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Патент USA US2118397

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May 24y 1938,
c. A. DEAN
2,118,397
CORE BIT`
Filed March> 15, 1937
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INVENTOR
ATTO R N EY
-` 2,118,397
Patented May 24, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT oFI-‘lcE
2,118,397
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Charles A.' Dean, Compton, Calif.
Application March 15, 1937, Serial No. 131,090
7 Claims. (Cl. Z55-72)
'I'his invention pertains to improvements in
earth-boring core drills, and particularly to means
for controlling flow of drilling iluid in passages of
the drill head.
'
Core drills operate in muddy fluid at the bottom
of the drill hole. Such ñuid is pumped down
from the surface through the drill barrel and flows
in which are an inner core barrel and a íiuid pas
sage outside the core barrel, a valve co-operating
therewith for closure of the passage, and a releas
able latch to control the valve. In more specific
and preferred form the valve is held by a shear 5
able pin to close the passage. This valve con
tains a relatively large fluid conduit communi
This tends to
eating between drill stem and the interior of the
clog the various passages. For example, the mud
10 at high temperaturea'such as are encountered in
core barrel to maintain low pressure on the latch,
and contains a seat for closure of the port so that
pressure may be applied to move the valve to open
the passage outside the core barrel.
' through orifices near the cutters.
.f some of the deep wells, tends to become exceed
ingly viscous and even to bake. Moreover, plug
ging commonly occurs when a drill is lowered into
the mud at the bottom. The muddy ñuid flows
16 from without the drill seeking its own level in the
empty drill passages, to a height determined by
the prevailing hydraulic pressure. Ordinarily
this mud contains suspended solids of a size suñl
ciently large toV clog the drill oriñces or the pas
20 sages surrounding the inner core barrel.
These
solids become so iìrmly wedged under pressure of
the fluid flowing into the drill that frequently
despite counter-pressure when the mud pumps
are started, some of the passages remain clogged
25 during drilling.
.
An object of this invention is to provide im
proved means for avoiding plugging of the iluid
passages of a core drill and to assure uniform op
eration of the various orifices during drilling. A
30 particular object is to provide a core drill adapted
to keep the space between an inner core barrel
and the outer drill barrel free from plugging
when the drill is lowered into mud at the bottom
of a drill hole.
A further object is to divert drill
35 ing iluid from the annular space about an inner
core barrel until predetermined pressures are
available for iiushing the annular space and its
outlet orifices. Yet another object is directed to
core drills of the type having a vertically recipro
40 cable inner core barrel to actuate core-gripping
dogs, such for example as the drills shown in U. S.
Patents No. 1,850,386 or 1,984,867. y Such objects
are to provide means in such drills for positively
diverting drilling fluid from outsidethe inner core
45 barrel regardless of the position of the barrel
when the drill is in mud ’at the bottom. These
and other objects will be apparent in the follow
ing description of a specific illustrative embodi
ment of the principles of this invention.
50
.
Reference is made to the accompanying draw
ing of a preferred form of this invention and to
the appended claims which particularly point out
novel features of this invention.
In broad principle, these and other objects are
55 accomplished advantageously by providing a drill
In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a core drill
with inner core barrel- and fluid-diverting valve 15
in non-drilling position, and
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view similar to Fig. 1
but with the inner barrel closed and valve open
to divert fluid for drilling.
Referring more particularly to the drawing, a
core drill I is shown containing an inner core
barrel 2 in the drill head. In the form shown,
though other forms may be used, this barrel is of
the vertically reciprocal type which actuates core
gripping dogs. Core barrel 2 is surrounded by
annular passage 3 which communicates at the
bottom through jets 4 with the drilling cutters 5.
Passage 3 at the top communicates with a cen
tral bore 6 in the drill stem through intermediate
5
ports 1 in the upper end of the core barrel 2. Pas- , 30
sage 3 above ports 'I is closed by resilient rings 8
about the upper end of core barrel 2.
Within the upper end of core barrel 2 a valve
sleeve 9 is ñtted to slide vertically past the ports 1
so as to close ports 1 when the valve is in upper
position and to open the ports when in lower posi
tion. The valve sleeve is open throughout and
iltted snugly to slide between constricted walls of
the core barrel. Limits for vertical movement of
the valve sleeve are established by shoulders I0 40
and I I on the sleeve to engage corresponding
stops in the walls of the core barrel.
'I‘hrough the constricted wall of the core barrel
and the contacting side portion of the valve sleeve
are horizontal openings I2 and I2a to register 45
with each other when the valve sleeve 9 is in upper
position. Thus a pin I3 to serve as a releasable
latch may be inserted therein to lock valve 9 in
position to cover ports ‘I and prevent diversion of
iluid between annular passage 3 and drill bore 6. 50
Pin I3 is inserted before a drill is lowered into a
drill hole. 'I'his pin may consist of a nail or the
like, of size commensurate to shear under the
contemplated pressures when the valve 9 is closed.
Valve sleeve 9 contains an elongate ñuid pas- 55
2
2,118,397
sage I4. 'This passageway I 4 at its top is provided
with a-flaring valve seat I5 to receive a ball I6 to
close conduit I4, against communication of fluid
between the space within core barrel 2 and bore
5 6 of the drill stem.
In operation, as a drill is being lowered to the
bottom of a drill hole, drilling mud and debris
under hydraulic pressure flow into the drill and
rise to seek the level of the fluid outside.
10
This
fluid contains particles large enough to jam in
the passage surrounding the inner core barrel or
else to jam in the jets opening near the'cutters.
