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Патент USA US2118288

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May 24, 1938-
. _
Filed July 25, 1935
2 Sheefs-Shéet 2
Patented May 24, 1938 ‘
2,118,288 .
Harold v. Atwell, White Plains, N. Y., assignor to
Gasoline Products Company, Inc., Newark, N. J.,
a corporation oi’- Delaware
Application July 25, 1933, Serial No. 682,059 ,
5 Claims. (Cl. 196-9)
My invention relates to the treatment of hydro- ‘ carbons containing crackedv constituents includ
carbons, more particularly hydrocarbon oils and
ing unsaturated hydrocarbons, together with
hydrocarbon gases containing unsaturated con
small quantities of oxygen, the mixtureof gases
stituents such as ole?ns, and my inventionhas for or vapors thus obtainedbeing brought into con
objects the provision of a process of effecting . tact with hydrocarbon liquid containing reactive 5
inter-reaction between such hydrocarbon oils and
hydrocarbon constituents at elevated pressure
gases and the recovery of valuablev products there
and temperature, and the products being'frac
from, as well as such further improvements in
operative advantages and results as may herein
tionated as desired.
In one aspect, my invention contemplates a
process‘ in which gases resulting from the com
bustion of a suitable fuel are reduced in tem
after be found to obtain.
With these objects in view, my invention con
templates contacting gaseous ole?ns or the like
with normally liquid hydrocarbons containing une
saturated, aromatic or naphthenic hydrocarbon
constituents, such, for example, as so-called
“pressure tars” and other residual oils produced
in the pyrolytic decomposition of petroleum, pe
troleum oils or the like, the contact taking place.
at elevated temperatures in the presence of limit
ed quantities of oxygen or gases containing-same,
withthe result that inter-reaction between the
various hydrocarbons takes place resulting in the
‘formation of valuable oils of intermediate boiling
points compared to the hydrocarbons initially
' employed.
While the nature of the reaction or reactions
taking place, due input to the complex nature
perature to a suitable point and brought into
contact with hydrocarbon gas or oil to crack the
same, the resultant mixture of gases or vapors,
products of combustion and, it-may be, oxygen,
being further reduced to a temperature of for ex
ample 1750" to 1000° F. and contacted at that tem-,
perature with residual-oil or tar, with or without
the introduction of additional quantities of oxy
gen or oxygen-containing gases as desired, the
products of reaction being fractionated as indi
cated hereinabove.
In order-that my invention may be clearly set
forth and understood, I now describe, with‘ re?
erence to the drawings accompanying and form
ing a part of this specification, a preferred man
ner in which my invention may be practiced and
of the hydrocarbon materials present, is obscure
,and my invention is not to be considered as lim
ited in scope by'any particular theory of the. na
ture of such reaction, it is believed that certain
hydrocarbons which are present in tars and other
residual oils of the character set forth arep'ar
partly in elevation and partly in verticalsection,
of apparatus for treating hydrocarbons in ac
tially dehydrogenated by the oxygen, forming
of apparatus for carrying out my process. ~
compounds which are highly reactive and com
In these drawings,‘ '
vFigure 1 is amore or less diagrammatic view, ,
cordance with my present invention; and
Figure 2 is a similar view of an alternative form
Similar reference numerals designate similar
bine readily with other unsaturated hydrocarbons
parts in bothv views of the drawings.
such as gaseous ole?ns, to form hydrocarbon oils
of intermediate boiling points suitable for use
Referring now to the drawings, there is shown
an apparatus comprising in part a refractory
either as such or after suitable pyrolysis ‘in the
lined furnace or combustion chamber l , a refrac
preparation of motor fuel or gasoline.
Thus I may subject gaseous ole?ns or gases
containing the same to contact at elevated tem
perature, preferably at a temperature within what
‘ber 3, a dephlegmator 4, a fractionating tower 5,
‘and a gas separator 6. The reaction chamber 3
may be designated‘ as a range vsuitable ‘for the
cracking of hydrocarbon oil,'for example, from
tory-lined cracking chamber 2, a reaction cham
may be empty or provided with gas-and-liquid
contact devices commonly used in the oil-crack
ing art.
