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Патент USA US2118371

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May 24, 1938.
Q_ A_ BERGMANN
2,118,371
GAS COMPRESSOR
Filed oct. 25, 1935
2 Shee’ßS-Sheet l
’/BY . $6@ 1N
ATTORNEYâ.
May 24, 1938-`
c. A. BERGMANN
2,118,371
GAS COMPRESSOR
Filed Oct. 25, 1935
2 Shee’cses-Shee’cI 2
/ INVENTOR,
„ z5.
ATTORNEYê'».
Patented May 24, 1938
, 2,118,371
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,118,371
GAS COMPRESSOR
Carl A. Bergmann, Milwaukee, Wis., assigner to
Walter D. Mann, Milwaukee, Wis.
Application October 25, 1935, Serial No. 46,807
19 Claims.
The present invention relates in general to im
provements in gas compressors, and relates more
speed of the compressing fluid, as desired.
To provide a compressor wherein the rotor
ducts are substantiallyfoval in shape to keep the
hydraulic lossesV to a minimum.
To provide a compressor of the class described
wherein the gas is mixed with the liquid in such
ing air or other elastic fluids with the aid of cen
trifugal force acting upon a carrier liquid.
Generally defined, an object of the invention
is to provide improved apparatus for producing
high compression of gases, in a substantially iso
thermal manner and with maximum efficiency.
While it has heretofore been proposed to utilize
10
an ordinary centrifugal pump for the purpose of
hydaulically compressing air to some extent, by
mixing the air with the liquid passing through
the pump rotor and by subsequently separating
the air from the mixture expelled by the rotor,
this method of compression is relatively ineñicient
and is not adapted for high compression of the
gas.
In applicant’s prior Patent No. 2,025,037, a
compressor is shown and described, which is de
signed to effect any desired degree of compression
of a gas with a minimum expenditure of power
by utilizing centrifugal force to compress the
`fluid while mixed with liquid, an-d by additionally
utilizing the pressure acting upon the separated
2 Ul
liquid to regain the energy which is substantially
wasted when utilizing the ordinary centrifugal
pump for air compression purposes.
The com
pressor shown in said prior patent is further de
signed to produce substantially isothermic com
pression of a gas to relatively high pressures in
a single stage; to minimize friction losses and
leakage; and to produce entirely automatic and
continuous operation wherein the iiuent com
Gl pressing medium is repeatedly utilized and re
tained at a desired temperature.
The present invention is designed to retain all
of the above-mentioned advantageous features
and to provide certain improvements as follows:
40
'
.
ducts to thereby regulate the absolute discharge
speciñcally to improved apparatus for compress
2
(Cl. 230-108)
To provide a compressor having a rotor where
in the cross sectional area of the ducts is smaller
toward the outer rim to thereby maintain or in
crease the velocity and overcome the tendency
of the air bubbles to “slip”, that'is, to travel back
ward.
,
To provide a device of the class described where
in the rotor ducts are so shaped as to prevent
premature separation of the air from the water.
To provide a compressor wherein diffusion of
the air and water takes place at the outer rim
of the rotor. '
To provide a compressor wherein the rotor
ducts are pointed against the direction of rota
55~ tion of the rotor aty the discharge end of said
a location and manner as to provide for eñîlcient
operation.
To provide a compressor which is self-priming,
which ‘nas novel means for effecting a seal be
tween movable and stationary parts, and which
has a bearing member and frictional sealing mem
ber which are automatically lubricated by the
cooling liquid.
15
With the above and other objects in view, the
invention consists of the improved gas compressor
and all its parts and combinations as set forth
in the claims, and all equivalents thereof.
In the accompanying drawings in which the
same reference numerals designate the same parts
in all of the views,
Fig. 1 is a transverse vertical sectional view of
the compressor;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary front end view of the
rotor, parts being broken away and shown in
section;
Fig. 3 is a similar View of the other end of the
rotor, part of the stationary hub portion being
shown in section;
30
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional circumferential
view of the rotor developed and taken on line
¿l-li of Fig. 1;
' Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view through
the stationary compressor part;
Fig. 6 is a diagram of forces illustrating the
section of a particle passing through a duct to
show the action of a particle ofv liquid passing
35
through the compressor duct;
Fig. 7 is a velocity diagram of the mixture en
40
tering the rotor intake ducts;
Fig. 8 is a velocity diagram of the returning
liquid entering the ducts of the stationary com
pressor part;
Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view through a 45
modified form of compressor;
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary bottom view of the
rotor of the modified form of compressor;
Fig. 11 is a circumferential section taken on
line lI-H of Fig. 10 and developed;
50
Fig. 12 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional
View showing the ñoat valve; and
»
Figs. 13-15 are side elevational views of a float
in different positions to show the plane of oper
ation.
