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Патент USA US2118476

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May 24, 1938.
‘
H. w. RICHARDS
2,118,476
TRAIN SIGNALING SYSTEM
‘Original Filed Oct. 19, 1951
90
'
9/
79
GM
I00
65
77
78
95
76
[0
YM
67
95
//6
8/
I08
Elma/WM:
’2 792mm’ WCHARDS,
Patented May 24, 1938
_
I
2,118,476
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,118,476
TRAIN SIGNALING SYSTEM
Harry
Richards, New York, N. Y;
Substitute for application Serial No. 569,766",
October 19, 1931.
This application March 16,»
1937, Serial No. 131,217 '
' -
12 Claims. (01. 246-63)
This invention relates to an automatic system ber of radial projections of su?icient length to
for transferring electrical communications to vehicles in motion and has for its object to provide
a system which is simple in parts and more ef?~
‘5 cient in operation than those heretofore proposed. This application is a re?le of applicant’s
prior application Serial No. 569,766 ?led October:
19, 1931.
With these and other objects in view the in10 vention resides in the novel details of ‘construction and combinations of parts constituting the
cause'the arm of an armature to be moved to
ward or away from a ?xed contact point to close
or open the circuit thereof. That is to say, there
is provided a wheel 20 having equally spaced pro
jections 2! which, as the wheel rotates, succes
sively move the pivoted arm 22 away from the
?xed contact 23, said arm being normally held.
against said contact by virtue of current passing
through an indication magnet 24 in the circuit of 10
the signal desired to be transmitted. Thus it
apparatus as well as in the novel steps and com-
will be seen from the drawing that the arm 22
binations of steps constituting the method of
transmitting the communications, as will be dis-
will be held against the periphery of the wheel
by the forces created by the electro-magnet 24;
15 closed more fully hereinafter and particularly
pointed out in the claims.
that when the flats of said wheel are in‘ contact 15
with said arm the contact point 23 will be closed;
The accompanying drawing forming a part of
and that the projections 2| successively move
this speci?cation is a diagrammatic representa-
said arm in a direction away from said contact
tion of a system by which the principles of this
point to open the latter.
Since the shaft it
20 invention may be carried out. In said diagram
are contained the trackside layout as well as the
layout carried by the vehicle in motion. .
In the drawing the trackside equipment consists of an inductor element comprising a lami25 nated structure I having thereon a plurality of
cores 2, 3, 4 and 5, each core having, thereabout
a coil which may or may not be connected in
of the motor will have a de?nite R. P. M. after it 20
reaches its prescribed speed, the wheel 20 will
cause a de?nite number of interruptions per see
0nd, in any circuit controlled by the ?xed con
tact 23 and the arm 22, in accordance with the,
number of projections 2| on said wheel.
25
The arm 22 is connected in circuit to the free
end of the coil 6 which, as above stated, is serial
series with the coils of the adjacent cores. In the
drawing these coils are indicated respectively by‘
co the numerals 6, 1, 8 and 9 and are shown con-
ly connected with the other coils ‘I, 8 and 9. Since
the arm l3 and the ?xed contact 23 are elec
trically ‘connected it will therefore be seen that 30
nected in series. The free end of coil 9 is connected to the armature of a relay ID which is 10cated in the block next in advance of the block
in which I is located, said relay being ener35 gized through a standard track circuit as will be
said coils are disposed in a closed circuit when
the contacts I I, I2 and 23 are closed. At low
speeds of the motor the governor I‘! will cause
the contact I2 to» open, and when this is the case
the circuit of said coils will be open regardless 35
of any condition of contact 23. The circuit of
the coils will also be open whenever armature II
readily understood, said relay becoming deenergized when a train enters the track section
to which said relay is connected. The contact
point ll of said relay is connected to a ?xed con40 tact l2 which is adapted in turn to be contacted
by a movable spring tensioned arm l3 actuated
by a governor operated sleeve M. In other words,
a motor having an armature I5 and a ?eld coil
l5a, energized by current from any suitable
45 source, is provided with a shaft represented by
the dash line l6 upon which is mounted a typical
governor I‘! connected to the sleeve l4 slidable on
said shaft, said Sleeve being positioned to control
the movement of the spring pressed arm I3 to50 ward or away from the contact l2. The purpose
of the governor is to leave the contact l2 open
until the speed of the motor is up to- a prescribed
rate.
