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Патент USA US2118319

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Malyv 24, 1938'.
»Filed sept. v14, 193e>
Kâ« f
Gttor?eg s_
Patented May 24, 1938
waltèrlA. Mami-¿cleveland Heights, ohio
Application September/14,193.6, Serial No. 1100,596
Va claims.
(ci. `12s-_312)
My invention is an >improvement in internal ,reference being made tothe-accompanying draw
combustion enginesand relates more particularly k ing illustrating these embodiments and in which
vto combustion chambers for the same.
n One of the objects _of my invention is- to pro
5 vide a type offconstru‘ction which will induce‘and
likeA reference 'characters are employed to desig
nate like parts throughout the same.
yIn the drawing: '
maintain an annularrotational swirl ofthe gases . ; Figure 1 is a vertical section ,through a combus
` in the combustion chamberduring the expansion -, tion chamber and. associated piston illustratin
:one form‘of my invention. . ’
Another object is to'> minimize turbulence dur-v
10 ing thecompresslon stroke before ignition and
induce maximum turbulenceafter ignition and
' during the expansion stroke.
Figure'Z is a verticall section through a con
struction illustrating a secondv form of my inven
In Figure 1 the `device shown illustrates a gen
ì Another object of my invention isto provide aw eral type of construction in which the piston is
means wherebythe compression ratio may be preferably madeof aluminum or some otherma
l5 automatically changed as the engine warms up in , terial having a relatively higher `rate of expan
sion under increased heat than the material _used
A further object ~isto -provide a constructionk ' for the plate or member dividing .the combustion
wherebya part of lthe piston head may be kept chamber from the air cell, whereas in Figure 2 is
at relatively higher temperatures than the main illustrated a device of the general type which may
be used where. the relative rate of thermal expan
part of the piston. _
~ 'e
vA still furtherfobject is to provide a construc
sion of the respective parts is reversed, that is,` in
which .the plate .or member dividing the combus
' kept hot during,` operation and so arranged that tion chamber from the> air cell has a higher rate
tion/whereby a part of'4 the piston ~head may be
part of this heat will be dissipated to the air or . of thermal expansion than the piston head. »
gas inthe air-cell.
i Either typeof construction may be used >where»
A further object is, to reduce .the amount of ~ `the relative rates of thermal expansion of -plate
, heat transferred through the piston and rings to rand piston are approximately `the 'samekï_the cylinder wall and jacket» while maintaining ‘ It isy to be understood that, while the devices
the temperature of that part of the piston more illustrated in the drawing and described herein
30 largely in contact with the main part of the com f in detail are designed for use in compression igni
bustion chamber space at a proper temperature. tion engines, I do not vso limitthe invention,`for
Another object is to maintain a type of turbu- ' itmay alsobeïapplied .to other types of internal
lencefwhich, in compression ignition engines, will
combustion> engines requiring lsome* of `the im'
tend to keep unburned fuel from the cylinder f
provements listed above.
4Referring more specifically first to Figure 1, the
35` walls, providing a current of air from the air cell
to mix with the combustion chamber gases after piston is indicated at I with the usual packing
they have passed by the hot part of the piston , rings 2. .The piston operates in the cylinder 3
and is formed with a head portion 4.
A further object is Vto - provide a construction
The head of the piston also includes the up-'
40 whereby a comparatively small and inexpensive i wardly extending annular wall 5 whichl encloses
p_art will be morel subject .t`o failure vfrom acci
a chamber 6 in the piston head. f The chamber 6
dentall excessive heat or pres'sure in the combus
tion chamber and so arranged and proportioned
that such small and inexpensive part will fail by
; 45 a smaller excess of heat or pressure than would
cated generally at 8., rIt isto be noted in the4
form illustrated that the bottomwall 9 of the
be required to cause similar failure of other parts
combustion chamber formedin the piston head
of the combustion> chamber.
is substantially iiat while the side wall I0 leading
from the wall 9 upwardly is curved so thatthe
greatest diameter of the chamber within the head- `
Another object is to provide a convenient
'means for changing the compression ratio or the
50 relative volume ofthe main kcombustion chamber
` andan air cell associated therewith by changing
a relatively small part or parts.