55
2
2,118,371
Referring more particularly to the drawings,
the numeral I2 designates a housing which may
be suitably supported on legs I3. A shaft i4 is
rotatably mounted in the housing and has one
end journalled in a bearing I5. The shaft may
be driven by any suitable means. Within the
housing the shaft is formed'with an annular
flange I6 to which a rotor I1 is secured by bolts
or the like I 8.
10
v
The majority of the inner portion of the rotor
terminates short of the shaft I4 as at I9 and
26, and a stationary compressor part or duct
forming' member 2I, which is complementary
in shape to said inner portion of the rotor ñlls
the space between the inner portions of the rotor
and the shaft I4. The said stationary com
pressor part is provided with a tubular eXten
sion, the outer end of which is secured in an end
opening of a cup shaped member 22, the said
20 member 22 lbeing in turn fitted into a tubular boss
23 on the casing I2. An annular cover 24 has
its outer periphery secured to the rotor I1 and
has its inner periphery rotatably surrounding the
tubular extension of the stationary compressor
25 part 2 I.
A carbon ring 25 secured to one end of
a bellows 26 is urged into sealing relationship
with the inner portion of the annular rotatable
cover 24 by a coil spring 21.
A bearing housing 28 is fitted into the member
22 and is formed with an upwardly extending
tubular member 29 forming an air inlet duct 3Q
which communicates with an annular chamber
3|. The bearing housing 28 supports a bearing
Dy
32 within which the other end of the shaft I4 is
A sealing ring 33 carried by one end
of a bellows 34 is urged by a coil spring 35 into
sealing relationship with the end of th-e shaft I4.
The other end of the bellows is secured to a cap
Ul journalled.
36.
It may readily be seen that air or other gas
40 under pressure which is delivered by the com
“ pressor to the duct 31 of the shaft I4 can pass
through the bellows 35, past a non-return check
valve 38 in the cap 36, and into a pipe 39 leading
to a reservoir 40.
A water cooler 4I is adapted to receive water
through an inlet valve 42, until a discharge valve
43 overflows. The water from the cooler is
adapted to pass through a pipe 44 into duct 45
of the stationary compressor part 2I and into
A ducts 46 of said stationary compressor part.
The water cooler 4I is also provided with a
suitable ñoat controlled needle valve 42’ to dis
charge air which might collect in the upper part
of the cooler.
'I‘he ducts 46 of the stationary part of the
compressor are curved as shown in Fig. 1 to
register with passage ways 41 and 48 in the rotor
and to cooperate therewith in forming a plurality
of radially extending ducts which are substan
60 tially oval in cross section as shown in Fig. l.
The passage ways 41 form compression conduits
and the passage ways 48 form liquid return con
v duits. When viewed from an end of the rotor, as
in Fig. 2, the portion of the duct 41 which leads
65 to the duct 46 is curved as at 49, and the curve
is formed by relatively small radii, and the ad
joining portion of the duct 41 is of Voutwardly
decreasing cross sectional area as shown in Figs. 1
and 2 and is formed by large radii to form an arc
70 approaching a straight line, and said arc is angled
away from the direction of rotation ofthe rotor
as at 41 (Fig. 2). The outer portion of the duct
4_1 then curves abruptly to the periphery of the
rotor, also preferably'in a direction opposed to the
75 direction of rotation of the rotorfasrat 5I, and
flares outwardly into communication with the
peripheral separating chamber 52, and said por
tions 5I also angle inwardly toward the sepa
rating chamber to reduce eddy currents as shown
in Fig. 4.
5
Guide vanes 46’, formed in the stationary com- .
pressor part 2 I, direct water admitted to the duct
46 with the absolute speed and direction C1
(see Fig. 7) past air intake >slots 56 to the rotor
entrance to give the water passing into the duct 10
portions 49 the desired relative speed W1. It can
be noted that the direction of the absolute speed
C1 is pointed in the direction of the peripheral
speed of the rotor U1 in order to reduce the
absolute speed and losses of the water going
through the duct portions 41.
In Fig. 6 (a) represents the eye of a rotor and
M represents a
particle such as a particle of liquid in the present
invention passing through said duct with a rela 20
tive speed W1 (Fig. 7) while the duct rotates in
the direction indicated by the arrow in Fig. 6.