,
Rigidly mounted on the shaft l6 are any num
55 her of wheels each having a predetermined num1
is in open-circuiting position. However, with the
motor turning at the prescribed speed and the
contact l2 closed, the circuit including said coils 40
will be successively opened and closed in accord
ance with the actuation of the arm 22 by the
wheel 20.
Any number of other wheels such as 20 may
be rigidly mounted on the shaft it but, for 45
purposes of illustration, only one other such wheel
has been indicated at 25, said wheel having a
plurality of equally spaced radial projections 26
different in number from the‘ projections 2| for
the purpose of providing a different number of 50
interruptions per second in the circuit including
the inductor coils 6, ‘I, 8 and 9. The wheel 25
functions similarly to wheel 20. ' In other words,
associated with the wheel 25 is a pivoted arm 21,
a ?xed contact 28 and an electro-magnet 29 55
2
2,1 18,476
similar to the parts 22, 23 and 24 above de
scribed, the electro-magnet 29 being in the cir
cuit of a signal desired to be transmitted, which
in the normal voltage of coil 45. The amount of
current normally induced in coil 49 by the pri
signal is different from the signal controlling the
other magnet 24. It should be stated that the
arms 22 and 27 are so constructed‘that when
thus establishing
mary is greater than that induced in the coil 45,
a positive
?ow
of
current
through the primary of the transformer 43.
When, however, the amount of induced voltage in
their control magnets 24 and 29 are deenergized,
said arms will, by the action of gravity, be moved
10
15
20
25
coil 45 is increased then, due to the fact that the
coils 49 and 45 are connected in opposition, the
away from any contact with the wheels or their one induced voltage will tendrto neutralize the
projections, thus positively keeping open the con
other, thereby in e?ect producing no ?ow of 10
tact points 23 and 28. Therefore, the purpose of current through the primary of said transformer.
the magnets 24 and 29 is to keep said arms in'
From the foregoing, it will therefore be under
contact with their controlling wheels.
stood that the frequency of the pulsation in the
It is to be observed that the coils 6, ‘I, 8 and 9 circuit including the transformer primary coil 42
are connected in series with the contacts 12 and will vary in accordance with the number of inter 15
23, and that the contact 28 is located in‘ a shunt ruptions per second created in the trackside cir
circuit having parallel relation with the contact cuits by the wheels 20, 25, etc. The train carried
23 so that the circuit including contact l2 will apparatus includes relays which are connected
be completed through either of the contacts 23 with the transformer and which are subject
or 28 according to the condition of the magnets therefore to the variance in said frequency, each
24 and 29.
'
relay being designed to match the frequency in
On the vehicle, such as a locomotive, there is itiated by a speci?c wheel. In other words, the
provided an inductor comprising a laminated transformer 43 carries a secondary coil 50in the
structure indicated at 35 whose ends terminate in circuit of which are connected in parallel a plu
the pole pieces 35 and 31, the latter having rality of relays such as 5|, 52, 53, etc., the relay 5|
mounted thereon a coil 38 constantly energized by operating on any frequency and the remaining
alternating current from the generator 39, said relays 52, 53 etc., operating on predetermined fre
coil thus becoming a primary coil. Also on the
pole 31 is mounted a second coil 40 one end of
which is connected as by the wire 4| to a primary
quencies which correspond respectively with the
frequencies established by the wheels 25, 29 etc.
coil 42 on the transformer generally indicated by
the numeral 43, the other end of the primary 42
reeds as armatures for certain of the relays, which
being connected as by the wire 44 to one end of a
coil 45 disposed on the other pole 36 of the train
35 carried inductor. The wire 46 connects the two
free ends of the coils 49 and 45. Thus 40 and 45
become secondary coils connected in series but
they are also connected in opposition due to» the
direction of their windings and their locations
40 with respect to the primary coil 38.
