a current source in a line signal
The line comprises a grounded current
both ends of the line. The line serves traillc in 25
both directions. The recti?ers are used in order
to prevent under idle- (non-operating) circuit
conditions disturbing currents from entering the
system, through the ground connections thereof.
The invention also provides for disconnecting
in known ways the recti?er associated with the
ofthe relays in the line was prevented by mar
ginal adjustment of the relays. However, since
the introduction of loop-signaling and two-way
receiver at a station after the receipt of a call
at said station, and the reconnection of said rec
ti?er after the line is restored to normal.
‘Another form of the invention consists in the
arrangement that after the receipt of a_ call at a
station, the rectifier associated with the receiver
tra?ic over the same line, the magnitude of the
at that station stays in the circuit during the
tirely satisfactory;
‘
Formerly, when signals were sent out over such
a trunk line in one direction only, false operation
40
signals.
currents employed rendered such arrangements ' transmission of impulses in order to bar undesir
impracticable.
able disturbing currents during the idle moments 40
When a. single line with ground return is used,
disturbing ground currents may often interfere
with the receiving devices to such an extent that
the transmission of impulses becomes impossible.
In the northern hemisphere disturbing ground
currents ‘are frequently caused by so-called mag
netic storms paralyzing telegraph tra?lc for sev
eral days.
'
According to the present invention these di?l
of intervals between each signal received or trans
mitted. Thereafter the recti?ers are disconnect
ed and they are again re-connected after the line
is restored to normal.
The invention also provides means for discon
necting a recti?er at ‘a station from the line dur
ing the transmission of a call and during each
transmitted signal impulse and reconnecting the
culties are eliminated and signal systems may be
used for two-way tra?lc without interference of
disturbing ground or other parasitic currents, or
differences of potentials between two points of a
signaling system, by connecting the calling or re
same during idle line conditions.
'
ceiving devices, or both, in series with recti?ers,
when trunk lines interconnect telephone ex
The invention and its application may, of
course, _be modified without departing from its
spirit. It can be used in automatic telephone
systems between the different selecting stages
29 9 [d resale
changes haidng dii’erent battery voltages, ‘for fill-e
stance, 24, 36, 48 volts, etc.
_ According to the present invention recti?ers
are used
connection with two-way one-wire
trunks for duplex and multiplex signal channels.
rl'he recti?ers are connected in series with the bat
teries or generators in such a manner that the
The subscriber dials in known manner a number
recti?ers follow the batteries when the polarity
group selector (GV) multiple bank the sul scriber
is thereupon directly or indirectly connected to
relay F1, which receives the same number of im
pulses dialled by the subscriber.
Relay F1 is thus closed over the following cir
cuit: Grounded pole of battery B1, upper winding
of relay F1, line a, over GV-multiple bani: to sub
scriber’s instrument and back (not shown on the
drawings), over line b, lower winding of relay F1
negative pole or" battery E1. Armature of relay F1
is operated and contacts 2, 3 and fl, El are closed.
Through the closing of said contacts 2 and 3, re
lay F3 is operated in the following way: Ground
'pole of battery B1, contacts 2 and 3 of relay F1,
windng of relay F3, negative pole of battery B1.
Upon operation of the relay F3, its armature is op
erated and the following contacts are closed: 2,
of the current sources change poles with respect
to line and ground. The balancing networks or
resistances at a station are also generally con
nected in series with recti?ers to ground, a pole
changer being provided to change the direction
of the current through the balancing resistances
15. when the polarity of the current sources changes
with respect to the line.
,
Instead of introducing a double pole changer,
the same result may be obtained by installing a
single pole-changer. In this case a duplicate bal
ancing resistance is provided in series with an
other recti?er and one or the other of the balanc
ing resistances with its recti?er is connected to
the line in such a manner that disturbing cur
rents will either be barred or given such a direc
25 tion that the ?delity of the signals transmitted
will not be impaired.
- This invention is applicable also to one-wire
simplex telegraph and signaling systems, e. g.,
open or closed Morse telegraph circuits.
According to the invention, in closed circuit
30
systems, where current passes through the line
when no signals are transmitted, and the circuit
is interrupted when signals are transmitted, rec
tillers are connected in series with the ground
35 connection at one or both offices in such manner
that the operating current is allowed to pass
. and disturbing ground currents in the opposite
direction are barred.
