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Патент USA US2118396

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May 24, 1938.
Filed Jan. l0, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet l
May 24, 1938.
Filed Jan. 10, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Patented May 24, 1938
Norman Eustace Davis, Chelmsford, and Fred
erick James Ainsley, Chislehurst, England, as
signors to Radio Corporation of America, a
corporation of Delaware
Application January 10, 1935, Serial No. 1,190
In Great Britain January 20, 1934
4 Claims. (Cl. Z50-_33)
This invention relates to constructions of aerial lengths of the aerial are, of course, in series with
systems for use on short waves or so-called ultra
one another, the series connection being made by
short waves. More specifically, the invention re
short transverse portions of conductor which are
lates to constructions for extending aerial systems at right angles to the three lines of extension.
5 wherein the aerial is extended not in a single
Figs. 3, 4 and 5 of the above mentioned United 5
straight line, but in effect, in a plurality of more States Patent No. 1,957,949 illustrate aerials of a
or less parallel straight lines, portions of the type similar to that of Fig. 2, and the present in
aerial system lying in said plurality of lines being vention is also applicable to these aerials.
joined in series by transverse connections be
The object of the present invention is to pro
10 tween them.
vide a simple, rigid, easily erected and relatively
It is very important that such aerials, more es
portable construction for an aerial of the kind
pecially when they are for use on wave lengths
of only a few meters or less, should be of rigid
construction in order that variations in the dis
15 tances between different parts of the aerial and
between the aerial and adjacent objects-with
consequent variations in aerial properties and
characteristics-shall be reduced as far as pos
sible. It is also often required that the aerial
construction shall be self-supporting, i. e., shall
not require supporting guys. As will be seen later,
which is extended in a plurality of parallel or ap
proximately parallel lines.
According to this invention, a construction for
an aerial of the kind referred to comprises a plu
rality of approximately parallel adjacent masts
(for example in the form of rods or tubes) each
mast lying in one of the plurality cf lines of ex
tension of the aerial, and portions only of each
mast being utilized as the aerial proper, said por
tions being connected together as required by
transverse connectors extending between the
the present invention enables these requirements
to be readily satisfied.
Aerials which may be regarded as extended in a
plurality of lines in the sense in which this
phrase is used herein, are described in United
Where anv aerial construction, according to this
invention, is required to be of any very great
height, it will generally be necessary to provide
States Patent No. 1,957,949, dated May 8, 1934,
cross braces and diagonal struts or tension mem
which patent describes directive aerials of the
type set forth in British Patents Nos. 242,342 and
bers between the masts, these braces and struts
or tension members being additional to any brac
285,106 and wherein the intermediate, folded por
ing effect provided by the inter-connections be
tions of the wire or conductor are so arranged
tween the masts.
According to an important sub-ordinate fea
ture of this invention, the cross braces are 1o
cated at, and diagonal struts or tension members
are arranged between, points in the masts where
the alternating voltage on the aerial portions
that they radiate effectively in the same direc
tion as the straight portions. For example, Fig. 2
of United States Patent No. 1,957,949, illustrates
35 an aerial system in which a straight half-wave
length A is followed by a reversed or folded half
Wave length B and then by a straight half-wave
length C, a reversed half wave length D, a further
straight half wave length E in the same straight
40 line as portion A, a further reversed half wave
length F, a straight half wave length G in line
with length C, and so on, the phase relation of
the currents in successive half wave lengths being
such that the reversed sections B, D, F add to the
45 ell’ective field strength due to the straight wire
sections A, C, E. Thus, from the point of view of
this application, an aerial as illustrated in Fig. 2
of United States Patent No. 1,957,949 may be re
_ garded as an aerial system which is extended in
50 three parallel lines, one line including the straight
lengths A and E, another line including the
straight lengths C and G, and the third line in
cluding those parts of the remaining lengths
whose directions are opposite to the directions of
the straight lengths A, C, E and G. All the
proper is zero.
In preferred embodiments of the invention,
three masts arranged at the corners of an equi
lateral triangle are employed and cross bracing is 40
provided by means of bracing tubes or plates
having a triangular arrangement of holes through
which the masts pass, the masts being built up
of sections insulated fi‘om one another where re
The invention is illustrated in the accompany
ing drawings in which:
Fig. 1 shows one form of construction in ac
cordance with the invention;
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view showing in full 50
lines the portions which constitute the aerial
proper; and
Figs. 3-6, inclusive, show details oi construc
Referring to the drawings, an aerial system 65
comprises three vertical or approximately ver~
straight tubes il', each of which is split at both
tical masts l, 2, 3, arranged close together and
ends as shown at 20. On each mast (e. g. mast 2)
is an externally screw-threaded sleeve 24 held in
place by pins 22 and 23, and over this sleeve is
iitted an insulator i 9 formed like a tube with two
at the corners of an imaginary equilateral tri
angle. Each mast stands upon a foot insulator
4, 5 or 6 mounted on a suitable carrier or bed
plate 'l and the masts are braced together at suit
able intervals in the height of the aerial structure.