Due to the peripheral speed U and radius (r)
a centrifugal force (C) acts on the particle M
in the radial direction indicated by the arrow at 25
(C) to create one component C’ acting perpen
dicular to the wall and another component C'l
acting tangentially to the walls. Due to the
radius R and the relative speed W an additional
(b) represents a curved duct.
centrifugal force ,D actingA in the direction of 30
radius R is set up, and in addition there is an
accelerating force E due to the angular speed of
the duct and the relative speed W of the particle,
which is set up- acting in a direction opposite to
C’.V In accordance with the above, the shape of
intake duct portions 49 and 4l!` of the rotor are
so designed that the forces C', D and E' cancel
each other, and only the force C" remains. This
causes the particles to move through the ducts
without being thrown against the walls and pre
mature separation of the air or gas from the
liquid is thus prevented. This makes efficient
operation possible.
Due to the rotation of the rotor, water ad
mitted to the duct 46 of the stationary compres
sor part is projected by centrifugal force through
the duct portions 49, 41 and 5I. Air, which is
sucked through an air cleaner 53, passes a non
return check valve 54, through duct 30, into the
chamber SI, and through passage way 55 to air ,_
intake slots 56. Water passing into duct por
tions 41 produces a`Venturi effect and entrains
air from the slots 56 which communicate with
air passage ways 56', and the mixture of air and
water passes through the compression duct por 55
tions 41, the air being in the form of small bubbles
in the water and the columns of water being sub
'ected to progressively increasing centrifugal
force. Inasmuch as straight rotor ducts or ducts
having ordinary or involute curves would tend to 60
permit undesirable separation of the air bubbles
from the water, resulting in an ineflicientrcom
pressor, the ducts in the present invention have
been carefully planned as above described by
reference to the diagram of Fig. 6 to prevent such 65
premature separation.
Due to the curvature and flare of the ducts at
5I ' (see Fig. 2) the circulating speed of the mix
ture is reduced, which in turn causes higher
pressure at the outer rim of the rotor and also 70
assures complete separation of the air from the
water at the proper time.
‘ When the peripheral separating conduit 52 is
reached', the air or gas under high pressure is
expelled fromthe liquid by the continued action 75
3
2,118,371
the water passing through the ducts 46 and cause
continued repetition of the cycle.
The operation of this form` of compressor is as
follows: To start the compressor it is rotated in
the direction indicated by arrows, and water is
admitted to the cooler 4| through the intake
of centrifugal forces thereon to the inner portion
58 of the conduit 52,> whereupon the float valves
59, which are pivoted as at B8, will ride in partially
submerged condition upon the liquid level 6| to
admit the compressed air to the ducts 62, the
latter leading to the conduit 31 in the shaft |4
and ultimately to the reservoir 48 as above ex
valve 42 until the discharge valve 43 overñcws,
which valve is set at the same pressure as the
static pressure in the duct 46 of the stationary
compressor part. The water then flows through a 10
plained.
The float 58 is shown in detail in Fig. 12, and
it may be seen that this float comprises a piece of
relatively light material or metal 63 and a short
length of heavier material or metal 84 secured vto
one end thereof.. The entire iioat is fulcrumed
as at 68 near one end of the light section of metal.
15 The amount of both materials and the point of
fulcruming are so worked out that the float
balances on the fulcrum when it is approximately
pipe 44, duct 45 of the Stationary compressor part
2| into the ducts 46 and begins to circulate. The
movement of the water in the ducts entrains air
from the vane slots 58 as above explained in
detail, and the separated compressed air is di
half submerged in the liquid which is used.
Figs. 13, 14, and 15 explain the' principle of
20 this special float.
Fig. 13 shows the float half.
submerged in liquid, and it will be noticed that
the float is balanced. Fig. 14 shows the float
fully submerged in liquid, and it will be noted
that due to the difference in specific gravity, the
25 length of the lighter material B3 displaces more
water than the length of the heavier material 64
so that the end 63 is lifted up» by the liquid.
Thus, with the float as applied to applicant’s ap
moved to the right, referring to Fig. 1, against
the tension of. a spring 18 to bring a port 'll in
the stem of the piston into registration with a
duct l2 in the valve casing and thereby admit air 25.
from a pipe line 13 to a pipe line '|4, and the
pipe line '|4 leads to the space in a cylinder 15
above a piston 16, which piston is mounted
rigidly on a control tube ll.
paratus, this movement would cause a closing
30 movement of the valve to prevent escape of water.
causes the open inner end of the control tube to
be positioned in the duct 48. Water circulating 35
rapidly through the duct 48 of the stationary
rotor part will pass into the open end of the
35 end.