' The coil 49 being on the same pole with the
primary 38 and closely adjacent thereto is capable
of having induced therein a current which is
practically constant in voltage and regardless of a
45 change in the ?ux produced by the primary 38.
In this connection, it should be stated that the
train inductor 35 is mounted so as to pass over
the trackside inductor l and, when this occurs,
any magnetic ?ux set up in the train inductor 35
50 by the primary coil 38 may complete its circuit
through the trackside inductor as indicated by
the heavy line 41, the train inductor moving in
the direction of the arrow 48.
The coil 45 will have induced therein a voltage
55 dependent upon the amount of flux passing
through the pole 36. In other words, there will be
a certain amount of magnetic flux passing
through the train inductor when it is not over the
trackside inductor l, and this amount of ?ux will
60 be increased when the'two inductors are in reg
istry, the trackside inductor forming a path of
low reluctance for said flux. This condition, how
ever, may be changed according to the condi
tion of the trackside circuit including the coils 6,
65 1, 8 and 9.
'
In other words, if this circuit is open as through
the contact I2 or 23, then the path of low re
luctance will cause an increase in the magnetic
flux and a corresponding increase in the amount
of induced voltage in the coil 45. With the coils
6, ‘I, 8 and 9 in a closed circuit, each coil will have
the effect of choking the passage of the magnetic
flux from the train inductor to and through the
trackside inductor, thereby preventing an increase
in the magnetic flux and preventing any change
This is accomplished by the use of metallic 3O
reeds are adjusted to vibrate in accordance with‘
the frequencies picked up by their associated
magnets.
In other words, the magnet 5| has a
non-vibratory armature 54 whereas the magnets 35
52 and 53 have respectively the vibrator reeds 55
and 56 for their respective armatures, these vi
bratory reeds being rigidly supported at one end
by any suitable bracket such as indicated by the
numerals 51 and 58. Each bracket carries ‘a 40
clamping device designated at 59 and 50 which
devices are adapted to’be adjustably moved on
the brackets to change the vibratory length of the
reeds.
'
'
>
The brackets 51 and 58 also carry single ?xed 45
contacts shown at 50 and BI respectively which
contacts are insulated from ‘their supporting
brackets and are adapted ‘to be repeatedly en
gaged through the vibration of their respective
reeds 55 and 55, but when the frequency of the
current passing through any one magnet is not of‘
the same characteristic as the vibratory period of
its associated reed, then that reed will remainv
stationary, and when this is the case that reed
will not contact with its associated ?xed contact. 55
This is the case in the diagram with the magnet
52. On the other hand, when the current fre
quency in a magnet such as 53 corresponds to the
natural period of vibration of its reed 56, then’
said reed will vibrate violently against the contact 60
point 6| in accordance with the well known laws
of resonance. This vibration is indicated in the
diagram by the solid and dashed line positions of
the reed 56, and such vibration will open and
close repeatedly any circuit of which the contact 65
6| is a part.