750° to 1000° F., and under elevated pressure,
with residual or other hydrocarbon oils f the
character set forth, in the presence of /imited
quantities of oxygen or gases containing .the
same, the resultant products of reaction being
A suitable fuel such as oil or gas is introduced
.to a‘burner ‘I located in the combustion chamber .
removed and fractionated. as desired to recover
The proportions of fuel and air may be- adjusted '
normally liquid hydrocarbon products therefrom,
My invention further contemplates a method
wherein ‘hydrocarbon gases or oil may be cracked
in such manner as to produce a mixture of hydro
I through an inlet 8 having a pump 8a and valve
9; while air for combustion of the fuel is intro
duced to the burner 1 through a valved inlet Hi.
to give substantially complete combustion or to
provide an excess of air over that required for
the combustion of the fuel. The products of _
combustion leave the combustion chamber l and 65
2,118,288 .
are passed through a refractory-lined duct 12 to in part by reaction with the hydrocarbon gases
or oil introduced into the latter, thus'requiring'
the cracking chamber 2.
the addition of further quantities of oxygen at 22.
It is sometimes desirable to reduce the temper
By means of a pipe 24, I introduce into the
ature of the products of combustion to about
1500° F. before entering the cracking chamber 2 mixture of gases entering the upper portion of
the reaction chamber 3 a suitable hydrocarbon
and for this purpose I provide a valved inlet pipe
liquid, preferably one containing a considerable
l3 for steam or other diluent gas, and a valved in
let pipe, I4 for air or oxygen, both of which pipes amount of unsaturated, aromatic or naphthenic
conveniently communicate with the duct l2, as hydrocarbon constituents. Various heavy oils
10 shown. Any of these gases, or a mixture thereof,
may be admitted to the products of combustion in
such amount as to reduce. the temperature there
of to about 1500° F. Where air or oxygenis ad
mitted‘at this point, the amount of the same ad
15 mitted is such as to e?ect combustion of any
combustible constituents such as carbon monox
ide, which may remain in the gases of combustion
leaving the combustion chamber, and preferably
also to provide a small amount of free oxygen
20 in thegases entering the cracking chamber 2.
In the instance illustrated in Figure l, the gases
entering the reaction chamber 2 through the duct
l2 pass upward through an interiorly disposed
duct I5 to the top of the reaction chamber 2 and
25 then downward through a chamber I6, within
obtained in the pyrolytic decomposition of hydro 10
carbon oils, and preferably residual oils or tars
high in reactive constituents, may be employed.
Through contact with the hot gases entering
the reaction chamber 3, which gases contain such
unsaturated hydrocarbons as gaseous ole?ns or 15
the like together with. small quantities of free
oxygen, constituents of the liquid introduced
through the conduit 24 are caused to react with
hydrocarbon gases within the reaction chamber
3 resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of 20
intermediate boiling points.
Preferably, thetemperature within the reaction
chamber 3 is maintained within a range of from
about 750° to about 1100“ F. Where ,the tem
perature of the gases leaving the cracking cham 25
which I may provide bodies I‘! of checkerbrick ' ber I6 is considerably above this range, cooling
or other refractory and heat-accumulative mate
may be e?ected by means of gas or liquid intro
duced ‘through the inlets 22, 23 and 24, respec
tively, as will be readily understood by those ,
Hydrocarbon gas or oil of suitable character
30 is introduced into the cranking chamber I6, to - skilled in the art.
While, as indicated hereinabove, I do not rely
be cracked by direct contact with the hot gases
passing through the latter. In the instance upon any particular theory as to the nature of
shown in Figure 1, I provide valved gas inlets
I8 and I9 communicating with the interior of the
chamber I6.
The mixture of hydrocarbons, gases of com
bustion, and it may be excess oxygen and steam
or other diluent gas, transverse the cracking
chamber ~l6 at a temperature of from 750° to 2500“
40 F., the time of contact being so controlled as to
effect material cracking of the hydrocarbon gas,
resulting in the formation of unsaturated hydro
carbons, such as gaseous ole?ns or other reactive
compounds. The products then pass through a
conduit 2| into the reaction chamber 3.
