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Патент USA US2118313

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May 24, 1938.
L. P. KONGSTED
-
ELECTRIC
2,118,313
IGNITION GENERATOR
Filed Feb. 13, 1937
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ATTORNEY.
May 24, 1938.
2,118,313
1.. P. KONGSTED
ELECTRIC‘ IGNITION GENERATOR
Filed Feb. 13, 1957
2_ Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
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Patented May 24,193a
'
'
2,118,313
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,118,313
ELECTRIC IGNITION GENERATOR
Ludvig P. Kongsted, Longmeadow, Mass, assignor
to United American Bosch Corporation, Spring~
?eld, Mass, a corporation of New York
Application February 13, 1937, Serial No. 125,540
9 Claims. (Cl. I'll-20!”
This invention relates to electric generators for lowing detailed description taken in conjunction
ignition circuits, and ‘particularly to one of sim- with the accompanying drawings in‘ which:
ple and inexpensive construction for high speed
Fig. l is a diagrammatic view showing the ar
operation of multicylinder internal combustion
5 engines,
Magnetos for use with high speed multicylinder engines have usually employed permanent
‘magnets, but on account of the time delay in the
magnetic saturation of the generating winding
10 thereof, the voltage and energy delivered is insumcient for reliable ignition at the extremely
high engine speeds now prevalent or desired, par-
ticularly with high compression engines, with the
l'angement of mechanism and circuits of a mag
neto constructed in accordance with this inven- 5
tion and applicable to an eight-cylinder four
cycle internal combustion engine; Fig. 2 is a view
similar to Fig. 1 of a modi?cation applicable to
a six-cylinder four-cycle engine; Fig. 3 is a fur
ther modi?cation applicable to a four-cylinder 10
four-cycle engine; Fig. 4 is a wiring diagram;
Fig. 5 shows a longitudinal section through a
magneto of the timer-distributor type having the
'result that the speed or the compression ratio,
15‘ or both, were kept below the value desired. Ex-'
ternally excited electromagnets have been used
to replace or reenforce the permanent magnets,
magnetic circuit of Fig. 1; Fig. 6 is an end view
of the same with parts removed to show the in- 15
ternal construction; and Fig. 7 is an alternative
wiring diagram of the ?eld circuit.
butv in these magnetos also, the delay in magnetic
saturation has limited the output of the magneto
20 below present requirements due in part to the
suf?ciently large amplitude through the generat-
Referring to Fig. 1, reference numerals l and 2
indicate externally excited ?eld coils for mag
netizing the cores 3 and 4 respectively of the mag- 20
neto. These cores are of laminated sheet steel
of high permeability and otherwise well known
characteristics and are provided with upwardly
ing winding.
extending shanks 5 and 6 which are magnetically
ineffectiveness of the external excitation to bring
about a su?lciently rapid rate of fluxv reversal of
25
'
7
In accordance withniy invention the foregoing‘
connected to the ends of the core 1 of the gener- 25
disadvantages are overcome and satisfactory
sparking obtained at higher continuous speeds
and higher compression ratio than heretofore
Possible. by arranging the magnetic circuit of
30 the magneto in such manner that certain DOrtions thereof are selected to bring about the conduction of magnetic flux through the core of the
generating winding ?rst in one direction and
then in the other, with a reversal thereof that is
35 extremely rapid between the limits of mesnetizetion. In such a magnetic circuit, the time delay
of magnetization of the core of the generating
winding is" reduced by externally excited electromagnets, preferably by means of a plurality of
40 ?eld coils in series, by arrangement or in eifect,
to boost or reinforce the magnetizing eifect of
each other and thereby bring about the reversal
of ?ux through the core of the generating wmd_
ating coil 8 comprising primary and secondary
windings 8’ and 8". The core 3 also has pole
pieces 9 and i0 extending inwardly from its upper
and lower ends and similar pole pieces i I and i2
are provided for core 4. The unmagnetized rotor 30
ll of similar laminations has four radial arms
H which coact with the pole pieces 9, III, I l, and
I: to alter the magnetic circuit therethrough in
a, manner which will be hereinafter more fully
described. It will be observed at this point that 35
all magnetic circuits are completely laminated in
cluding the ?ux generating elements 3 and 4
which differ in this important respect from_the
magnets 01’ usual Permanent magnet magnetos.