From the above it may be seen that the lighter
portion E3 -may be half or partially counter
balanced by a heavier section 83, and the ma
terials can thus be either lighter or heavier than
control tube, through said tube and into the
annular space 81 of the rotor, and said water
fills the annular space to the approximate water 40
the liquid employed. Ordinary floats must, of
level 18.
course, be lighter. With this float construction
therefore, solid metal can be used which is neces
sary in the present use due to the tremendous
pressures to which the material of. the float is
»
As soon as enough air has been taken from the
compressed air reservoir 48 to bring the pres
subjected. Ordinary floats su?ciently small in
size would fail to stand up under the pressure
conditions. A spring 65’ urges the valve to clos
ing position when the compressor is idle to pre
vent liquid from entering the air discharge ducts.
The water in the peripheral conduit 52, from
50
which the air has been separated, ñows in the
return duct portions 48 due to the lesser head of
liquid in these duct portions which is sufficient
to overcome the friction of the liquid iiowing
55 through the rotor. The pressure and peripheral
speed of the particles of the liquid are reduced
while they return through conduits 48. The
kinetic energy due to the peripheral speed of the
liquid which is imparted to the particles of the
60
When the air enters
the cylinder '|5, it will force the piston down 30.
wardly to move the control tube against the ten
sion of the coil spring from the full line position
of Fig. 1 to the dotted line position therein. This
In Fig. 15 the action of this type of float, when
entirely unsubmerged, is shown. Due to the
greater weight and leverage of the lighter sec
tion 63, there would be a downward tilting of this
40
15
rected into the reservoir 48 as before explained,
the water alone returning to the duct portions 48.
An annular space 61 within the rotor will be
ñlled with water to the annular level 68. As
soon as maximum air pressure is reached in the 20:
reservoir 48, .a piston controlled valve 69 is
sure therein to a predetermined minimum, the
spring 18 will move the control valve 89 back to 45
the full line position of. Fig. 1 to thereby cause
the port 1| in the piston stem to register with the
duct 'i8 in the valve casing, and thus connect the
pipe line 'i4 with the atmosphere. This natur
ally relieves the pressure on top of the control 50
tube piston 'i8 and permits the tube to return to
the full line position of Fig. 1. When in this
position, the water in the annular space 67 of
the rotor will enter the opening 88 in the upper
end of the control tube and will be forced rapidly
back into the ducts 46 and into the circuit for the
compressor. The compressor will therefore again
begin to compress air. When the compressor is
idle, the water will drop to the lower portion of
the compressor to the indicated level 8| .
This 60
liquid passing through the conduits-41 where they
gradually reach the maximum peripheral speed
method of control is particularly adaptable for
portable units which are driven by gas engines
in the conduits 52 is returned in conduits 48.
The slower relative speed in the peripheral duct
52 is maintained through the ducts 48 to keep
the hydraulic losses yas low as possible. The
water is ultimately discharged into the ducts 46
or the like, where the periods of rest are brief.
For stationary work where electric motors are
for repetition of the cycle.
in the system continually passes out of opening 82
through duct 83 into pipe line 84 to the water
cooler 4|. D'ue to the fact that the intake open 70
ing 82 for the cooling water is pointed against
the direction of the circulating water, the kinetic
energy of the water is transferred partially into
pressure to eliminate the necessity of using a
pump for driving the water through the cooler.
ì
Referring to Fig. 8, the relative speed W2 is
pointed away from the direction of the peripheral
speed U2 as at 88 (Fig. 3) to obtain the desired
absolute speed C2, so that the water enters the
ducts at 63’ with no pressure and with said speedl
C2, which absolute speed is slightly higher than
the
absolute speed C1 to overcome the friction of
75
used and where the periods of rest are prolonged
a suitable electric control may be employed.
During operation, part of the circulating water
4.1
2,1183371
'This water is cooled and returned through the
The water circulates through the stationary
tube 44 and canal 45 into the circuit of the water.
ducts |03 of the compressor and through ducts
Openings 35 in the compressor casing admit
|06 in the rotor. Guide vanes IH formed on an
end of the stationary compressor duct |03, are
air from the eXterior, which air is blown out
through other casing openings 96 to> produce an
additional cooling effect. The bearing 32 and the
sealing ring 33 are of oilless construction being
lubricated by the cooling water.