At this point, additional quantities of air or
other oxygen-containing gas or diluent gas may
be introduced through a valved inlet 22 communi
eating with the conduit 2 I, while additional quan
50 tities of gaseous ole?ns or gases containing the
same, such for example as gases produced in the
cracking of hydrocarbon oils, may be introduced
through a valved inlet 23 communicating with
the reaction chamber 3.
the reaction taking place in the chamber 3,
nevertheless it is probable that the oxygen present
c-?ects a limited dehydrogenation of the hydro 35
carbon liquid or unsaturated constituents thereof,
the resultant highly active products of reaction
combining with gaseousole?ns or otherwise poly
merizing or reacting in the presence of the
cracked hydrocarbons entering the reaction
chamber 3 through the conduit 2! to form prod
ucts of intermediate boiling points.
The reacting materials in the chamber 3 may
be maintained under a substantially atmospheric
pressure. Preferably‘, however, they are main 45
tained under an elevated pressure, for example,
from 50 to 200 pounds per square inch, or even
higher if desired, and the same or higher pres
sures may be maintained in the chambers l and 2.
The gases and vapors reaching the bottom of 50
the reaction vessel 3 are withdrawn therefrom
through a conduit 30 having a valve 3|, and may
pass to the dephlegmator 4, or through a branch
line 32 having a valve 33 directly to the frac
tionating tower 5. Ordinarily, however, I prefer 55
to pass the gases and.vapors through the dephleg
mator' 4 before admitting them to the-fractionat
or at .22, the process is preferably so conducted ' ing tower 5. The dephlegmator 4 is preferably
Irrespective of whether excess oxygen beyond
that required for combustion'of the fuel intro
duced at the burner ‘l is introduced at In, at M,
that the mixture of gases entering the reaction
60 chamber. 3 contains free oxygen. ‘The introduc
tion of air or oxygen-containing gas is so regu
lated as to provide a volume of oxygen less than
that of the hydrocarbon gases or vapors present,
and preferably equal to from 20 to 50 percent of
65 ‘the volume of the hydrocarbon gases and vapors.
It will, of course, be readily understood that the
speci?c ratios employed will vary with the nature
of the hydrocarbons, the temperature and. the
nature of the results desired. It will further be
70 obvious to those skilled in the art that explosive
mixtures of oxygen-containing gases and hydro
carbons are to be avoided.
Excess oxygen admitted to the system prior to
the introduction of ‘the gases of combustion into
75 the cracking vessel 2 may be consumed wholly or
provided with a plurality of ba?les 35iand an in
let 36 for introducing a suitable re?ux oil.
The liquid products of'reaction are withdrawn
from the reaction vessel 3 through an outlet 31
having a valve 38, while liquid products from the
dephlegmator 4 are withdrawn therefrom through 65
an outlet 39 having a valve 40 and leading to a
pump 4|. The‘ former may be run to storage
through a branch line 42 having a valve 43, or
may be delivered to the pump 4|’ through a
branch line 44 having a valve 45.
‘The heavy liquid products removed from the
reaction vessel 3 and/or those removed from the
dephlegmator 4, may be delivered in part or in
.whole to the reaction vessel 3,,through'a conduit
46, a branch line 41 having a valve 48 and the 75
inlet 24, or to the burner ,1 through a branch line
' 3
example, from 400? to 609° _F., or even to a crack
ing temperature of, for example, from about 750°
49, having a valve_5_9, andthe conduit 9.
The partially dephlegmated vapors from the .to 1000° F. ‘The resultant heated products are
dephlegmator 4 and/‘or the vapors from the con‘- . then discharged through conduits 95 and 95 and
duit 32 pass through a conduit 52 to the lower
the inlet 24 to the reaction chamber 3.