Should the disturbing currents ?ow in the same
40 direction as the operating current, an increase
of the operating current usually will not disturb
operations the samelway as current in the oppo
site direction. It is always easier to adjust an
electromagnet for strong than for weak impulses.
In order entirely to avoid disturbances by stray
45
currents, e. g., caused by magnetic storms, ac
cording to the present invention the polarity of
the operating current sources connected to the
line and recti?ers are so chosen that the operat
50
ing currents oppose the disturbing currents,
whereby the recti?er will bar out the disturbing
currents entering in the system.
In open circuit systems the recti?ers may be
connected in series with receivers at both offices,
55 whereby each recti?er allows the received operat
ing current to pass, but bars foreign currents in
the opposite direction.
.
In order to‘ avoid interference from stray cur
rents, the polarity of the operating current
60 sources connected to the line may be so chosen
65
For instance a call from a subscriber in ex
change S1 reaches the line Lin the following way:
‘When the subscriber lifts his receiver from the
hook, the subscriber’s line circuit is closed and
operates a line relay (not shown) in known way.
corresponding to exchange S2.
By means of a
3; 41,5: and6,l.
'
26
When contacts 6 and ‘I of relay F3 are closed,
relay F4 is ‘also operated by the following circuit:
Ground pole of battery B1, contacts I and 6 of
relay 1T2, winding of relay F4, negative pole of bat
tery B1; whereby relay F4 will be energized and 30
its armature operates, closing the following con
tacts: 2, El; 5, 6; and ‘I, 8. Simultaneously, con
‘tacts i, 2 and £3, 5 are opened, disconnecting
group-selector GV1 of exchange S1 from line L
for incoming tra?ic from exchange S2.
As soon as contacts 2, 3 of relay F4 is closed, the
following circuit is established: Negative pole
of battery B1, contacts I, 2 of relay F5, contacts 2,
3 of relay F11, contacts I, 2 of relay F14 upper
winding of relay G11, recti?er A2, to ground of
battery B2 and then back to ground of battery B1.
Relay G11 is energized closing its contacts I, 2.
Closing of said contacts closes the operating cir
40
cuit of relay G12 as follows: Grounded pole of bat
tery B2, contacts l, 2 of relay G11, winding of re
lay G12, negative pole of battery B2. Relay G12
operates its armature and closes its contacts I, 2.
The following circuit is then closed: Negative
pole of battery B2, contacts 2, I of G12, lower wind
ing of relay G11, contacts 4, 5 of relay F14, con
tacts 5, 6 of relay F4, contacts 5, 6 of relay F5,
winding of F5, contacts ‘I, 8 of relay F4, grounded
pole of battery B1 and back to grounded pole of
battery B2.
'
Relay F5 is thereby operated, and opens its con
tacts I, 2, thereby disconnecting negative pole of
55
battery B1 from the line L; at the same time con-.
tacts 6, 1 of F5 enclosed and relay F5 receives
holding current as follows: Negative pole of bat—
tery B1, contacts 1, 6 of relay F5, winding F5, con
that no stray current can enter the system.
In the following, a few embodiments of the in
vention will be described with reference to the
drawings in which Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate two au
tacts 'I, 8 of relay F4, ground pole of battery B1.
tomatic telephone exchanges, respectively; Fig.
ing of relay G11, contacts I, 2 of relay F14, upper 65
Wire of line L, contacts 2, 3 of relay F4, contacts
2, 3 of relay F3, upper winding of relay F1 (no
armature shown on this relay) ,' contacts 3, 4 of
relay F5, contacts 5, 4 of relay F1, contacts 6, 5
of relay F4, the lower wire of line L, contacts 5, 4 70
of relay F14’, the lower winding of relay G11, con
tacts I, 2 of relay G12, minus pole of battery B2.
3 shows an open circuit Morse telegraph system;
Fig. 4 shows a closed circuit Morse telegraph sys
tem; Fig. 5 illustrates a duplex telegraph system.
Each half of a ?gure represents a different-mice
70 (telephone or telegraph), the two o?ices being in
terconnected by a one or two-wire two-way
trunk.
_
The call to exchange S2 is completed over the
following now established loop-circuit:
Ground of battery B2, recti?er A2, upper wind
changes S1 and S2 which are connected with each
The transmission of impulses from subscriber
of exchange S1 to exchange S2 can now proceed,
other over the two-way trunk line L.
said impulses being primarily received by relay 75
Fig. 1 shows two automatic telephone ex
3
2,118,979
F1 in exchange "81, which relay F1 opens and closes ,
its contacts 6, 4 for each complete impulse, thus
opening and closing the last described loop cir
cuit between exchanges S1 and S2. The impulses
, are received in exchange S: by relay G11 of group
selector GVa, which selector completes the call in
known ways.