The cooling
water which is admitted at 88 cools the liquid
passing through the cooler 4|. The reservoir 40
formed’ in a similar manner to the guide vanes
46’ shown in Fig. 6.Y Water circulating through
the ducts |ß31in the direction indicated by the ar
rows in Fig. 9 passes these guide varies, and a
Venturi action takes place to entrain air from
The heat generated during the compression of
the gas, is Vquickly absorbed by the carrier liquid
slots in the guide vanes which slots are similar l0
to the slots 56' shown in Fig. 6. The mixture of
air and water then passes. through the duct por
tions |05»` of the> rotor in the manner heretofore
described in detail in connection with the form of
thereby maintaining the compression substan
tially isothermic. Due to the absorption of the
the invention shown in Fig. 1, and the mixture
ultimately reaches the. annular separating cham
heat of compressionl of the liquid, this liquid upon
entering the passages 40 will be heated, and in
ber | I2 where the compressed air is liberated from
the liquid and collects in the annular'air space
|| 3. Floaty valves H4, which are similar in ac
tion to the valves heretofore described in con 20V
nection with Fig. l, control the passage of com
pressed air from the chamber ||3 through ducts
H5 into the conduit 94 inthe shaft 93. The air
is also provided with a safety pressure relief valve
81.
order- to maintain the carrier liquid. at substan
tially uniform temperature, a portion thereof is
permitted to pass through the cooler 4|.
The annular separating conduit 52 communi
cates withv an annular compressed gas collecting
duct 58 and the duct 52 insures a perfect bal
ancing of the rotor. In case one compression
conduit discharges more liquid than the other
conduits, the annular level of the liquid is quickly
equalized by the centrifugal force and the bal
ance of the rotor is not destroyed.
30
The water which is condensed during opera
then passes a non~return check Valve H5 into a
pipe ||'| leading toV a compressed air reservoir 25
similar to the reservoir 130 of the principal form
of the invention'`
The Water which is separated from the air is
forced through water discharge nozzles H8 with
the relative speed' W, (see Fig. 11) which speed 30
tion of the compressor raises the static pressure
is nearly as great as the peripheral speed U of
within the stationary compressor part ducts and
is discharged through discharge valve 43.
the nozzles | I8, and the speedW is approximately
opposedïto the direction of the peripheral speed
In Figs. 9 to l1, there is illustrated a modified
U, as shown in. Fig. 11. The water enters the
ducts |03 of the stationary compressor part at
||9 with theV relative speed C and reenters the
rotor ducts |06. with the slightly less speed due
to the hydraulic losses in passing through the
35 form of compressor which differs from the com~
pressor heretofore described principally in the
mode of regaining the energy of the carrier liquid
after the compressed gas has been liberated.
Referring ñrst to Fig. 9, it will be seen that there
40 is a suitable base 90 which supports a lower sta
tionary compressor part 9|. The center lower
portion of said stationary compressor part sup
ports a bearing- 92 through which a vertical shaft
93 is journalled, said shaft having an axial duct
45 94 therein- which communicates with its lower end.
The-upper end of the shaft is journalled in a bear
ing 95 which is suitably supported by an upper
ducts |03.
Y
The reaction of the jets of liquid delivered at
high velocity from the nozzles | IB during rotation
of the rotor serves to simultaneously diifuse the
pressure on the carrier liquid so as to augment the
compression of the compressed gas and to assist
in driving the rotor; thereby reducing the energy
losses to a minimum. In this machine, as in the
Vone previously described, the compression is
casing part 06, said upper casing part being sup-`
eifected by centrifugalforce- acting uponI liquid
ported on flanges 97v of the stationary compressor
50 part. The shaft 93 may be suitably driven by a
prime mover 98 of desired form.
Within the casing 96 and rigidly mounted on
an upper portion of the shaft 93 for rotation
therewith, is a rotor 99. It is to be noted that
55 the rotor in this form of the invention cooperates
with the stationary compressor part 9| to form
ducts which are substantially oval in shape as
shown in Fig. 9, said ducts being otherwise Very
similar in construction to the compressor ducts
60 in the form of the inventionA shown in Fig. l.
Referring to Fig. l0, it may be seen that the
ducts are also designed‘to prevent premature sep
aration of the gas from the liquid as heretofore
described in detail in connection with the prin
columns within the ducts |06 and the separation
From said space», the ai-r enters through non
return check valves |23 into the annular air
space |24 which in turn communicates with the
slots in the Vanes | || where- the air is introduced
into the water circuit as heretofore described.
A part of the nozzles ||8 are supplied with
float controlled needles |25 which are of well 60
known construction and which are adapted to
varyrthe cross sectional area of the nozzles and
serve to prevent the air from blowing through
the nozzles by maintaining the annular water level
65 cipal form of theV invention.
in the annular ducts ||3 at a level closer to the
,
To start the compressor, it is rotated through
operation of the motor 99, and water is forced
through an intake valve |00 of a water controlling
device |0|, The water flows through a pipe |02
70. into the ducts |03 of the stationary compressor
part, and circulates through Vthe system until a
discharge valve |011 overflows, said valve being set
at the same pressure as the static pressure at the
point |05 in the compressor when the compressor
75 isV in operation.
of the liquid and gas is likewise effected by cen- ,
trifugal force within the rotor.