_ _ part of the iractionating tower 5, which is pro-‘
, v
I The coils 99 and 9| may also be used for a sim
vided with a plurality oi, plates or trays 53 of
ilar purpose and in the speci?c instance illus-v
trated in Figure 1 are employed tor the‘cracking
suitable design, as'well as an inlet 54 for admit
ting re?ux oil. By means of cooling e?ected by o! a suitable oil such, as, gas oil, for example, gas
0 the ‘addition of re?ux to the tower 5 or otherwise, oil recovered in the fractionating' tower 5., .Such.
the vapors passing up through the latter are frac
gas oil may be delivered to the‘coils 9| and 99
by means of-the pump 51 and atconduit 99, while
tionated, conditions being preferably so regu
lated as to recoverla traction of the nature of a‘ ‘ additional gas oil may also be supplied to the
gas oilv which collects in the bottom of the tower coils Bi and 99 through a conduit 9|. , In this
15 5,_i'rom which it is withdrawn by means of a‘ instance, I provide a reaction vessel 92, a primary 15
conduit 55 having a valve 56 and leading ‘to a dephlegmator 93 and a ‘fractionation tower 94,
pump 51.
, Fresh oil, for example, a crude petroleum or a
A portion of this gas-oilfraction may be with
drawn through the line 35, wherein is located a
20 valve 53, and delivered to the dephlegmato‘r 4.
reduced crude is introduced-to the system by
means of a pump 95 through a conduit '95 to
pass through a heat-exchange coil 91 located in
the upper? portion of the fractionating tower- 94,
and after ,leaving the fractionation tower 94
passes through a conduit 99 to lie-discharged
This portion of the gas-oil fraction may be cooled.
if desired, before introducing it into the dephleg
The gases and uncondensed vapors withdrawn into the interior of the dephlegmator 93, the in
.25 from the top of the tower 5 pass through a vapor terior of which is provided with baihes 99,.
line 99 to a condenser 5|, and thence through a ,
In the dephlegmator 93,‘the heated charge oil
line .62 .tothe gas separator 9. Condensate, com- ‘ is subjected. to direct contact with hot vapors
_- ‘ prising a low boiling'hydrocarbon liquid of the passing from the ‘reactionyvessel 92 through. a
naphtha or gasoline type, is withdrawn from the
o separator 9 through a-conduit 53 having a valve
54. A portion of the condensate maybe returned
‘as ,re?ux to the tower 5 through the line 54, .
which is provided with a valve 55 and a pump
99 for this purpose.
vapor line l9l into the bottom 'of the dephleg
mator‘ 93, and a combined dephlegmating and
distilling action takes‘place. Resvidual portions of
the charge oil, together with ‘condensed portions
of the vapors entering the dephlegmator, 93,_ are
, withdrawn from the bottom of the dephlegmator >
Uncondensed gases are removed from the sepa
I‘rator 5 through a conduit 51 having a'valve 63,
and may be disposed of as desired. .Due to the
- relatively high proportion of incondensable gases
passing through the system, it may’ often be de
40 sirable to scrub the gases from the separator 5
with a suitable solvent, for the recovery 01' vain‘
able light-‘constituents therefrom. andto‘r this
93 through a conduit I92 ‘having av valve I93, to be
discharged through the conduit 99 and: an inlet
24 into'the reaction chamber 3., However, a por
tion or all of the liquid collecting in the bottom‘
of the dephlegmator 93 may‘ .be withdrawn
through a branch conduit I94 having a valve I95
and a pump I99, by‘ means of which this oil may
be‘ delivered to the reaction vessel 92. Vapors
purpose I provide a: scrubber ‘I9 having an inlet reaching the top of the- dephlegmator 93 pass
through a conduit. l9‘! to the bottom of - the frac‘-‘
‘5 as cool gas oil or other-hydrocarbon oil. The ‘tiona-ting tower 94, the interior of which is pro- v
. scrubbed gases, consisting almost entirely of fixed ‘ videdwith'suitable plates or trays I99, and-in .
gases and gaseous products 01’ combustion, escape which, due to the cooling eifect of the oil pass
from the scrubber 19 through an outlet ‘I3 and ing through the heat-exchange coil 9‘I,'a'dephleg
may be‘disposed of as desired.‘ The enriched ‘oil mating and fractionating action takes place,
This‘ action is so regulated as to permit, the
1 . withdrawn through the outlet 12 may be treated
.‘Hand an outlet 12 for a suitablesolvent, such
- in any suitable manner for the recovery oflab
sorbed ‘constituents therefrom.