7
For each impulse, and when the relay F1 is de
shown on the drawings), over line b, lower wind
ing of relay F1, negative pole of battery B1.
,
Armature of relay F1 is operated and con
tacts 2, land 4; 5 are closed. Through the clos
ing of said contacts 2, 3 relay F: is operated in?the 5
following way: Ground pole of battery B1, con
tacts 2, 3 of relay F1, winding of relay Fa, negative
pole ‘of battery B1. Upon operation of relay F3,
. energized, its contacts I, 2 are closed. This clos
its armature is operated and the following con
tacts are closed: _2, 8 and 4, I and 6, ‘I.
10
I, which energizes relay Fe according to the follow
When contacts 6, 1 of relay F3 are closed, relay
ing circuit: Ground pole of battery B1, contacts F4 is also operated by the following circuit:
I, 2'01’ relay F1, winding of slowacting relay F's, - Ground pole of battery B1, ,contacts ‘I and 6 of re
contacts 5, 4 of slow acting relay F3, negative pole lay Fa. winding of relay‘ F4, negative pole of bat
15 ,of battery B1. Upon energization of relay Fa, its
tery B1’. F4 will thus be energized and its arma- 15
. contacts I, 2 and 4, 5are opened and condensers
ture closes the following contacts: 2, 3 and 5, i.
C1 and C1 in lines a and b are cut out from the Simultaneously therewith, contacts I, Z and 4, 5
through-circuit during each train of impulses, due 7 ‘are opened, disconnecting group selector GV1 of
to the fact, that relay F11 is slow acting and does exchange 81 from line L for incoming tra?lc from
ing of contacts I, 2 of relay F1 closes a circuit,
'20
not‘ release the contacts between the consecu-~
.tive impulses of each train of impulses. In the _
exchange 8:.
same way, relay F3, which is slow acting, does not
relay F4, the following circuit is established: 7
’ Ground poleiof battery B1, recti?er R3, upper
release the contacts during each train of_impulses
when contacts 2, 3v of relay F1 are opened.
After the loop-circuit is established in the
aforementioned way, the recti?er A: can in
known wayslbe short-circuited or disconnected or
also be kept in the impulsating loop circuit. When
the talking circuit is ?nally'established the vrecti
'30 ?ers, of course, must not form part of the feed
ing or talking circuit, as otherwise talking would
25
not be possible.
The talking circuit beyond
group-selector GV1 on exchange S1‘ is not shown
on the drawings, as not forming part of this in
vention. ,
.
'
'
20
Upon the closing of the contacts 2, 3 and 4, 5 of
winding of relay G11, contacts I, 2 of relay'F14,
upper wire of line L, contacts 2, 3 of relay F4,.con- g};
tacts 2, 3 of relay F3, upper winding of relay F1,
contacts 5,4 of relay F1, contacts 6, 5 of relay F4,
lower wire of line L, contacts 5, 4 of relay F14,
lower winding of relay G11, recti?er R4, negative”
pole of battery Ba.
'30
The call to exchange S: is now completed over
the aforementioned loop circuit, and the trans
mission of impulses can take place in a similar
manner to that described in connection with
Fig; 1.
1
3
When the calling subscriber of exchange S1
After the loop-circuit is established as afore- )
restores ‘his receiver to the hook, the relays F1, F1, ‘ mentioned, the recti?ers R3 and R4 may be dis- '
F4, G11 and G1: are released.
connected from the loop inknown ways, because
Upon release of relay‘F4, F5 will return to nor
no disturbing currents can do now any damage to
mal position and upon release of relay Fa, Fe will the impulses to be sent. They may also be kept in 40
.40 also return to normal.
the impulsing loop-circuit, if so desired, depend-
Relay F1 is used for supervision purposes, no
armature or contacts being shown on the draw
ings, as these features do not form partof this
45
invention.
'
-
1
50
When the talking circuit is ?nally established,
the recti?ers shall not form part of the feeding or
I When-the line- L is idle, only the upper wire of
talking circuit. In such case, the recti?ers R: and
R4»may be short circuited, or a special feeding
current may be supplied to the talking circuit
ground»
.
