Патент USA US2118313код для вставки
May 24, 1938. L. P. KONGSTED - ELECTRIC 2,118,313 IGNITION GENERATOR Filed Feb. 13, 1937 / - 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 0 J, 5L :______:_ 7 0U , . \ 1 p0 A’l L_ Z M v 6 Z. J I , y 4,1 / _ /\. IN VENTOR. Zzuivz'gl? Kama-Zed ATTORNEY. May 24, 1938. 2,118,313 1.. P. KONGSTED ELECTRIC‘ IGNITION GENERATOR Filed Feb. 13, 1957 2_ Sheets-Sheet 2 IIIIIHIHHHII [lllllllllllll ( 1 (3/ Jay X7 INVENTOR. ladl/q'q?jfalysk’d In Q0“ ATTORNEY. Patented May 24,193a ' ' 2,118,313 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,118,313 ELECTRIC IGNITION GENERATOR Ludvig P. Kongsted, Longmeadow, Mass, assignor to United American Bosch Corporation, Spring~ ?eld, Mass, a corporation of New York Application February 13, 1937, Serial No. 125,540 9 Claims. (Cl. I'll-20!” This invention relates to electric generators for lowing detailed description taken in conjunction ignition circuits, and ‘particularly to one of sim- with the accompanying drawings in‘ which: ple and inexpensive construction for high speed Fig. l is a diagrammatic view showing the ar operation of multicylinder internal combustion 5 engines, Magnetos for use with high speed multicylinder engines have usually employed permanent ‘magnets, but on account of the time delay in the magnetic saturation of the generating winding 10 thereof, the voltage and energy delivered is insumcient for reliable ignition at the extremely high engine speeds now prevalent or desired, par- ticularly with high compression engines, with the l'angement of mechanism and circuits of a mag neto constructed in accordance with this inven- 5 tion and applicable to an eight-cylinder four cycle internal combustion engine; Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of a modi?cation applicable to a six-cylinder four-cycle engine; Fig. 3 is a fur ther modi?cation applicable to a four-cylinder 10 four-cycle engine; Fig. 4 is a wiring diagram; Fig. 5 shows a longitudinal section through a magneto of the timer-distributor type having the 'result that the speed or the compression ratio, 15‘ or both, were kept below the value desired. Ex-' ternally excited electromagnets have been used to replace or reenforce the permanent magnets, magnetic circuit of Fig. 1; Fig. 6 is an end view of the same with parts removed to show the in- 15 ternal construction; and Fig. 7 is an alternative wiring diagram of the ?eld circuit. butv in these magnetos also, the delay in magnetic saturation has limited the output of the magneto 20 below present requirements due in part to the suf?ciently large amplitude through the generat- Referring to Fig. 1, reference numerals l and 2 indicate externally excited ?eld coils for mag netizing the cores 3 and 4 respectively of the mag- 20 neto. These cores are of laminated sheet steel of high permeability and otherwise well known characteristics and are provided with upwardly ing winding. extending shanks 5 and 6 which are magnetically ineffectiveness of the external excitation to bring about a su?lciently rapid rate of fluxv reversal of 25 ' 7 In accordance withniy invention the foregoing‘ connected to the ends of the core 1 of the gener- 25 disadvantages are overcome and satisfactory sparking obtained at higher continuous speeds and higher compression ratio than heretofore Possible. by arranging the magnetic circuit of 30 the magneto in such manner that certain DOrtions thereof are selected to bring about the conduction of magnetic flux through the core of the generating winding ?rst in one direction and then in the other, with a reversal thereof that is 35 extremely rapid between the limits of mesnetizetion. In such a magnetic circuit, the time delay of magnetization of the core of the generating winding is" reduced by externally excited electromagnets, preferably by means of a plurality of 40 ?eld coils in series, by arrangement or in eifect, to boost or reinforce the magnetizing eifect of each other and thereby bring about the reversal of ?ux through the core of the generating wmd_ ating coil 8 comprising primary and secondary windings 8’ and 8". The core 3 also has pole pieces 9 and i0 extending inwardly from its upper and lower ends and similar pole pieces i I and i2 are provided for core 4. The unmagnetized rotor 30 ll of similar laminations has four radial arms H which coact with the pole pieces 9, III, I l, and I: to alter the magnetic circuit therethrough in a, manner which will be hereinafter more fully described. It will be observed at this point that 35 all magnetic circuits are completely laminated in cluding the ?ux generating elements 3 and 4 which differ in this important respect from_the magnets 01’ usual Permanent magnet magnetos. The 00115 I and 2 are electrically connected in 40 561195 with each other F0 3- stol'a?e battery l5 through the ignition switch ii. The direction of current ?ow through the coils is such that the . mg or ignition con with gréater rapidity and 45 sharpness. In the preferred form of this magneto, advantage is taken of the fact that one or shanks 5 and 6, which are magnetically con nected to opposite. ends of the wt] core 1' are of 45 the Same magnet“: polarity’ “.5 Indicated by N more of the alternative magnetizing paths may and S, the dotted letters indicating that the mag be periodically open circuited‘ without weakening new: gtreléitghof in: E0116 qplece '0 and the pole it‘: rotor than when closed later in the rotatiosrln v the strength thereof upon subsequently connect- 5:553“ tzéreof inopened its r2111: 211%: iiilgni'gg 3111;232:518 core of the generating wind‘ _ The above and other obJects and features of this invention will be more apparent to those . 