The 00115 I and 2 are electrically connected in 40
561195 with each other F0 3- stol'a?e battery l5
through the ignition switch ii. The direction
of current ?ow through the coils is such that the
. mg or ignition con with gréater rapidity and
45 sharpness. In the preferred form of this magneto, advantage is taken of the fact that one or
shanks 5 and 6, which are magnetically con
nected to opposite. ends of the wt] core 1' are of 45
the Same magnet“: polarity’ “.5 Indicated by N
more of the alternative magnetizing paths may
and S, the dotted letters indicating that the mag
be periodically open circuited‘ without weakening
new: gtreléitghof in: E0116 qplece '0 and the pole
it‘:
rotor than when closed later in the rotatiosrln v
the strength thereof upon subsequently connect- 5:553“ tzéreof inopened its r2111: 211%: iiilgni'gg
3111;232:518 core of the generating wind‘
_
The above and other obJects and features of
this invention will be more apparent
to those
.
55 skilled in the art from a consideration of the fol-
Assuming switch It closed and rotor I: turn
jug clockwise as indicated by the arrow, when ‘
the parts are in the position shown in pi g. 1
0
with one of the rqtor arms I‘ adjacent pole piecé 55
2
2,118,318
9 and the diametrically opposite arm adjacent
pole piece I2, a magnetic circuit is provided from
the north pole of core 4 by way of shank 6 and.
coil core ‘I to shank 5, and thence by way of pole
piece 9 through said arms of the rotor to pole
piece I2 forming the south pole of core 4. When
the rotor is in the dotted line position, or 45°
from the former position, the path through core
4 is open and the path through core 3 is closed.
10 rl'he magnetic circuit is now from the north
pole of core 3 by way of shank 5 through core ‘I
and thence by way of shank 6 and pole piece II
through diametrically opposite arms I4 of rotor
I3 to the pole piece I0 forming the south pole of
15 core 3. This reversal of the magnetic ?ux in
core ‘I occurs between the full and dotted line
positions of rotor I3 at the instant each pair of
diametrically opposed arms I4 passes into or out
of cooperation with the pole pieces 9, I0, II and
20 I2. At'each of these instants, the reversal of
flux in the core ‘I is extremely rapid from, its full
value in one direction to its full value in the
other direction. This reversal of ?ux at the ex
treme'high time rate of change induces an un
usually high voltage in the secondary winding
8" of the generating coil at all speeds from a
low speed in starting or at idling to a very high
speed in operation, particularly since the inter
rupter H in the primary winding 8' of the gen
30 erating coil is opened at the same instant. This
rapid reversal is due in part to the completely
laminated magnetic members in which the flux is
generated and by which, it is conducted. It is,
however, more due to the arrangement by which
35 the current in the ?eld coil 2 of the core 4 then
becoming active is boosted by the current gen
erated in the-other ?eld coil I during reversal of
the flux in the coil 1. This boosting effect re
sults from the fact that the turns of the ?eld coil
I are then cut by the ?ux disappearing in its core
3 to thereby generate an electromotive force in
the same direction as the electromotive force of
Figs. 2 and 3 will now be obvious to those skilled
in the art. The same reference numerals have
been applied to similar parts in each of the em
bodiments. Further modi?cations necessary to
adapt the invention to provide magnetos serving
any other number of cylinders of either two or
four cycle engines will be apparent to those skilled
in the art from a consideration of the forms
shown.
Referring to Figs. 5 and 6, which illustrate a
physical embodiment of my invention, the rotor
I3 is fixed to.the timer or cam shaft I8 which
is rotatable in housing I9 having an endplate 28
and an integral internal partition 2I which pro
vide suitable bearings for the shaft. The ?eld 15
coils I and 2 are positioned on the sides of the
housing in non-magnetic cup-shaped protective
covers 22 which may be readily detached from
the housing I9 by screws 23. The cores 3 and 4
are held in position by spring brackets 24 riveted 20
in the cup-shaped members. The shanks 5 and
6 extend through an upwardly projecting portion
of the housing I8 and support the outer ends 01’
core ‘I. 'I'he'generating coil 8 is separately housed
in a cylindrical insulating member 25 which pro
jects into the upwardly extending portion of
housing I9. Caps 28 hold the core ‘I on shanks
5 and 6. A centrifugal governor 21 controls the
timing} of the interrupter cam 28 in the well
known way. A plate 28, which is preferably ad
justable manually or otherwise, carries the in
terrupter I‘I, capable of operation at sufficiently
high speed, adjacent the cam 28. A distributor
rotor 38, for a conventional distributor cap II, is
mounted on the outer end of cam 28.