,
, d
On the vehicle is a selector comprising an in
sulating medium 55 preferably mounted concen
trically with respect to a shaft 65 constantlyrun
der an urge of rapid rotation, in the direction of
the arrow, from any suitable source of power such
as clockwork, a magnetic drag, or a friction drive,
but which shaft may at times ‘be stopped. This
shaft has rigidly mounted thereon, and within
said insulator, a disk member constituting a se? 75
3
2,118,476
lector 61 having‘ a radially extending lug '68
adapted to contact, and be stopped by, pins ex
tendible into the path of said lug. Also mounted
rigidly on said shaft is another disk member 69
provided in its periphery with a plurality of
spaced notches ‘I9, each adapted to be engaged by
_ a correspondingly shaped holding ?nger 86 con
stituting the free end. of a pivoted-‘lever ‘H serv
ing as the armature of a holding magnet ‘I2, said
p}
10
armature being under the tension of‘ a spring ‘I3
urging disengagement of said ?nger‘ 86 with re
spect
to
a
notch
‘I0. >
'
-
I
- Mounted on the insulator'member 65 at spaced
intervals are a plurality of binding posts ‘I4, ‘I5,
15 ‘I6 each extending through the insulator member
and carrying a spring contact so disposed as to
be wiped by the lug 68. The relative positions
of the stop pins and the spring contacts, as well
as the dimension of the lug, are such that, when
20 held by a stop pin such as 11, said lug will be in
engagement with one of the spring contacts. In
other words the pin 11, passing through a mag-}
net GM, is normally held out of the orbit of said
lug by the spring ‘I8 when said magnet is deen
25 ergized, but the outer end‘ of the pin carries an
armature ‘I9 which is attracted by the magnet
when the latter is energized. Since the force of
said magnet is greater than the force of said
spring, energization of said magnet causes move
30 ment of the pin 11 into the orbit of said lug.
In similar manner, there is provided a magnet
YM whose pin- 89 likewise is of the nature of the
core of a solenoid and which has the same spaced
relation with the spring contact of binding post
35 ‘I5 that the pin 71 has with respect to the spring
contact of the binding post 16. The magnet YM
functions similarly to the magnet GM namely,
when it is energized it causes pin 89 to move
inwardly with respect to the insulator member 65
40 against the tension of the spring 8|, coming to
rest in the orbit of the lug 68.
' A third magnet RM is provided which operates
in a manner reverse to the operation of the mag
45
50
nets GM and YM. That is to say, when the mag
net RM is energized it attracts the armature 82
carried at one end‘ of the pin 83 thereby moving
said pin out‘ of the orbit of said lug. Aspiring
84, operating against a guide bracket 85 for said
pin, moves said pin into said orbit when RM is
deenergized.
'
Associated with the magnet GM is a ?xed con
tact 99 and a movable contact member 9|, the
latter under the urge of a spring 92 normally
tending to-separate said contacts.
The pin 11
55 of said magnet has an insulated end bearing
magnet ‘I2 is to be completed prior to disengage
ment of any stop pin with the lug 68 so that said
holding magnet, through the attraction of its
armature, will cause the locking ?nger 86 to move
into a notch ‘I9 to hold the shaft 66 from ro-l
tating further, said ?nger thereby continuing the
engagement of the lug 68 with a spring contact
member.
In this respect, it should here be
stated. that the notches 19 are so spaced about
the periphery of the holding disk 69 that, when 10
the lug 68 is stopped by any pin such as ‘I‘I, there
will be a notch ‘I9 in position to be engaged by
the holding ?nger 86.
The holding circuit comprises the magnet ‘I2,
wire I99, contacts 90, 9|, wire |9|, contacts 95, 15
93, wire I92, contact I03, armature 54 of the mag
net 5I, wire I94, battery I95, and wire I96 to the
holding magnet ‘I2.
" The GM magnet is operated by current from
the battery I95 passing over the wire I9‘I to and 20
through the vibrating reed 56 and itscontact 6|,
wire I98 to and through the GM magnet, thence
over the wire I99 to and through the RM magnet,
thence over the wires “9 and I96‘ back to the
battery. A condenser III is connected in shunt 25
circuit between the wires I91 and I98 around the
reed 56 and its contact 6|, to minimize the arcing
at said contact.