The three masts are sectionalized and the sec
tions insulated from one another in a manner to
be described later. As above stated, those por
tions of the masts which are to constitute the
aerial proper are connected in Series with one
another. The aerial proper comprises a ñrst,
vertical portion A included in the mast I and
15 extending upwards from the bottom thereof; a
second, horizontal portion B connecting the top
of the portion A to the top of a portion C of
mast 2 which is spaced some distance from the
bottom thereof; a third, vertical portion C in
20 cluded in mast 2; a fourth, horizontal portion D
connecting the bottom of the portion C to the
bottom of a ñfth, vertical portion E in mast 3;
a sixth, horizontal portion F connecting the top
of the fifth portion E to the top of a seventh,
25 vertical portion G in mast 2; an eighth, hori
Zontal portion H connecting the bottom of the
seventh portion G to the bottom of a ninth,
vertical portion J in mast l and in the same
straight line as portion A; and so on until the
30 required height has been obtained. Insulators
are included at 8 and 9 in mast l to insulate the
portions A and J from one another; insulators
are included at l0, Il, l2 and I3 in mast 2 to
insulate the portions C and G from one another
35 and also to insulate these portions from the mast
portions respectively below and above them; and
insulators are included at l5 and I6 in mast 3
to insulate the portion E at both ends; in short,
insulators are interposed in the masts as neces
sary properly to insulate the portions thereof
which are included in the aerial proper.
It will
be appreciated that the aerial proper (Fig. 2) is
thus so constructed as to consist of a straight
half wave length, followed by a reversed or folded
hali wave length, followed by a straight half wave
will be obvious without further description beyond
that 26 and 21 are insulators.
As will be ap
parent, the split tubular method of gripping
tapered insulators is also employed in Fig. 5.
Fig. 6 shows the details at points such as X
(Fig. 1) 28 being an insulator.
What is claimed is:
1. An aerial comprising a plurality of rigid,
approximately parallel and adjacent hollow me
tallic masts each of which is composed of a plu- C
rality of conductive sections insulated from one
another, and transverse metallic tubular con
nectors extending between the masts and con
necting certain of the conductive sections to
gether in series, the sections and transverse con- :
nectors being so arranged that said connectors
together with the mast sections interconnected
thereby constitute an aerial proper which is in
sulated from the rest of the mast structure, and
hollow metallic braces interlacing said masts at
points of zero alternating potential and insulated
2. An aerial comprising three rigid, approxi
mately parallel hollow and metallic masts ar
at points of zero alternating potential so far as
ranged at the corners of an imaginary equi
lateral triangle and each standing on an insu
lator, each mast being formed of a plurality of
conductive sections insulated from one another.
and transverse metallic tubular connectors ex
tending between the masts and connecting certain l
the aerial proper is concerned, and thus losses
due to circulating currents in these braces are
sections and transverse connectors being so ar
minimized or eliminated.
ranged that said connectors together with the
mast sections interconnected thereby constitute
length, followed by a reversed half wave length,
followed b-y a straight half wave length and so on.
Insulated triangularly arranged braces l1, I8 are
arranged as shown and are, like the insulators,
slightly tapered radial arms. The insulator is
located by nuts 25 on the sleeve 24. The split
ends of the tubes Il’ are threaded and are pushed
over the insulator arms, and the arrangement is
such that when the nuts 2l are screwed along the
tubes Il' towards the mast, the slits 20 are closed
down somewhat to allow the tubes to taper down
so as to ñt upon and grip the tapered insulator
arms. When the bores in the ends of tubes Il’
are being machined, the slits should be opened
slightly so that when they are closed by the nuts
the tube taper will ñt the insulator taper. Fig. 5
shows partly in section the detail at points, such
as the ends of the portions between portions A
and J, and it will be thought that these ilgureS
The whole construc
tion may be additionally strengthened by diag
55 onal struts or tension members which are diagonal
with regard to the races of the imaginary tri
angular prism sections into which the whole
structure may be regarded as divided. Thus
there may be a diagonal member between the
60 bottom of mast i and that end of portion B
which is in mast 2, another diagonal member be
tween the top end of the said ñrst diagonal mem
ber and the bottom of portion J, and so on, there
being one diagonal strut or tension member in
65 each face of the triangular prism sections wheth
er long or short. Guys may, ii’ desired, be at
tached to the apices of one or more of the tri
angular braces to assist in giving support.
It will be appreciated that aerial structures,
70 in accordance with this invention, can readily be
made portable and are relatively easy to erect in
high situations, such as on the ridges of buildings.
Figs. 3 and 4 show the details of construction
at triangular brace points, such as the location
75 of the brace Il. The brace includes three
of the conductive sections together in series, the
an aerial proper which is insulated from the rest l
of the mast structure, and hollow metallic braces
interlacing said masts at points of zero alternat
ing potential and insulated therefrom.
3. An aerial in accordance with claim 2, char
acterized in this that said masts are arranged 60
vertically and are supported at their lower ends.
4. An aerial comprising a plurality of rigid,
approximately parallel, adjacent hollow metallic
masts arranged each in one of the plurality of
lines of extension of the aerial, portions only of
said masts being utilized as the aerial proper,
said portions being connected together in series
by transverse metallic connectors extending be
tween the masts, insulators between said portions
and the immediately adjacent portions in the
same straight line, said masts being erected ver
tically and supported at the base of the aerial.
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