~
Said recti?ers are virtually connected back to
' .back to'each other, which circumstance prevents
the current to ?ow in either direction when the
' said line L is idle, which is one of the principal
55
etc.
line L in Fig. 1 is connected in series with the
upper windings of relays G1 and G11 and with
recti?ers A1 and A2, each one being connected to
objects of this invention.
-
~
Fig. 2 shows a modi?cation of the circuit shown
in Fig.‘ l, in which the calling signal from/ ex
‘
ing upon the characteristics of the line, the relays,‘
'
\(not shown on the diagram) through retardation
coils.
~
When the calling subscriber of exchange 81 50
restores his receiver to the hook, the relays F1, Fa
F4 and G11 ‘are released. .Upon release of relay
Fa, the relay Fa will also return to normal posi- ‘
tion.
~
It should be noted that when ‘the line is idle, '55
similar conditions exist at both- exchanges, i. e.
change S1 to exchange 51 passes over a loop cir
batteries B1 and B2 are connected through the re
cuit instead of over one wire and ground, as de " spective lower windings of/relays G1 and G11 and
scribed in Fig. 1‘. Through this arrangement, lower wire of line L in series with recti?ers R: and
the general circuit is substantially simpli?ed as R4, respectively, with, the recti?ers connected to
will be clear fr0m»~the following: A callfrom a each other in opposed operating position.
subscriber in exchange 51 reaches the line ‘L in.
the following way: When the subscriber lifts his
receiver from the hook, the subscriber's line cir
cuit (not shown) is closed and operates a line re
lay. In known manner the subscriber dials a
' number corresponding toexchange S: and, over
group selector (GV) multiple bank, he is directly
70 or indirectly connected to relay F1, which re
‘ceives the same number of impulses dialled by the
subscriber. Relay F1 is thus closed over the fol
lowing circuit: Grounded pole of battery B1, up
per winding of relay F1, line a over GV multiple
76 bank to subscriber’s‘instrument and back (not
In the same way, recti?ers R1 and Rs are con
nected back to back; opposing current in either
direction. Both recti?ers are connected ytQ 65
ground and through the upper windings of relays
G1 and G11 respectively to the upper wire of the“
line;
1
_
I
_
Due to the aforementioned way of connecting
the recti?ers, no disturbing currents can enter 70
the line L or cause false operations of relays G1
or G11.
1
~
.
,
Fig. 3 shows an open-circuit Morse telegraph
system, in which the receiving electromagnets
are normally connected in series with vrectifiers in 75
4
, 2,118,279
opposed, operating positions to ground, whereby
disturbing currents cannot enter the system and
operate the electromagnets. When key K at the
left-hand end of the line~L is depressed, current
‘?ows from ground through recti?er Al in the di
rection of the current, electromagnet RI, key Ki ,
z, to ?ow through the arti?cial line AL‘ and rec
ti?er C2 to ground, and back to the other gen
erator terminal. The direction of the currents
through the two relays is such that the relay
armatures will not be attracted to close the local
sounder circuits S and Si, respectively.
The recti?ers Cl‘ and C2 will prevent the pas
line L, key K and battery B, to ground. 'Electro
.magnet RI becomes energized. Disturbing cur ' sage of disturbing ground currents into the line
rent in the opposite direction which woulchtend via the associated arti?cial lines ALI and AL4.
10 to weaken the operating current through the line,
The recti?ers Aland A2 will prevent both under
cannot pass through the rectifier AI. Disturbing idle and operating conditions disturbing ground
currents ?owing in the same direction as the op
erating current would cause no harm because the
'electromagnets can be'more easily adjusted for
heavy currents than for weak currents.
If, however, parasitic currents ?owing in the
same direction as the operating. current should
. enter the closed-circuit Morse system and if these
currents should be too strong ‘for proper opera-‘
20 tion, the polarity of the operating batteries and
the polarities'oi' the recti?ers may be changed so
as to bar such currents.
_
currents from passing through the generators in '
a direction opposite to that of 'the regular cur
rent.