55 skilled in the art from a consideration of the fol- Assuming switch It closed and rotor I: turn jug clockwise as indicated by the arrow, when ‘ the parts are in the position shown in pi g. 1 0 with one of the rqtor arms I‘ adjacent pole piecé 55 2 2,118,318 9 and the diametrically opposite arm adjacent pole piece I2, a magnetic circuit is provided from the north pole of core 4 by way of shank 6 and. coil core ‘I to shank 5, and thence by way of pole piece 9 through said arms of the rotor to pole piece I2 forming the south pole of core 4. When the rotor is in the dotted line position, or 45° from the former position, the path through core 4 is open and the path through core 3 is closed. 10 rl'he magnetic circuit is now from the north pole of core 3 by way of shank 5 through core ‘I and thence by way of shank 6 and pole piece II through diametrically opposite arms I4 of rotor I3 to the pole piece I0 forming the south pole of 15 core 3. This reversal of the magnetic ?ux in core ‘I occurs between the full and dotted line positions of rotor I3 at the instant each pair of diametrically opposed arms I4 passes into or out of cooperation with the pole pieces 9, I0, II and 20 I2. At'each of these instants, the reversal of flux in the core ‘I is extremely rapid from, its full value in one direction to its full value in the other direction. This reversal of ?ux at the ex treme'high time rate of change induces an un usually high voltage in the secondary winding 8" of the generating coil at all speeds from a low speed in starting or at idling to a very high speed in operation, particularly since the inter rupter H in the primary winding 8' of the gen 30 erating coil is opened at the same instant. This rapid reversal is due in part to the completely laminated magnetic members in which the flux is generated and by which, it is conducted. It is, however, more due to the arrangement by which 35 the current in the ?eld coil 2 of the core 4 then becoming active is boosted by the current gen erated in the-other ?eld coil I during reversal of the flux in the coil 1. This boosting effect re sults from the fact that the turns of the ?eld coil I are then cut by the ?ux disappearing in its core 3 to thereby generate an electromotive force in the same direction as the electromotive force of Figs. 2 and 3 will now be obvious to those skilled in the art. The same reference numerals have been applied to similar parts in each of the em bodiments. Further modi?cations necessary to adapt the invention to provide magnetos serving any other number of cylinders of either two or four cycle engines will be apparent to those skilled in the art from a consideration of the forms shown. Referring to Figs. 5 and 6, which illustrate a physical embodiment of my invention, the rotor I3 is fixed to.the timer or cam shaft I8 which is rotatable in housing I9 having an endplate 28 and an integral internal partition 2I which pro vide suitable bearings for the shaft. The ?eld 15 coils I and 2 are positioned on the sides of the housing in non-magnetic cup-shaped protective covers 22 which may be readily detached from the housing I9 by screws 23. The cores 3 and 4 are held in position by spring brackets 24 riveted 20 in the cup-shaped members. The shanks 5 and 6 extend through an upwardly projecting portion of the housing I8 and support the outer ends 01’ core ‘I. 'I'he'generating coil 8 is separately housed in a cylindrical insulating member 25 which pro jects into the upwardly extending portion of housing I9. Caps 28 hold the core ‘I on shanks 5 and 6. A centrifugal governor 21 controls the timing} of the interrupter cam 28 in the well known way. A plate 28, which is preferably ad justable manually or otherwise, carries the in terrupter I‘I, capable of operation at sufficiently high speed, adjacent the cam 28. A distributor rotor 38, for a conventional distributor cap II, is mounted on the outer end of cam 28. ‘ 36 From the foregoing description taken in con junction with the accompanying drawings, ,it will be seen thatl have provided a magneto structure in which a pair of externally excited magnets are alternately connected in magnetic circuit through 40 the core of a generating coil in such manner that the magnetic ?ux through the generating coil is rapidly reversed, and