In_1~" 1 I have also illustrated apparatus
_' for employing excess heat generated within the
55 combustion chamber'ahior the purpose of effect
ing a preliminary distillation or cracking of oil._
‘for example a crude petroleum or a reduced,
crude, whereby such oil ,may. be treated for, the recovery of various constituents thereof, one or
recovery at‘the base of the i'ractionating tower,
9.4 oi’ a stock suitable-for cracking, for example
gas oil, which isthen delivered througha valve
H9 and a pump ‘III to the conduit 9! to be sup- '
plied to the coils 3t and 99. In- the latter theses '
ena heated to a cracking temperature of, for
exampleirom ‘750° to 10'50° F. under a. suitable
pressureof, for example,_from 59 to 1900 pounds
per‘square' inch. ‘The hot cracked-products from
the coil 39 pass through a transfer line H3 to
_ portions of the apparatus describedhereinabove. _ the reaction vessel 92 wherevthey, mayJbe joined
no‘ more of such constituents being employed in those
Thus, in Figure 1, I‘have illustrated pipe coils
99,," and 32 located within ,the combustion
by liquid-removed from the base of the dephleg
In the reaction vessel 92 a partial
_ mater ,_ 93.
' chamber I in, such manner as to‘be heated by separation into vapors and liquid occurs, the va
55 the combustion of fuel introduced in the burner. pors 'passingthrough the conduit‘ i9l_ into the
_‘l. The location of the coils”, 3‘l and 92 within I dephleg‘mator 93 as stated hereinabove, while the
' the combustion chamber l is preferably such"
liquid is withdrawn through a conduit H5 hav
that the coil 99 is subjected to the highest heat, .ing a valve. “9 to be delivered‘through- the con
coil 92 to the. lowest heat, while- coil'9l is sub-I duit 95 .on’the inlet "to thereaction vessel 3;
70 jected to an intermediate degree of- heat.
The vapors and gases remaining uncondensed 70
when heavy oil or tar is to be introduced from at thetop of the fractionating tower‘ 94 pass
an outside source-into the reaction chamber 3, through the vapor‘line ‘129 to a-condenser l_2l,~
it ‘may ?rst ‘be delivered by a pump 93 through ; and thence througha conduit I22 to a gas sepa
a conduit 94‘to the coil 92, where it is heated to a rator 123, ‘from which liquid condensate com
7‘ temperature short of a cracking temperature, for
prising naphthav or, gasoline may be removed
through a pipe I253 having a valve I25. Gases manner set forth hereinabove, the introduction
leave the separator I23 through a conduit I26 vof oil or tar being preferably insuiiicient amount
having a valve I27 and 'may either be taken o? to reduce the temperature of the cracked gases
through a branch conduit I28 having a valve I29 and vapors from a passageway I53 to, for ex
_ or may be permitted to flow through the conduit ample, from 800° to 1000” F. The resultant va
I25 and the inlet 23 to the vessel 3.
- pors and residiual liquid maybe separately with
Whenthese gases are insufficient or unsuitable drawn through valved outlets IElt and'IGS, re
spectively, or may be withdrawn together
for the purpose in view, additional gas may be in
troduced from an outside source through a con
through a valved outlet I66.