Under the prevailing hydraulic pressure such
stoppage of these passages usually occurs in ordi
15 nary drills. Moreover under modern conditions
of core drilling at great depths in the earth the
adverse factor of high temperature tends to bake
or gel the mud that rises through the cutter jets.
Consequently with ordinary drills when the pres
20 sure is reversed for drilling and even though
pump pressure is applied, the drill‘ñuid flows out
unevenly and the action and wear of the cutters
is irregular.
However, whensa> drill embodying the present
25 invention is lowered into a bore hole, annular
passage 3 is closed at the upper ports 1, and the
hydraulic pressure on the mud at the bottom of
the drill is relieved through the opening I4 in the
top of the core barrel.
'I'he relatively large cross
30 section of the core barrel facilitates ñow of the
mud therein even though solid particles of con
siderable size be present. But flow in the an
nular passage 3 is substantially avoided, for with
outlet at ports ‘I closed, back pressure of the en
35 trapped air and the relative constriction of pas
sage 3 divert the mud unto core barrel 2. Air
in core barrel 2 escapes freely through passage I4.
When this improved drill reaches bottom and.
is ready for drilling, pumps are started in cus
40 tomary manner to force drilling fluid down
through the drill stem. At first the fluid may
flow out through core barrel 2. Then ball closure
I5 is dropped with the fluid through the stem
and seats itself in valve sleeve 9, closing opening
45 I 4. Thus pressure of the pumps and drilling mud
is exerted on valve 9 so that finally the sleeve is
forced down to release the latch, or shear the
latch pin I3, as shown in Fig. 2. Thus ports ‘I
are opened so that with the predominant pressure
5
C! in
downward and with annular passage 3 clear,
drilling mud from the pumps readily flows uni
formly through the cutter orifices for drilling.
While in accordance with the patent statutes a
particular embodiment of this invention has been
described for illustration of the principles thereof,
and the best mode of application now contem
plated, it is evident that variations and other
specific arrangements are contemplated and var
ious adaptations of this invention may be made
60 by those skiued in this art, within the scope
of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A core drill comprising a bit head .adapted
t0 be attached to a hollow drill stem, a core bar
rel therein and a fluid passage around the core
barrel, either the core barrel or the fluid passage
being open for flow of fluid between the drillA stem
and the bottom cutters of the bit, means initially
to close the fluid passage and to divert fluid
through the core barrel, and means to close the
core barrel and to divert fluid through the fluid
passage to the cutters.
2. A core drill comprising a'bit head adapted
to be attached to a hollow drill stem, a core bar
rel vertically movable therein and initially open
at the top for ilow of drilling fluid therethrough,
and a fluid passage outside the core -barrel com
municating between the drill stem and the bot
tom cutters of the drill, said passage initially be
ing closed at its top, and valve means to close the
core barrel at any vertical position and to open
the passage for diverting flow of ñuid to the bot
tom cutters for drilling.
3. A core drill comprising a bit head adapted
to be attached to a hollow drill stem and con 10
taining a core barrel and a fluid passageoutside
the core barrel communicating between the drill
stem and the bottom cutters of the drill, closure
means for the passage around the upper portion
of the core barrel, ports in the core barrel in 16
itially affording fluid communication between the
portions of the passage above and below the
closure, a valve to close said ports and means to
open said valve and ports for fluid to ñow to the
cutters through the passage outside the core bar 20
rel.
4. An earth drill comprising a head adapted for
attachment to a hollow drill stem, a core barrel
therein, a fluid passage outside the core barrel
open at the bottom and closed near the top of
the core barrel, ports in the upper part of the
barrel to open between the passage and the drill
stem, a valve at .the upper part of the core bar
rel to close the ports, said valve containing a. fluid
conduit communicating between the drill stem 80
and the interior of the core barrel, and a seat in
said valve to receive a closure element foi the
conduit, said valve being adapted to move rela
tively to the core barrel to open .the ports when
the closure element is seated in the valve.
5. A core drill comprising a bit head adapted to
be attached to a hollow drill stem, a core barrel
therein open at the top, a fluid passage outside
the core barrel and closed near the top of the
core barrel, ports between the passage and the
core barrel opening, a sleeve fltting in the core
barrel opening and movable to open or to close
the ports, and means to close the sleeve and core
barrel opening and move the sleeve to open the
ports and divert fluid through the passage outside
the core barrel.
6. A core drill comprising a bit head adapted to
be attached to a hollow drill stem, a core barrel
open at the top and mounted in the bit head to
move longitudinally thereof, a fluid passage out 50
side the core barrrel and closed near the top of
the core barrell ports between the passage and
the core barrel opening, va sleeve fitting in the
core barrel opening adapted to afford fluid com~
munication between the drill stem and the core
barrel and adapted to move to open or to close
the ports, and a seat to receive a closure element
for the sleeve, whereby under fluid pressure the
closed sleeve is adapted to move to open the ports
and divert fluid through the passage outside the
barrel.
` 7. A core drill comprising a bit head adapted
to be attached to a hollow drill stem, a core bar
rel therein open at the top, a fluid passage out
side the core barrel, and closed near the top of
the core barrel, ports between the passage and
the core barrel opening, a sleeve fitting in the
core barrel opening and‘movable to open or to
close the ports, and means holding the sleeve to
close the ports when the sleeve is open andy re
leasable on closing the sleeve, and means to close
the sleeve and core barrel opening and move the
sleeve to open the ports and divert fluid through
the passage outside the core barrel.
CHARLES A. DEAN.
75
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