Should a parasitic'ground'current ?owing in
the same direction as the normal current enter,
e. g., from ground G via generator V1, recti?er
Al, point m, through both windings of retarda
tion coil J, relay P, line L to point 1/ and then
through relay P1, point z, arti?cial line AL4, rec 20
ti?er C2 and back to ground, relays -P and PI
will not be disturbed, since the parasitic currents
When protection against parasitic currents is vhave the same direction as the local currents.
needed, the prevailing direction of disturbing
/When the key K is depressed, one contact of
ground currents should be observed in the neigh
pole changer PCi connects with the negative gen
borhood and the polarity of operating current erator (V2) terminal and the other contact con
sources and recti?ersso chosen as to prevent the nects with the arti?cial line AL2. Consequently,
, entrance of the disturbing currents into the sys
more current ?ows over the line than through
tem.
.
.
.
Fig. 4' shows a closed circuit Morse telegraph
system in which recti?er A is connected in series
with ground at one end of line L. This rectifier
bars disturbing currents which would otherwise
be 01' such magnitude and direction that the
normal operating current would be cancelled,
, causing thev deenergization of the eiectromagnets
and, thus, false signals.
Disturbing currents
?owing in the same direction as the operating
current cause no appreciable harm. If such para
40 sitic currents are of great strength, the polarity
of the batteries and recti?ers may be so arranged
that disturbing currents will not enter the system.
Fig. 5 shows a two-way polar bridge duplex
telegraph system, two individual generators of
45 different polarity and two individual arti?cial
networks with pole changers at each end or the
line being provided.
' '
'
Recti?ers Al, Bl, 'Cl, and DI are provided at
: station A and recti?ers A2, B2, C2 and D2 at
.50 station ,3. The recti?ers are connected to both
‘the positive and the negative current sources and
either one of the arti?cial lines, and this cur
rent ?ows from u to :r. The line current enter; 30
ing at the point 1/ is made up of the current ?ow
> ing through the coil 0 and that coming from z '
through the relay PI. The direction of this cur
rent is such that the lower pole ’of the relay will
.be more strongly magnetized than the upper pole
and, consequently, its armature closes the sound
er circuit SI. _
'
>
At station A the current divides at point :r,
and’the part which traverses the relay P ?ows
in a direction to magnetize the upper pole more
strongly than the lower pole.- This relay will 40
not close the sounder circuit S. Thus, the de
pression of one key controls the operation of the
distant relay and sounder.
'
Recti?er C2 at station B and recti?er BI at
station A will prevent disturbing ground cur-‘
rents from entering the system via arti?cial line
AL4 or via generator V2. Should, however, a
parasitic current enter the system via genera
tor V4, passing recti?er A2 at station B, said cur
rent will do no harm to relay Pl at stationvB,
to both arti?cial line networks in such a man ’ nor to relay P at station A, since the direction
ner that ground currents opposing the operating of said‘ current is the same as“ that of the operline currents cannot enter the system. The pole ating currents. of said relays. Recti?er Di now
55 changers change the direction of the operating in circuit is in series with arti?cial line ALI at
current at each end 01' the line at the same'time station A and will oppose any current coming
as the arti?cial networks with their recti?ers from station B, while local current will ?ow as
change position with respect to the line.
follows: Ground GI, recti?er DI, arti?cial line
The principle of operation is! the same as that AL2, make contact of pole changer PCl, point to,
60 of the well-known double current polar diil’eren
winding b \in parallel with relay P and winding
tial duplex system. When both, keys‘K and Kl 'a, m, minus contact of the pole changer, gen 60
are idle, the armatures oi’ the pole changers P01, erator V: to ground. Should a parasitic current
and PC: rest against their rear stops, which are enter via'ground GI, recti?er DI and arti?cial
- connected to the positive generator terminals of
~
65
generators V1 and _V4, respectively. No current
line AL2, it would be possible in this case that
such an opposing current could pass through the
traverses the line wire. At stationA the current
divides at m, one part traversing winding 0. and
relay P, the line L relay Pl, arti?cial line A14
relay P, and the other part traversing winding
resistance of this line circuit and the heavy op
and recti?er C2 to ground.
Owing to the triple ,
b, both currents then combining at point 10 to
current encountered, there is small prob
?ow through the arti?cial line ‘ALI and recti?er erating
ability
of
the stray ground current being able 70
Ci to ground, GI and back to the other genera
to in?uence the normal operation of relays P ~
tor ‘terminal. At station B the current divides and PI.