that at the instant of re versal one of the externally excited ?eld ‘coils boosts the other ?eld coil to thereby ‘augment the 45 the battery. The additional current resulting from this added electromotive force flows to the ?eld coil 2 to increase at the instant the rapidity with which the flux is built up in its core 4._ rate of this ?ux reversal. I have described the principles of operation of Without such a boosting effect of one ?eld coil on the other, at each period of ?ux reversal, the the invention in connection with the preferred ?ux established by the core then becoming active form of the apparatus. It will be understood would increase at a reduced rate because the that the apparatus shown is merely illustrative 50 counter-electromotive force generated in it by the and that changes may be made as desired by establishment of the ?ux through its core opposes .those skilled in the art within the scope of the ‘ that of the battery. As a result of the fact that at each period of 55 flux reversal the magnetic circuit through one of the cores, 3 or 4 is'open, the flux thenpassing through rotor I8 and also through the air gaps is that ?ux produced by only one ?eld coil. This appended claims. For instance, the magneto may have permanent magnets to replace or sup- _ plement the electromagnets. Also, the generat 55 ing coil 8 may comprise'a primary winding only for low tension ignition or for supplying inter rupter currents to an outside high tension igni tion coil in the well known way. Also this mag neto may be arranged for ignition of two-cycle case, contributes to a still further increase in or other engines, and for ignition of engines of the rapidity of the flux reversal at each period various types requiring sparks at irregular in of ignition. It will be noted ‘that in a position tervals' Also the magneto may be driven at other intermediate those shown in full and dotted lines' than cam-shaft speed, in which case distributor gearing may be necessary. Also the externally in Fig. 1 or as shown in Fig. 6, the magnetic cir factor, resulting in lower ?ux densities in the air ‘.gap and-pole pieces than would otherwise be the excited ?eld coils may be connected in electrical tarily closed through adjacent rotor arms I4. parallel with each other and the bene?cial effect This helps the ?ux through coil I build up and. of the. series arrangement obtained by the use of prevents the ?ux through coil 2 from falling a high reactance or transformer with center tap. connected in the circuit between the battery and 70 until the rotor approaches the position shown in held coils, as. for instance by coupling .coil 42 dotted lines, during which period the magnetic shown in Fig. 7., ‘In this arrangement the cur circuit through the coil 2 is suddenly opened re rent enters the center tap of the transformer 42 sulting in the previously noted boost in the cur and at standstill conditions the current divides rent through coil I. 75 The operation of the embodiments shown in equally between the two ?eld circuits land 2, and cuits through both coil cores 3 and 4 are inomen 3 9,118,818 the resultant magnetic ?ux .in the transformer core is practically zero since the two ‘?elds oppose each other. During rotation of ‘the magneto the ?ux pulsations in l and 2 which occur alternate ly will induce voltage‘ and current pulsations which will tend to oppose the change in ?ux. Thus assume for the moment that the ?ux through the core of I is collapsing. A voltage and current is immediately generated which tends 10 to maintain the ?ux through I. This increase in average ?eld current through the branch circuit I will induce a voltage and current in the opposite direction in' the other half of the transformer winding which will be in the same direction as 15 the normal ?eld current in 2, thus strengthen ?eld coil. 6. In an externally excited generator, a gener ating winding, two externally excited ?eld coils, stator magnetic members for said ?eld coils, means for alternately conducting magnetic ?ux from one exciting coil in one direction through said generating winding and for conducting mag netic ?ux from the other ?eld coil in the re verse direction through the generating winding,‘ means for short circuiting the magnetic circuits of both coils simultaneously between the periods of ?ux reversal, and electrical connections for . said ?eld coils so arranged that the decline of the 15 ing or reinforcing this circuit at the proper mo ment when an increase in ?ux must take place. magnetic ?ux through one ?eld coil boosts the current ?owing through the ?eldcoil having its Having thus described the invention, what is magnetic circuit closed through the generating claimed is: 20 by the decline of magnetic ?ux through one ?eld coil boosts the current ?owing through the other ' winding. I 1. In an externally excited ignition generator, a generating winding, externally excited ?eld coils, a rotor for conducting magnetic ?ux from the ?eld coils in reverse