The“ circuit controlling the YM magnet starts
with the battery I95 from which the current 30
passes over the wire “34 to the point II2, ‘a por
tion of the current passing over the wire “3 to
and through the vibrating reed 55 and its con
tact 69, thence over the wire IM to and through
the YM magnet and over the wire “5 to the 35
point H6 on the wire I99, the current returning
to battery as above mentioned by way of the wire
I99, magnet RM, and wires H9 and I06. A con
denser II‘I is connected in shunt circuit between
the wires H3 and H4 around the reed 55 and its 40
contact 69, to minimize the arcing at said con
tact.
'
’
It is to be particularly observed that the mag
net RM is connected in the common return cir
cuit of the magnets GM and YM so that when 45
either of the magnets GM or YM is energized
the magnet RM will be energized also. The
reason for this connection is as follows.
When
the magnets are deenergize'd, the pin 83 of RM
is normally projecting into the orbit of the se 50
lector lug 68 to stopvit in position to close a cir
cuit through the R lamp which is red, this being
on the side of safety should the circuits through
GM and YM become defective. Conversely,
when RM is energized in conjunction with either 55
GM or YM, the pin 83 of RM will be drawn out
of the orbit of said lug, while the pin of either
against the movable contact, 9|. It thus results
that energization of magnet GM, causing move
ment of the pin 11 into the orbit of the lug 68, GM or YM (as the case may be) will be advanced
also permits the spring 92 to cause disengagement into said orbit to stop said lug in engagement
with a spring contact to close the circuit through 60
60 of the contacts 99 and 9|. Reversely, deenergiza
tion of said magnet permits the spring ‘I8 to move the cab- lamp‘ associated with GM or YM. .
In other words, the binding post ‘I4 associated
pin 17 out of said orbit, and in this movement said . with
RM is connected as by the wire I29 with the
pin causes a closing of the contact members 99
R lamp (red) in the locomotive cab; the binding
and 9|. In like manner the magnet YM has its
post ‘I5 associated with YM is connected as by
65 pin 89 insulatedly bearing against the movable
contact member 93 under tension of the spring the wire |2I with the Y lamp (yellow) in the
99 and adapted to open and close with its ?xed cab; and the binding post ‘I6 associated with GM
is connected as by the wire I22 with the G lamp
companion contact member 95.
It has been found desirable to make the ?xed (green) in said cab. All three lamps R, Y, and
G have a common return in the wire I23 to the 7.0
70 contacts 99 and 95 somewhat yieldable so that
point I29 on the wire I96 back to battery I95.
they will be closed by their corresponding mov
able members 9| and 93 immediately prior to the Current from said battery passes over the wires
I94 and H3 to the point I25 and thence over
ultimate release of the lug 68 by either of the
stop pins ‘II or 89. The reason for this is that it
75 is intended that the circuit through the holding
the wire I26 to enliven the shaft 66 of the se
lector.
The current passes to the selector disk 7;;
4
2,118,476
?lifrom ‘said shaft and passes through the lug
58 thereof to the spring contact engaged by said
lug and associated with one of the binding .posts
suchas 16 to complete the circuit through and
illuminate the lamp which is controlled by that
frequency in the secondary coils of the train i'n'-'
ductor.‘
'
,
.
From the foregoing, it will thus be seen and
particular binding post.
understood that, to light the green lamp in the
engine cab to indicate a clear‘ condition of track,
the magnet 24 is‘ energized thereby creating a
, From the foregoing, it will be understood that
there may be any number of the magnets such
tendency - for the’ armature 22‘ to be pressed
against the wheel 20 and its projections 2!, so
as GM ‘disposed in any arrangement about the
that the rotation’ of said wheel will cause an‘.