,
at the point 111., one part traversing winding 0
It both keys are closed, the armatures 01’ both
and relay Pl , and the other part traversing wind
'pole changers will be in contact with the negative ‘
ing d, both currents then combining at the point
generator terminals V: and V: respectively, and
'
5
2,118,279
no ‘current will ?ow over the line. Currents will
> now ?ow through relay Pl from 2 to u and
through relay P from w to :c, and their directions
are such as to magnetize ,the lower poles ~more
in strongly than the upper poles. The relay arma
tures will close both sounder circuits. Although
each relay is operated by its local battery, its
‘ action is controlled entirely by the distant key.
The current conditions of all the circuits\will
now be the opposite of what they were when both
keys were open, and the diii'erent recti?ers will
oppose any disturbing ground current in the
same way as before.
.
a
‘
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that
15 recti?ers may be inserted in all kinds of signal
* systems using direct operating currents, particu
larly for use during non-operating circuit condi
tion, in order to oppose disturbing currents. In
5. The system claimed in ‘claim 1, for duplex
signaling, in which said trunk comprises a single
line wire with ground path, a positive and a nega
tive current source at each station, recti?ers dis
posed in series with said current sources, means 5
including pole changers at each station, said
means being associated with the trunk and said
current sources to connect said recti?ers together
with their associated current sources 'with and
disconnect the same from the trunk, whereby 10
during current impulses said recti?ers vpermit the
resulting operating current to ?ow in the proper
direction, while the ?ow of disturbing extraneous
currents is barred under non-operating condi
tions of the respective receivers.
6. The system claimed in claim 1, in which said
trunk comprises a singleline wire and a ground
return path, associated with a duplex signaling
each case one must determine the‘ location of
system, a positive and negative ‘current source
20 said recti?ers. They may be used in quadruplex ‘ disposed ,at each station, pole changers for con
using diplex, and duplex, automatic telephony,
printing telegraphy, ticker and printing tele-_
graphs, railway and block signal systems, sub
marine telegraphy, etc'.
The most important advantages produced by
trolling the iiow of operating currents from the
positive and negative poles of the current sources
in both directions over the trunk, balancing net
the present invention are as follows:
rent to ?ow in the proper direction, and prevent
the flow of disturbing extraneous currents under
non-operating conditions of the respective re
ceivers, a pole changer at each station for con
Both direct and induced disturbing currents
on a tnmk line during non-operating and oil
trailic conditions are eliminated; erroneous calls
30 on the line are eliminated: distortion of s‘gnaling
impulses ceases; erroneous disconnections of sta
tions from the trunk line during service condi
works at each end of the trunk connected in se
ries with the recti?ers to allow the operating cur- ‘
necting said recti?ers and said balancing net- .
works to and disconnect the same from the sys
tem. means for operating said pole changers
simultaneously and during the same periods as
the positive and the negative current sources are
connected to the trunk at‘ the same station.
'7. The system claimed in claim 1, comprising a
two-wire trunk line, and a recti?er connected to
naling diagram simpler.
each wire at each station, each recti?er barring
What we claim is:
'
,
the ?ow of current in an undesirable direction.
8. The system claimed in claim 1, in which said 40
40 -1. In a direct current signaling system, two
' stations, each thereof including a grounded cur
trunk consists of a two-wire trunk line and in
rent source, a two-way undivided tra?lc trunk which, at each station, a grounded rectifier is
line interconnecting said stations, signaling connected with one wire of the trunk and a relay
means at each station allowing current to pass ‘ at each station to control the connection of said
45 from said current source over the trunk for - recti?er to and its disconnection from the sys
tions are avoided.
'
‘When using the present invention, the trunk
35 lines between‘ automatic exchanges for instance,
will be simpler and cheaper than before; the
number oitreiays will be less and the circuit sig-'
transmitting signals over said trunk, recti?er-s
associated with said stations, receiving means
.connected in series to a rectifier and to at least
.one pole or the said grounded current source
and to said trunk line at each station, said recti
?ers being disposed at said stations and connect;
ed-in opposed operating positions and in series
with the same line wire, in order to suppress the
effects of disturbing currents in both directions
-on, the line and receiving means.
tem.
‘
9. The system claimed in claim 1, in which
said trunk consists of a two-wire trunk line, and
in which at each station a grounded recti?er is
connected with one wire and a further recti?er
is connected in series with the current source
and with the other wire of the trunk, and a relay
at each station for controlling the connection
' between the associated recti?ers and the trunk
wires.