‘
36
From the foregoing description taken in con
junction with the accompanying drawings, ,it will
be seen thatl have provided a magneto structure
in which a pair of externally excited magnets are
alternately connected in magnetic circuit through 40
the core of a generating coil in such manner that
the magnetic ?ux through the generating coil is
rapidly reversed, and that at the instant of re
versal one of the externally excited ?eld ‘coils
boosts the other ?eld coil to thereby ‘augment the 45
the battery. The additional current resulting
from this added electromotive force flows to the
?eld coil 2 to increase at the instant the rapidity
with which the flux is built up in its core 4._ rate of this ?ux reversal.
I have described the principles of operation of
Without such a boosting effect of one ?eld coil
on the other, at each period of ?ux reversal, the the invention in connection with the preferred
?ux established by the core then becoming active form of the apparatus. It will be understood
would increase at a reduced rate because the that the apparatus shown is merely illustrative 50
counter-electromotive force generated in it by the and that changes may be made as desired by
establishment of the ?ux through its core opposes .those skilled in the art within the scope of the
‘ that of the battery.
As a result of the fact that at each period of
55 flux reversal the magnetic circuit through one
of the cores, 3 or 4 is'open, the flux thenpassing
through rotor I8 and also through the air gaps is
that ?ux produced by only one ?eld coil. This
appended claims.
For instance, the magneto
may have permanent magnets to replace or sup- _
plement the electromagnets. Also, the generat 55
ing coil 8 may comprise'a primary winding only
for low tension ignition or for supplying inter
rupter currents to an outside high tension igni
tion coil in the well known way. Also this mag
neto may be arranged for ignition of two-cycle
case, contributes to a still further increase in or other engines, and for ignition of engines of
the rapidity of the flux reversal at each period various types requiring sparks at irregular in
of ignition. It will be noted ‘that in a position tervals' Also the magneto may be driven at other
intermediate those shown in full and dotted lines' than cam-shaft speed, in which case distributor
gearing may be necessary. Also the externally
in Fig. 1 or as shown in Fig. 6, the magnetic cir
factor, resulting in lower ?ux densities in the air
‘.gap and-pole pieces than would otherwise be the
excited ?eld coils may be connected in electrical
tarily closed through adjacent rotor arms I4. parallel with each other and the bene?cial effect
This helps the ?ux through coil I build up and. of the. series arrangement obtained by the use of
prevents the ?ux through coil 2 from falling a high reactance or transformer with center tap.
connected in the circuit between the battery and
70 until the rotor approaches the position shown in held coils, as. for instance by coupling .coil 42
dotted lines, during which period the magnetic
shown in Fig. 7., ‘In this arrangement the cur
circuit through the coil 2 is suddenly opened re
rent enters the center tap of the transformer 42
sulting in the previously noted boost in the cur
and at standstill conditions the current divides
rent through coil I.
75 The operation of the embodiments shown in equally between the two ?eld circuits land 2, and
cuits through both coil cores 3 and 4 are inomen
3
9,118,818
the resultant magnetic ?ux .in the transformer
core is practically zero since the two ‘?elds oppose
each other. During rotation of ‘the magneto the
?ux pulsations in l and 2 which occur alternate
ly will induce voltage‘ and current pulsations
which will tend to oppose the change in ?ux.
Thus assume for the moment that the ?ux
through the core of I is collapsing. A voltage
and current is immediately generated which tends
10 to maintain the ?ux through I. This increase in
average ?eld current through the branch circuit
I will induce a voltage and current in the opposite
direction in' the other half of the transformer
winding which will be in the same direction as
15 the normal ?eld current in 2, thus strengthen
?eld coil.
6. In an externally excited generator, a gener
ating winding, two externally excited ?eld coils,
stator magnetic members for said ?eld coils,
means for alternately conducting magnetic ?ux
from one exciting coil in one direction through
said generating winding and for conducting mag
netic ?ux from the other ?eld coil in the re
verse direction through the generating winding,‘
means for short circuiting the magnetic circuits
of both coils simultaneously between the periods
of ?ux reversal, and electrical connections for
. said ?eld coils so arranged that the decline of the 15
ing or reinforcing this circuit at the proper mo
ment when an increase in ?ux must take place.
magnetic ?ux through one ?eld coil boosts the
current ?owing through the ?eldcoil having its
Having thus described the invention, what is
magnetic circuit closed through the generating
claimed is:
20
by the decline of magnetic ?ux through one ?eld
coil boosts the current ?owing through the other
'
winding.