Air or gas is_ admitted through an air cleaner
|20, tube I=2|, into space» |22, within the casing.
center of the rotor than the nozzle openings.
Cooling water may enter a pipe |26 in the
water controlling Vdevice |0'|.f When the com
pressor is operating, pressure is built up within
a space» | 271i within the sealing bellows |28 at
the lower end of the shaft 931 Said pressure is
transmitted through a tube |29 to ya chamber
|30 in the water controlling device |0|. The
said pressure in the chamber |30 acts on a bel
lows:> [3|Í to open avvalve, |32 and admit the cool
75.
5
2,118,371
ing water to the system through the pipe |02.
This water forms part of the circulating water
in the system and maintains the carrier liquid
at a substantially uniform temperature. The
water is ultimately discharged through Athe valve
|04.
v
When the compressor is idle, the air pressure
‘Within the spaces |21 and |36 disappears'and
the valve |32 is closed so that no cooling water
is consumed. When the compressor is idle, the
water in the compressor flows to the lower por«
tion of the stationary compressor part and into
the annular space |33 to approximately the level
|34. When the compressor is started, the water
15 within the annular space E33 flows through small
openings |35 into annular space |33- and is raised
by the centrifugal action within said space to the
rotor ducts |06. The annular ledge i3? within
the rotor space |33 prevents the water from get
20 ting to the outer portion of the rotor where it
would cause too much friction.
Y
During operation, additional water which is fed
into the compressor, causes the average pressure
of the circulating water to rise and when said
25 pressure reaches a predetermined point, water is
discharged through the discharge valve |04, which
as before mentioned, opens at the same pressure
as the desired static pressure at |05.
By referring to Fig. 10 it will be seen that the
duct shapes shown in this figure are identical
with the shapes of the ducts in the ñrst described
form of compressor, except that the cross section
of the ducts is not enlarged at the outer portion
of the rotor.
However, in this form of the inven- '
tion the water substantially maintains the speed
on its way throughout the rotor until it passes
the annular separating chamber H2, and it in
creases its velocity, due to the shape of the noz~
zles, to the speed W (see Fig. 11) when leaving
40 the rotor, and little energy is left in the water
which reenters the stationary ducts |03.
From the foregoing description it will be ap
parent that the invention provides a compact
having their inner portions curved away from the
direction of rotation of the rotor and then ex
tending with less curve approaching a straight
vline toward the periphery of the rotor to prevent
premature separation of the gas from the liquid.
2. In a compressor, a rotor having therein a
plurality of compression conduits extending away
from the rotor axis, means for delivering mixed
gas and liquid into the inner portions of each of
said conduits, meanscommunicating with said 10
compression conduits for separating the com
pressed gas from the liquid, and means for inde
pendently conducting gas and liquid away from
said separating means, said compression conduits
having their inner portions curved away from the 15
direction of rotation of the rotor and then ex
tending with less curve toward the periphery of
the rotor and having their outer portions flared
into communication with the separating means.
3. In a compressor, a rotor having therein a 20
plurality of compression conduits extending away
from the rotor axis, means for delivering mixed
gas and' liquid into the inner portions of each of
said conduits, means communicating with said
compression conduits for separating the com 25
pressed gas from the liquid, and means for in
dependently conducting gas and liquid away
from said separating means, said compression
conduits having their outer portions flared into
communication with the separating means.
4. In a compressor, a rotor having vthereinv a
plurality of compression conduits extending away
from the rotor axis, means for delivering mixed
gas and liquid into the inner portions of each of
said conduits, means communicating with"said 35
compression conduits forA separating the com
pressed gas from the liquid, and means for in
dependently conducting gas and liquid away
from said separating means, said compression
conduits having their outer portions iiared and 40
angled inwardly into communication with the
separating means.
'
5. In a compressor, a central shaft, a fixed com- l
and eiiicient gas compressor wherein the actual
pressor part loosely surrounding said shaft and
compression and separation of the gases under
pressure is effected with the aid of centrifugal
having a plurality of conduits therein, a ‘rotor
rotatable with the shaft around said fixed com
force within a single rotor. The deceleration or
diffusion of the carrier liquid is utilized in various
ways to augment the gas compression, and the
compressed gas is always delivered from the
machine in relatively dry condition. It will also
be seen that the compression is substantially iso
thermic. The heat resulting from the compres
sion may be utilized for heating or other purposes
55 thereby reducing the energy losses to a minimum.
It is apparent that the invention is adapted
for many uses wherever the compression of gas
is employed, such as in connection with refrig
eration and gas turbines.