Other objects and advantages of the invention
forms, with thefwall 1 of the cylinder head, ythe
combustion chamber,v the` fuel `inlet being- indi
will become apparent as the following description
55 of two embodiments of the invention progresses,
is at the extreme upper portion.
. The head 4 .of .the piston is formed with an an
nular hollow member il threaded to partially re
ceive a cap screw plug I2, the chamber `I3 formed
therein having communication with the combus
tion chamber 6 through one or more ducts I4.
v 50
_ 2,118,319
A plate I5 is securely held in place on the
member II by means of the cap screw plug I2
as indicated in Figure 1. A spacer member of
predetermined thickness is interposed between
the member Il and the inwardly extending por
tions I'I of the plate I5 to regulate the spacing of
the outer peripheral edge I8‘of the plate with
respect .to the adjoining surface of the piston
head. The washer or spacer I6 may be of a se
10 lected material to more or less control the rate
of heat exchange between the plate I5 and the
size of the opening between the peripheral edge
26 of the wall 20` and the adjacent walls I0 or 29
of the piston head. A c_ap screw 21 is threaded
into the upper portion of the chamber 22 to close
the same from above. 'I'he port I4 provides com
munication between the chamber and the air cell
I9 to equalize pressures between the air cell and
the chamber 22.
In this embodiment the ‘air cell I9 formed by
the plate 20 is substantially the same as that
Vshown in connection with the embodiment illus
trated in Figure 1. However, I have in addition
It will be seen that .the plate or wall I5 to
illustrated a slightly diiîerent manner of seating
gether with the piston head 4 and the lower por
the peripheral edge of the plate with the piston
15 tions of the side walls I8 provide and enclose an head. The peripheral edge of the plate is formed
air cell I9 which has communication through the with a depending annular portion 28 for seating
duct I4 with the chamber I3 and .through the >with the adjacent walls I0 and 29 of the piston,
peripheral spacing between the plate edge I8 and head. The walls I0 and 29 may converge as shown
the wall I0 with the main combustion chamber 6. » to form an annular groove or depression 30 in the
'I'he peripheral edge I8 of the plate is surfaced piston head 4. When the plate is made to close
to seat with an adjacent portion I0 of the` piston this annular space between it andthe adjacent 20
the spacing of the surfaces I0 and I8 being con
walls of the piston head, it iszpreferred that the
trolled by the thickness of the washer'or ’spacer wall 26 first engage the wall 29 in seating rela
I6, or by selection of materials for the plate I5 tion. Since the higher temperaturesv are present
25 and the piston head 4_ having diiïerent thermal in the combustion chamber 6 when the engine is
expansion ratios. In the embodiment illustrated running, the walls 26 and 29 will thus be less sub
in Figure 1, I may construct the plate I5 of some ject to burning or'other destructive action, than
relatively low expansive metal or alloy such as the walls 3I and I0.
nichrome, while the piston may befmade of alu
The opening between 26 and I0 or 29 may thus
30 minum. The width of the opening or air passage be varied mechanically by selection'of a spacer
between the surfaces I0 and I8 will change in 25 of desired thickness, or thermostatically by se 30
proportion to the diiîerence in operating tempera
lection of materials having desirable thermally
tures and the thermal expansion of these parts.` responsive characteristics. In other words, in
This may close the opening between I 0 and I8 this embodiment I may construct the piston of
35 completely, thus eliminating the air cell I9 volume iron and the plate or wall 20 of aluminum and
from the total combustion chamber volume, or by thus automatically control the size of the opening 85
varying the width of opening between I0 and I8 between 29 and 26 as a result of the use of mate
there will be variation in rate of air ñow between rials having diiîerent thermal expansion ratios.
the air cell and the main combustion chamber.
In both modifications of my invention there is
Diii'erent operating conditions .and require
created a novel turbulence of the fuel and/or air
ments may need different adjustments or mate
in the combustion chamber which may be de
. , rials.