In the former in- »
stance, the gases and vapors withdrawn through 10
pump or fan I36 and leading to the inlets It and the conduit I66 are fractionated in the usual
IQ. Various gases may be employed for this pur 7 manner while the liquid withdrawn through the
outlet I65 may be ?ashed or otherwise treated to
pose, such, for example, as methane, ethane, pro
recover valuable constituents therefrom, while
pane, butane, ethylene, proplyene and other hy
in the second instance the combined gases, vapors 15
15 drocarbon gases or mixtures of these, such as nat
duit I32 having a ‘valve I 33 and provided with a
ural gas and re?nery gas.
and liquids drawn through the outlet I66 may
In general, of course, it is desired to introduce
gases'containing considerable amounts of unsat
urates to the vessel 3; such gas may be obtained
20' from the separator I23, especially when the
cracking effected in the coil 80 and chamber 92
is'of the high temperature vapor phase type, or
gas from an outside source may be employed as
indicated. -
It will be obvious that, while I have illustrated
coils 80, 8i and 82 located within the combustion
chamber I, these heating coils may be located in
a separate furnace if'so desired, especially where
it is'desired to maintain the combustion chamber
‘I under higher pressure. Moreover, when the
coils 80, M and 82 are located within the com
bustion chamber I, it may be desirable to provide
more heat at this point than is required for the
cracking and reaction taking place‘ in the vessels
2 and 3. For the purpose of removing part of
the gases of combustion leaving the combustion
chamber I, the vessel 2 is provided with a stack
I08 having a valve MI, whereby a suitable por
_ tion of the gases reaching the top of the vessel
40. 2 may be bled on‘ to the atmosphere without being
‘permitted to pass through the chamber IS an
the subsequent apparatus.
be delivered to a separating chamber before be
ing fractionated in the usual manner.
In this instance, pressure of from 50 to 200
pounds or even higher maybe maintained within 20
the shell I50 and the temperatures in the com
bustion chamber may vary from around 1000" F.’
to as high as 2500° F., the latter temperatures be
ing desirable when times of contact of the gas
or oil introduced through the, inlet I58 are ex 25
tremely short. With longer times of contact
lower temperatures aproaching 1000° 1?‘. may be
employed. If the oil or tar introduced through
the inlet IGI is insu?cient in‘amount to accom
plish the desired quenching e?ect, an additional 30
quenching medium, such for example as steam or
inert gas, may be introduced along with the oil
or tar through the inlet IGI.
The apparatus illustrated in Figure 2 may be
‘substituted 'for that portion of the apparatus 35
shown in Figure 1 which is intended to perform
the same functions, and any of the various ex
pedients illustrated in Figure 1 may be employed
in conjunction with the apparatus illustrated in
Figure 2. For example, the residual liquid with
drawn from the reaction vessel I54 may be eni
ployed as a fuel or may be recycled to the inlet
In Figure 2, I have illustrated a modi?ed form I58.
of apparatus which is especially suitable for use
Furthermore, while I have illustrated in Fig
45 when very high pressures and temperatures are ‘ ure 1 a speci?c form of oil~cracking apparatus,
to be employed. As shown in this ?gure, the ap
it will be obvious that this apparatus may vary
paratus comprises a metal shell I 5d of more or considerably in character, and that my inven
tion may be employed in conjunction with many
less cylindrical shape, the interior of which is di
' vided by means of a refractory liner I 5i into a
50 combustion chamber I52,-a cracking chamber or
passageway I53, and a reaction chamber I 56.‘
Fuel and air are admitted to a burner I55 lo
_cated in the combustion chamber I 52 through
types of cracking apparatus for producing the
oils or tars and gases 'to be used in my process.
It will therefore be apparent to those skilled
in the art that my invention is not limited to the
speci?c examples given hereinabove' by way of
illustration, but may variously be practiced and
valved inlets I 56 and I5‘I,~respectively, the ‘com
55 bustion being controlled to produce gases of com I embodied within the scope of the claims here-v
bustion having a limited amount of free oxygen.’
'inafter, made.