directions through the generat ing winding, means for closing the magnetic cir cuit from one ?eld coil through the generating winding and opening the magnetic circuit from another ?eld coil, and electrical connections for the ?eld coils whereby a‘ decrease in magnetic. ?ux in one ?eld coil induces a current which 30 augments the current in the other ?eld coil. 2. In an externally excited ignition generator, a generating winding, two externally excited ?eld coils electrically connected in series,a rotor for conducting magnetic ?ux from the ?eld coils " in reverse directions through the generating winding, means for closing the magnetic circuit from one ?eld coil through the generating wind ing and opening the magnetic circuit from an other ?eld coil, and electrical connections for the 40. ?eld coils whereby a decrease in magnetic ?ux in one ?eld induces a current which augments the current in the other ?eld coil. 3. In an externally excited ignition generator, 7. In an externally excited generator, a gener '20 ating winding with a magnetic core, two external ly excited ?eld coils, cores for the ?eld coils hav ing similar poles magnetically connected to re spective ends of the core of the generating wind ing, a rotor adapted to magnetically connect a 25 pole of the core of one ?eld coil to a diametrically opposite pole of the core of the other ?eld coil, whereby the magnetic ?ux through one ?eld coil is'?rst conducted in one direction through the generating winding and then the magnetic ?ux 30 from the other ?eld coil is conducted in reverse direction through the generating winding, and electrical connections between said ?eld coils so arranged that the decline in the magnetic ?ux through one ‘?eld coll boosts the current ?owing 35 through the other ?eld coil during the period that the magnetic circuit of the second ?eld coil is closed through said generating winding. 8. In a magneto, an unmagnetized rotor, a gen erating winding having a core, polepieces at a generating winding, two externally excited ?eld tached to each end of said core and having pole Lfaces positioned above the horizontal median of said rotor, externally excited ?eld coils having cores magnetically connected to each polepiece coils electrically connected in parallel, a rotor for conducting magnetic ?ux from the ?eld coils in reversevv directions through the generating winding, means 'for closing the magnetic circuit positioned below said horizontal median and hav ing a magnetic polarity opposite that of said ?rst mentioned pole faces, means including said rotor from one ?eld coil through the generating wind ing and opening the magnetic circuit from‘ an-‘ other ?eld coil, and'a mutual inductance‘ in the electrical circuit of the ?eld coils whereby a de crease in magnetic ?ux in one ?eld induces a current which augments the current in the other ?eld coil. ‘ ‘ 4. In an externally excited generator, at gener ating winding, two externally excited ?eld coils, means for alternately conducting magnetic ?ux from one exciting coil in one direction through 40 in like polarity relation, and other pole faces for alternately closing the magnetic circuit from one ?eld coil through the generating winding ~ and opening a magnetic circuit from the other ?eld coil, and electrical connections between said coils so arranged that the current generated by the decline of magnetic ?ux through one ?eld coil boosts the current ?owing through the other ?eld coil. , 9. In an externally excited generator, 9. gen erating winding, externally excited ?eld windings, electrical connections for said ?eld coils so ar electrical connections between said ?eld windings, means including a rotor for closing the magnetic 60 circuit from a part of the ?eld winding through the generating winding and simultaneously open ing the magnetic circuit from another part of the ranged that the decline of the magnetic ?ux ?eld winding and subsequently clomng the mag the generating winding and for conducting mag netic ?ux from the other ?eld coil in the reverse direction through the generating winding, and 65 through one ?eld coil boosts the current through the other ?eld coil. , netic circuit which was previously open‘ and 65 opening the magnetic circuit which was previ 5. In an externally excited generator, 9. gen ously closed, said' electrical connections between erating winding, two externally excited ?eld coils, - said ?eld windings being so arranged that a de means for alternately conducting magnetic ?ux crease in magnetic ?ux in the open magnetic cir 70 from one exciting coil in one direction through the generating winding and for conducting mag netic ?ux from the other ?eld coil in the reverse direction through the generating winding, and series electrical connections for said coils where cuit of one part of the ?eld winding induces a 70 current which augments the current in that part of the ?eld winding having its magnetic circuit closed through the generating winding. LUDVIG P. KONGBTED.