For. instance, automotive applications may
have special need for initial high compression to
aid in cold starting and at thefsame time benefit
from reduced compression under normal running
or operating temperatures or conditions. In such
cases materials or adjustments may besuch that
the opening or spacing between I0 and I8 is en
tirely closed when cold, but slightly open when
Other operating requirements may be better
served by adjustment and materials which .give a
wider opening between I0 and I8 when cool and a
smaller opening, with a resultant greater velocity
of air through the opening, at higher tempera
tures. Proper selection of materials and adjust
ments, will enablethe same type of construction
tomeet widely different operating conditions and
swirl. When the piston is at top center at the
end of the compression stroke, the pressure of
air in both the air cell and the combustion cham
ber in equalized. Thus when the piston moves 45
downwardly on the expansion stroke, the pressure
in the combustion chamber is reduced and air
from the air cell will ñow out through the annular
space between the plate I5 or 20 and the adjacent
wall I0 and intothe chamber 6. Up to that time 50
the'air in the combustion chamber is relatively
'I'he gas in' the chamber expands downwardly,
following the piston, but the annular curtain of
air from the air cell, passing out through the an 55
nular space above referred to, produces a force .
'tending to carry itself and the gas in the combus
tion chamber up along the cylinder wall, thence
In Figure 2, I have illustrated a modiñcation of
my invention which is similar in many respects to
that shown Lin Figure 1, as, for instance the
fundamental relationship of the main combustion
chamber 6 and the air cell I9 separated by a plate
or wall 20, but having communication by means
of the opening 2I.`
scribed as in the nature of an annular rotational
In the present embodiment the chamber 22
and plate or wall 20 are formed integral one with
the other as illustrated and the bottom Wall of the
chamber 22 is secured to the head 4 of the piston
by means of a threaded member 23 and a nut 24.
»The bottom wall of the,chamber 22 is spaced
from the head of the piston by means of a spacer
or washer- 25 which may be selected for thickness
75 or for heat conductive qualities to regulate the
across the cylinder head inwardly toward the cen
ter thereof and then downwardly toward the pis 60
ton head. Due to the larger volume and hence
greater mass at the outer part of the combustion
chamber relative to the axis of the chamber, the
slower movement at the circumference produces a
faster movement along the axis.
It will thus be observed that an annular rota
tional swirl is imparted to the air and/or fuel in
the chamber by the movement of an annular
sheet of vair outwardly of the air cell. In this con 70
nection the air cell functions as such and not as
a precombustion chamber.
In my invention, the gas along the cylinder wall
is blown upwardly away from the piston by the
direction of force of the annular jet of air issuing
` .herein-mailand the
è depression extend
under load, less heat'l‘onïî'theipistoniïrings', cleaner' "l
exhaust, and inexpensive repair in the event of '
,fdamageëitoi the?airïcell?ëplate as a result of im
proper fuel or timing producing too high pres
sures on cold starting.
Various changes in the details of construction
35 and arrangement of parts may be made without
departing from the spirit of the invention or the
scope of the appended claims. `
1. In an internal combustion engine the combi
nation with a cylinder and a piston operating
therein, of a member carried by the head of the
piston, but spaced therefrom to provide an air
cell, said cell having annular peripheral commu
nication‘with a side wall of a combustion chamber
45 formed by the cylinder and piston, said side wall
cf the combustion chamber comprising an annu
lar wall extending upwardly from a point below
the base of the member carried by the head of
the piston and formedr with a concave inner sur
piston head within the chamber and extending
radially downwardly and outwardly from the
point of attachment toward the lower portion of
the chamber side wall, but normally in spaced re 35
lation thereto, said member forming an air cell
with said piston head, the spacing of said member
from the chamber side wall providing continuous
annular communication between the said cham- i
ber and air cell, and a fuel injector having an ¿o
end projecting into the combustion space and
provided with a plurality of restricted radiating
ports through which the fuel charge is rsprayed
in the form of a cone coaxial with said member.
5. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der, a piston operable therein, a chamber formed
in the head of the piston and having an upwardly
extending annular side wall formed with an inner
concave surface, an auxiliary air chamber car
ried by the piston head and having communica
50 face, whereby an annular rotational swirl or
turbulence of the gases in the combustion cham
ber will be induced by movement of air from ther
air cell along the annular side wall of the com
tion with said other chamber through an annu
lar space betweensaid chamber inner surface
and the base of said auxiliary chamber, and a
bustion` chamber when the pressure in the air
55 cell exceeds that in the combustion chamber, said
member comprising a metallic plate having a pre
determined coefficient of expansion tending to
control or vary the peripheral opening communi
space and along a wall of said air chamber where 55
by when there is a greater pressure of the air
in the air chamber over the pressure of the gases
' eating with the combustion chamber in response
60 to variations in temperature in the combustion
'2. The combination with a cylinder, a fuel noz
zle extending axially into the cylinder and a piston
operating in the cylinder and having a depression
in its head, said depression having an upwardly
extending annular side wall formed with an in
ner concave surface ofa member carried by the
piston head within the depression and forming
therewith an air cell, said member being normally
annularly spaced at its base from the concave side
wall of the depression to provide communication
between the air cell and the depression, said fuel
nozzle being arranged to inject jets of fuel into
the depression in the piston head and toward the
; sides thereof, whereby to impart a uniform an
fuel injectorin the head of the cylinder adapt-y
ed to spray a charge of fuel toward said annular,
in the combustion chamber an annular rota- _
Ítional turbulence will be imparted to the fuel
as it approaches said space.
6. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der, a piston operable therein, a chamber formed
in the head of the piston and having an up
wardly extending annular wall formed with a
concave inner surface, an auxiliary air chamber 65
carried by the piston head and having commu
nication with said other chamber through an
annular space between said chamber inner sur
face and the base of said auxiliary chamber, and
a fuel injector in the head of the cylinder 70
adapted to spray 'a charge of fuel toward said
annular space and along a wall of said air cham
ber whereby to impart an annular rotational
turbulence to the fuel as it approaches said space,
the walls of said auxiliary chamber being re 75
sponsive to thermal changes to the extent that
saidV space between these walls and the said inner`
surface of the first chamber may be varied in
response to predetermined temperature changes
within said ñrst chamber.
7. In an internalco‘mbustion engine, a cylinder,
a piston operable therein, a chamber formed in
the head of the piston, said chamber having up
'.wardly extending side walls formed with acon
cave surface, a plate generally conical in cross
injector in the head of the cylinder having parts
arranged to spray a charge of fuel along the sides
of the plate and toward the base thereof, the
.peripheral wall at the base of said plate and the
adJacent inner surface of the first` chamber being 5
ñtted to provide a fluid tight seal for the air
chamber under predetermined temperature vcon
ditions within the first named chamber.
9. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der, a piston operable therein, a chamber formed 10
section carried by said piston Ahead and normally in the head ofthe piston and having an upward
spaced annularly at its base from the side' Walls
' ly extending annular wall formed with a concave
of the chamber, said vplate forming with said pis- '
inner’surface, a plate generally conical in cross
ton head an air cell having communication section carried by said piston head and normally
15 through said annular space with the chamber,
.and a fuel injector in the head of the cylinder spaced annularly at its base from the adjacent 15
concave inner surface of the chamber, said plate
for spraying a fuel charge in the form of a cone
forming with saidpiston head an air cell having
toward> the chamber concave surface and along communication through said annular space with
the conical plate walls toward the base of the the chamber, said annular space communicating
20 plate.
the air cell with the chamber being provided to 20
8. The combination with a cylinder, and a pis
discharge air from «the air cell into the chamber
ton operable therein and having a chamber
in the form of a continuous sheet along the inner`
4 formed in the head thereof, the inner annular
side wall of said chamber -being formed with a
25 concave surface, of an auxiliary air chamber car
ried by the piston head, said chamber including
a metal plate of substantial conical cross-section
normally spaced at its base from the concave
surface of said first chamber to provide a pas
30 sage at the base of the first named chamber` com
side walls of the chamber when the pressure of
the air in the air cell exceeds that of the gases „
in the chamber, said plate having portions re 25
sponsive to thermal changes within the chamber
whereby to vary the said annular space between
the base of the plate and the adjacent annular
side wall of the chamber.
Y municating with each of the chambers and a fuel
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