As the gases of combustion pass from the com
I claim: 7
- 1._ The process of effecting thermal conversion
bustion chamber I52 into the passageway I 53,
of hydrocarbons which comprises passing a hy
they are brought into direct contact with a suit
able hydrocarbon gas or oil introduced through drocarbon oil through a cracking zone and there 60
an inlet pipe I58 having a valve I59. A pyrolysis ' subjecting it to an elevated temperature effective
or cracking of the. hydrocarbon gas or oil takes to crack said oil, separating vaporous'and resid
place, resulting in the formation of unsaturated. ual conversionproducts, fractionating the vapors '
hydrocarbons, mainly of a normally gaseous to separate a gasoline fraction, 2. higher-boiling
65 character, for example, gaseous oleiins and the . fraction and uncondensed gases,‘ contacting said 65
like. The mixture of‘ cracked gases and vapors' gases with said residual conversion products at a
then passes into the reaction chamber I50 where temperature of from 750° to 1100° F. in the pres
it is brought into contact with hydrocarbon oil,
ence of a limited amount of free oxygen, frac
tionating resultant ~vaporous products of reac
70 ‘,tar” containing substantial quantities of reactive , tion to recover‘ another gasoline fraction and an
constituents, this oil or tar being introduced other higher-boiling‘fraction, and delivering said
through an inlet pipe ISI having a valve I62. other ‘higher-boiling fraction to said cracking
such, for example, as residual oil or “pressure
Within the ‘reaction chamber I56, which is pref
erably provided with a ba?e It8,the cracked gases
1;. and hydrocarbon oils are caused to react in the
zone for further conversion.
> V
2. The'process of e?ecting thermal conversion
of hydrocarbons which comprises passing a. hy
drocarbon oil through a cracking zone and therev
subjecting it to an elevated temperature effec
tive to crack said oil, separating vaporous and
residual conversion products, fractionating the
vapors .to separate‘ normally liquid constituents
from uncondensed gases, contacting said gases
sion of hydrocarbons which comprises passing a
hydrocarbon oil to a cracking zone and there sub
jecting it to an elevated temperature eiiective to
crack said oil, separating the vaporous and resid
ual conversion products, fractionating the ‘va
pors to separate a gasoline fraction, a higher
with said residual conversion products at a tem
perature of from 750° to 1100° F. in the presence
of a limited amount ‘of free oxygen, fractionat
boiling fraction and uncondensed gases,‘ contact
ing said gases with cracked residual hydrocarbon
oil at a temperature of from 750° to 1100° F. in
ing resultant vaporous products of reaction to the presence of'a. limited amount of free oxygen,
recover normally liquid products therefrom in
fractionating resultant vaporous products of re
cluding materials having boiling points above a action to recover another gasoline fraction and
gasoline boiling point range, and delivering at another higher-boiling fraction, and delivering at
least a portion of the thereby recovered normally I least a portion of said other higher-boiling frac
liquid products having‘ boiling points above‘ a tion to said cracking zone for further conversion.
gasoline boiling-point range to said cracking zone
5. The process of effecting thermal conversion
for further conversion.
of hydrocarbons which comprises, passing a hy
3. The process of effecting thermal conversion drocarbon oil'through a cracking zone and there
of hydrocarbons which comprises subjecting a subjecting it to an elevated temperature e?’ec
hydrocarbon oil to an elevated temperature ef
tive to crack said oil, separating vaporous and
fective to crack said oil, separating vaporous residual conversion products, fractionally con
and residual conversion products, fractionating densing the vapors to recover gasoline therefromI
the vapors to separate normally liquid constitu
contacting said residual conversion products with
ents from uncondensed gases, cracking said gases unsaturated hydrocarbon gases at a tempera
at a temperature in excess of 1300‘ F. to form ture of from’ 750°‘to 1100° F. in the presence of 25
gaseous ole?ns, contacting resultant cracked a limited amount of free oxygen, fractionating
ole?nic ‘gases with said residual conversion prod
resultant vaporous products of reaction to re
ucts at a temperature of from 750° to 1100° F. in ,cover another gasoline fraction and another
the presence of a limited amount of free oxygen, higher-boiling fraction and delivering at least a
andi‘ractionating the resultant products of re
portion of said other higher-boiling fraction to 30
_ action to recover normally liquid products there
4. The process of effecting thermal conver
said cracking zone for further conversion. ‘
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