‘
55
means including said recti?ers to prevent opera
10. The system claimed in claim 1, in which
said trunk consists of a two-way single-wire
trunk for duplex signaling between two tele
graph o?lces, two grounded recti?ers being pro
vided at each o?ice, a balancing arti?cial line
connected with each recti?er, and a pole changer,
at each o?lce for alternatively connecting the
two associated recti?ers and ‘said balancing arti
ficial lines with the said trunk.
11. The system claimed in claim 1, in which 65
said, trunk consists’ of a two-way single-wire
trunk between two telegraph o?ices, tour recti
fiers disposed at eacho?iceptwo grounded and
the other ‘two connected with alternate poles
of the current source, and a pole changer asso-, 70
ciated with each end Jot the trunk and having
two contacts connected with the grounded recti
?ers and two contacts connected with the other
tion of the receivers by parasitic currents, when
two recti?ers.
2. The system claimed in claim 1, in which
each station comprises a telephone exchange. a
common battery associated therewith and con
nected to ground, means for establishing a metal
lic loop circuit between said exchanges over said
trunk, transmitting means disposed at the called
exchange,'said transmitting means including the
said current source and serving for transmitting
signals‘ from said current source over said trunk,
and rectiilers disposed at said stations and con
nected inseries with said currentsource.
3. The system'claimed in claim 1, comprising
means for disconnecting said recti?ers from the
line after the transmitted signals have been re
ceived and for reconnecting the recti?ers when
the trunk is restored to normal.‘
-
4. The system claimed in claim 1, comprising.
no signals are transmitted over the trunk. .
-
12. In a direct current signaling system, two
15 K,
6
.
a
2,118,278
‘stations, a two-way undivided trunk line com
?ers associated with said stations, the receiving
prising a number of line wires, interconnecting
means comprising a relay, one winding 01' the
latter being connected in series with a recti?er
and to the grounded pole of said current source,
said stations, at least one grounded direct cur
rent source being connected to said trunk line
v‘and associatedwith said stations, means at each said recti?ers being disposed at the?respeét'ive
station, for receiving signals transmitted over stations and connected in opposed operating po
said trunk line, said receiving means being sitions, whereby signaling currents .between the
"I
grounded and comprising a recti?er in series
with said receiving means, the recti?er at one
station being connected‘ to‘a line wire in opposed
stations are admitted, whereas, during non-oper-- ,
ating conditions, disturbing currents in both di
rections are barred from the line and the said 10
operating position to the corresponding recti?er
on the same line wire at the other‘station to
relay winding.
,
_
16. In a direct current signaling system, two
suppress, under non-operating conditions,'the et-. stations, a two-way trunlrline comprising a plu
rality of line wires interconnecting said stations,
,the line and the receivers.
each station including a direct current source
fects of disturbing currents in both directions on
13. The system claimed in'claim 12, in which
‘ each station comprises means for disconnecting
and receiving means connected to said trunk
15
line, a relay switch at one’of said stations for
said recti?er from the trunk gline immediately ’disconnecting the receiving means at "said sta
after the receipt of a‘ call over the said trunk‘ tion'from ‘said trunk line and establishing a
go'line, 'and means for reconnecting said recti?er ‘ metallic loop circuit from the ‘receiving means of
20
.as soon as the line is restored to normal.
— the other station over said trunk line, recti?ers
14. The system claimed in claim 12, in which ' associated with said stations, the receiving means
each station comprises means for disrfonnecting
said recti?er from the trunk line immediately
25 after the receipt of a train of signal impulses
over the said trunk line, and means for recon
necting said recti?er as soon as the line is re
stored to normal, to suppress disturbing currents
through the receivers during the intervals bee
:0 tween each signal 'impulse received. i
15.-In a direct current signaling system, two
stations, a two-way trunk line interconnecting
at each station ‘comprising a relay with two wind
ings each thereof in series with a recti?er ‘and
the grounded current source, said two vwindings
being connected to di?erent poles of said cur
rent source',-said recti?ers being disposed at the
respective stations and connected in'opposed op
erating positions and in series with?the same line
wire and the corresponding relay windings at“
both stations, whereby signaling currents be
tween the stations are admitted, whereas, during
said stations, each station including a direct cur
non-operating conditions, disturbing currents in
rent source and receiving means ‘connected to 1 both directions are barred from the line and said
55 .said trunk line, said current source having one relay windings. ]
"
pole grounded, av relay switch for disconnecting
said receiving, means from said trunk line, recti-v
>
S'I'EN DANIEL VIGREN.
'.
EELGE ROST.
>
30
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