I
1. In an externally excited ignition generator, a
generating winding, externally excited ?eld coils,
a rotor for conducting magnetic ?ux from the ?eld
coils in reverse directions through the generat
ing winding, means for closing the magnetic cir
cuit from one ?eld coil through the generating
winding and opening the magnetic circuit from
another ?eld coil, and electrical connections for
the ?eld coils whereby a‘ decrease in magnetic.
?ux in one ?eld coil induces a current which
30 augments the current in the other ?eld coil.
2. In an externally excited ignition generator,
a generating winding, two externally excited
?eld coils electrically connected in series,a rotor
for conducting magnetic ?ux from the ?eld coils
" in reverse directions through the generating
winding, means for closing the magnetic circuit
from one ?eld coil through the generating wind
ing and opening the magnetic circuit from an
other ?eld coil, and electrical connections for the
40. ?eld coils whereby a decrease in magnetic ?ux
in one ?eld induces a current which augments
the current in the other ?eld coil.
3. In an externally excited ignition generator,
7. In an externally excited generator, a gener '20
ating winding with a magnetic core, two external
ly excited ?eld coils, cores for the ?eld coils hav
ing similar poles magnetically connected to re
spective ends of the core of the generating wind
ing, a rotor adapted to magnetically connect a 25
pole of the core of one ?eld coil to a diametrically
opposite pole of the core of the other ?eld coil,
whereby the magnetic ?ux through one ?eld coil
is'?rst conducted in one direction through the
generating winding and then the magnetic ?ux 30
from the other ?eld coil is conducted in reverse
direction through the generating winding, and
electrical connections between said ?eld coils so
arranged that the decline in the magnetic ?ux
through one ‘?eld coll boosts the current ?owing 35
through the other ?eld coil during the period
that the magnetic circuit of the second ?eld coil
is closed through said generating winding.
8. In a magneto, an unmagnetized rotor, a gen
erating winding having a core, polepieces at
a generating winding, two externally excited ?eld
tached to each end of said core and having pole
Lfaces positioned above the horizontal median of
said rotor, externally excited ?eld coils having
cores magnetically connected to each polepiece
coils electrically connected in parallel, a rotor
for conducting magnetic ?ux from the ?eld coils
in reversevv directions through the generating
winding, means 'for closing the magnetic circuit
positioned below said horizontal median and hav
ing a magnetic polarity opposite that of said ?rst
mentioned pole faces, means including said rotor
from one ?eld coil through the generating wind
ing and opening the magnetic circuit from‘ an-‘
other ?eld coil, and'a mutual inductance‘ in the
electrical circuit of the ?eld coils whereby a de
crease in magnetic ?ux in one ?eld induces a
current which augments the current in the other
?eld
coil.
‘
‘
4. In an externally excited generator, at gener
ating winding, two externally excited ?eld coils,
means for alternately conducting magnetic ?ux
from one exciting coil in one direction through
40
in like polarity relation, and other pole faces
for alternately closing the magnetic circuit from
one ?eld coil through the generating winding ~
and opening a magnetic circuit from the other
?eld coil, and electrical connections between said
coils so arranged that the current generated by
the decline of magnetic ?ux through one ?eld
coil boosts the current ?owing through the other
?eld coil.
,
9. In an externally excited generator, 9. gen
erating winding, externally excited ?eld windings,
electrical connections for said ?eld coils so ar
electrical connections between said ?eld windings,
means including a rotor for closing the magnetic 60
circuit from a part of the ?eld winding through
the generating winding and simultaneously open
ing the magnetic circuit from another part of the
ranged that the decline of the magnetic ?ux
?eld winding and subsequently clomng the mag
the generating winding and for conducting mag
netic ?ux from the other ?eld coil in the reverse
direction through the generating winding, and
65 through one ?eld coil boosts the current through
the other ?eld coil.
,
netic circuit which was previously open‘ and 65
opening the magnetic circuit which was previ
5. In an externally excited generator, 9. gen
ously closed, said' electrical connections between
erating winding, two externally excited ?eld coils, - said ?eld windings being so arranged that a de
means for alternately conducting magnetic ?ux crease in magnetic ?ux in the open magnetic cir
70 from one exciting coil in one direction through
the generating winding and for conducting mag
netic ?ux from the other ?eld coil in the reverse
direction through the generating winding, and
series electrical connections for said coils where
cuit of one part of the ?eld winding induces a 70
current which augments the current in that part
of the ?eld winding having its magnetic circuit
closed through the generating winding.
LUDVIG P. KONGBTED.
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