It should be understood that it is not desired
60
to limit the invention to the exact details of
construction and operation herein shown 4and
described, for various modifications within the
scope of the claims may occur to persons skilled
in the art.
What I claim is:--
y
l. In a compressor, a rotor having therein a
plurality of compression conduits extending away
from the rotor axis, means for delivering mixed
gas and liquid into the inner portions of each of
said conduits, means communicating with said
compression conduits for separating the com
pressed gas from the liquid, and means for inde
pendently conducting gas and liquid away from
said separating means, said compression conduits
pressor‘ part and havingcompression conduits
communicating with one end of the conduits of
the fixed compressor part and return conduits
communicating with the other end of the conduits
of the fixed compressor part, the ends of the
conduits of the fixed compressor part which ad
join the compression conduits being separated
by a plurality of vanes having axial slots, means
for admitting gas to the slots of saidy vanes, and 55
means for admitting liquid to the conduits of the
fixed compressor part, said liquid being movable
upon rotation of the rotor past said vanes and
into the compression conduits to entrain gas
from the slots in said vanes.
-
60
6. In a compressor, a central shaft, a ñxed
compressor part loosely surrounding said shaft
and having a plurality of conduits therein, a
rotor rotatable with the shaft around said fixed
compressor part and having compression con
duits communicating with one end of the con
duits of the iixed compressor part and return
conduits communicating with the other end of
the conduits of the fixed compressor part, the
ends of the conduits of the ñxed compressor part 70
which adjoin the compression conduits being
separated by slotted vanes, means for admitting
gas to the slots of said vanes, and means for ad
mitting liquid to the conduits of the iixed com
pressor part, said“ liquid being movable upon ro 75
6
2,118,371
tation of the rotor past ’said‘vanes and into the
compression conduits to'entrain gas from >the
slots in said vanes, said vanesïbeing pointed to
ward the direction of rotation of the rotor.
Ui
7. In a compressor having a rotor and having
a plurality of compression conduits therein ex
tending away from the rotor axis, means for de
livering mixed gas and liquid into portions of said
conduits, means for separating `the compressed
10 gas from the liquid, 4a reservoir to which said
compressed gas is conducted, means for returning
the Yseparated liquid back to said compression
conduits, and means responsive to a predeter
mined pressure in said reservoir for temporarily
15 removing liquid from the circuit of said rotor
conduits to render the compressor temporarily
inactive.
'
8. In a compressor having a rotor and having
a plurality oi' compression conduits therein ex
tending away ïfrorn the rotor axis, `means lfor
delivering mixed gas and liquid into portions of
said conduits, means for separating ,the com
pressed gas from the liquid, a reservoir to which
said compressed gas is conducted, means for re
25 turning the separated liquid back to Vsaid ~com
pression conduits,fand means responsive :to a pre
determined pressure in said reservoir for tem
porarily removing liquid from »the circuit of said
rotor conduits to render -the compressor vtempo
30
rarily inactive, there being an annular chamber
Within the rotor' for receiving said 'removed
liquid.
Y
y
'
,
v
'
9. In a compressor having a rotor and> having
a plurality of compression conduitstherein ex
35 tending away from the rotor axis, means for de
livering mixed gas andliquid into portions- of said
conduits, means for separating »the compressed
gas from the liquid, a reservo-ir towwhichV said
compressed gas is conducted, means Vfor-returning
the separated liquid back to said compression
conduits, and means responsive- to a pred'eter*
mined pressure in said reservoir vfor temporarily
removing liquid -*from Vthe circuit V-o'f said lrotor
conduits to render the compressor vtemporarily
inactive, said means being' responsive to a drop
in pressure in said reservoir iîor returning the
removed liquid tothe rotor conduit circuit.
10.` In a compressor having a'rotor andh‘aving
a plurality of compression conduits Atherein ex
50 tending away irom the rotorV axis, means for
delivering mixed gas and liquid into portions of
said conduits, means for'separating‘ the comf
pressed gas from the liquid, a reservoir to which
55
said compressed gas is conducted, means for
returning the separated liquid back to said com
pression conduits, and a by-passing tube inthe
interior of the rotor movable in response toV a
predetermined pressure in said reservoir to a posi
60
tion in ‘the rotor conduits >to intercept liquid
therefrom and temporarily remove the same Vfrom
the circuit.
'
11. In a compressor having a rotor and having
a plurality of compression conduits therein ex
tending -away from the rotor axis, vmeans for
delivering mixed gas and liquid into portions
of said con-duits, -means for separating the oom
pressed gas from the liquid, a reservoir to which
said compressed `gas is conducted, fnieans for -re
turning the separated liquid back to said com~
70 pression conduits, and a by-passing tubein the
interior of the rotor movable is response to a
predetermined pressure in said reservoir to a posi
tion in the rotor conduits to intercept liquid
therefrom and temporarily remove theV same
75 from Vthe circuit, said tube being movable in re
-sponse to a drop in _pressure in said reservoir to
return the removed liquid to the rotor conduit
circuit.
-
l2. Ina compressor having a rotor, a shaftrfor
said rotor having a duct therein, compression
conduits in said rotor, means for delivering mixed
gas and >liquid to said compression conduits,
means for separating compressed gas from the
liquid, means for conducting said separated gas
to the duct in the rotor shaft, and means for
conductingthe compressed gas away from said
duct in the rotor shaft including a bellows, a
sealing ring on an end ofthe bellows, and yield
ing means for urging the ring into frictional
engagement with a portion of the rotor shaft 15
around the duct opening.
Y
Y
13. In a compressor having a rotor within
which fluid is circulated, a ?lxed member about
which said rotor revolves, and means for pre
venting loss of iluid from said rotor comprising
a bellows surrounding said iixed member and
having one end ñxed and closed, a sealing ring
on the other end of said bellows, and yielding
means ’for urging said sealing ring into frictional
engagement with the rotor.
25
14. In a compressor having a rotor provided
with ducts therein through which a compressing
liquid is circulated by centrifugal force, a cool
ing unit, connections between said cooling unit
and the rotor ducts, and means for utilizing the
kinetic energy of the liquid to circulate said liquid
through the cooling unit.
Y
15. In a compressor, a rotor having therein a
' plurality of compression conduits extending away
from the rotor axis, means for delivering mixed 35
gas andV liquid into the inner portions of each
of said conduits, means communicating with said
compression conduits for separating the com
pressed gas from the liquid, means for conduct
ing gas away from said separating means, return
conduits for conducting the liquid from the sep
arating means back to the compression conduit,
nozzles for discharging the separated liquid from
the separating means into the return conduits,
and float controlled valves for regulating the 45
liquid level adjacent the nozzles to prevent gas
from escaping from said nozzles.
16. In a compressor, a rotor having therein a
plurality of compression conduits extending away
from the rotor axis, means for delivering mixed 50
gas and liquid into the inner portionsY of each
of said conduits, means communicating with said
compression conduits for separating the com
pressed gas from the liquid, means for conduct
ing gas and liquid away from said separating 55
means, a cooler having a cooling chamber pro
vided with a vent, means for leading liquid to said
cooler and back again to the rotor, and a float
valve control-ling said vent and operable when
the liquid level in -the cooling chamber drops 60
below a predetermined point to provide for escape
of trapped air from the cooling chamber.
17. In a compressor, a vertically disposed ro
tatable shaft, a ñxed compressor part loosely 65
surrounding said shaft and having Ya plurality
of conduits therein, a rotor rotatable with the
shaft above said iixed compressor part and having
compression conduits communicable with the ends
of the conduits of the fixed compressor part,
means for delivering mixed gas and liquid into
the inner end portions of each »of said compression
conduits, means for separating the compressed
gas from the liquid, an annular »chamber between
the iixed compressor part and rotor into which 75
2,118,371
liquid from the rotor ducts flows by gravity when
the compressor is idle, and means between said
chamber and the rotor constructed to provide for
the utilization of centrifugal force to automati
tu cally return the water from said chamber to the
rotor ducts when the compressor is started.
18. In a compressor, a vertically disposed ro
tatable shaft, a fixed compressor part loosely
surrounding said shaft and having a plurality
of conduits therein, a rotor rotatable with the
shaft above said ñxed compressor part and having
compression conduits communicable with the
ends of the conduits of the ñxed compressor part,
means for delivering mixed gas and liquid into
f the inner end portions of each of said compression
conduits, means for separating the compressed
gas from the liquid, an annular chamber between
the ñXed compressor part and rotor into which
liquid from the rotor ducts flows by gravity when
the compressor is idle, means between said cham
7
ber and the rotor constructed to provide for the
utilization of centrifugal force to automatically
return the water from said chamber to the rotor
ducts when the compressor is started, and an
annular ledge Within said chamber for preventing
said water in said chamber from traveling to the
outer portion of the rotor.
19. In a compressor, a rotor having therein a
plurality of compression conduits extending awayA
from Íthe rotor axis, means for delivering mixed 10
gas and liquid into the inner portions of each
of said conduits, means communicating with said
compression conduits for separating the com
pressed gas from the liquid, means for conduct
ing gas and liquid from said separating means, 15
a source oi cooling water, and means providing
for the automatic admission of cooling water to
the compressor only when the compressor is op
erating.
CARL A. BERGMANN.
20
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