opening and closing of the contact 23 in the cir 10*
cuit including the trackside coils. This inter
ruption of the circuit through the‘ contact 23" is
of a frequency depending upon the R. P‘. M. of the
motor shaft l6 and the number of projections; 2|
10-' insulator member 65; that for each of such mag
nets there will be a corresponding ‘frequency re
lay such as 52; and that there also will be a
corresponding indication controller such as the
magnet 29. Also it will be understood that the
15 frequency relays 5|, 52 and 53 and others will all
be connected in parallel with the secondary coil
50. of the transformer 53. Further, while the
diagram has shown the GM, YM and RM mag
on the wheel 20. This interruption oithe track
side _coil circuits causes a corresponding inter
ruption in the path of low reluctance in the
trackside inductor, thereby causing the voltage
nets as controlling respectively the G, Y and
induced in the secondary 45 to pulsate with the
- R lamps in the cab of the locomotive, it is to
be understood that these magnets as well could
control devices or mechanism other than lamps.
Also, additional magnets could be placed about
the selector insulator 65, each to control a mech.—
anism or device in addition to the lamps so con
trolled and illustrated.
vFor example, there could be an additional
magnet on the selector member 65, which for
this exempli?cation mightbe called BM, which
30 would be similar in construction and operation
to GM and which would be connected so as to
control the actuation of brake mechanism where
by, under certain tra?ic or emergency condi
corresponding frequency.
In other words, when‘ the circuit through the
trackside choke 0011s is open there will be an
increase in, the induction of voltage in the coil
45 so as to neutralize the voltage in the coil 40,
but when said choke coils are in closed circuit, 25:
the magnetic fluxwill not be increased, so that
the voltage including that of the transformer
primary 42 will be of normal amount. The cur
rent, in the secondary circuit of the train induc
tor is therefore made to fluctuate in its pulsa
tion in accordance with the variance in inter
ruption of the trackside circuit.
3,0;
Obviously, the
transformer 43 causes a corresponding variance
tions, there would be an automatic application in pulsation in the secondary circuit thereof, and
As another example, an addie this variance is transmitted through the mag
tional magnet similar to GM in construction and nets 52, 53 etc. to that reed which is in synchro
operation could be utilized for the control of a
nous resonance with said pulsation. The magnet
visual, an audible, or a visual-audible warning 5~l is normally energized with current of the same
device in the interest of public safety, thereby frequency as supplied by the generator 39.
eliminating the vagaries and hazards of human
The purpose of the transformer 43 is to trans
attendance to such warnings.
form the voltage supplied by the secondary coils
In addition to the foregoing, it will also be of the train inductor so that the relays may be
understood that the lug 68 of the selector disk operated on the most suitable voltage, regard
could be made of a dimension great enough to less of the voltage necessary to operate the train
span a plurality of spring contact members, said inductor. In other words, the transformer 43
plurality arranged either in series circumferené ' always has voltage therein in accordance with
tially of the selector element, or arranged side the‘difference between the voltages of coils 40
by side in a diametric plane of said selector, as and 45, which energizes the primary 42, and
a result of which a combination of controls could therefore the secondary 50 will receive a corre
be obtained, such for example as the simulta~ sponding induced current to energize the mag
50 neous ?ashing of the Y and R lamps, the si
nets connected in circuit therewith.
multaneous ?ashing of the R lamp and appli
The period of vibration of the reeds being ad
cation of the brakes, or the ?ashing of the Y justed through their clamps to operate on a fre
lamp and the giving of a warning signal, etc. quency higher than the frequency supplied by
There could be, as well, a plurality of trackside the generator 39, each reed is not su?iciently af
55
and train carried inductors, each with associated fected by the normal generator frequency to open
equipment as herein illustrated, further result
and close its contact. In this respect the mag
ing in additional combinations of control and nets 52, 53 etc. are loosely coupled with respect
signal possibilities.
to their reeds so that only that reed will be
rther, a plurality of selector disks could be vibrated having a period of vibration corre
60'
mounted on the common shaft EEL'each disk hav
sponding with the frequency of the current pass
ing associated therewith a holding device, a set ing through said magnets.
of cooperating magnets, contacts, etc., the same
It thus results that the R. P. M. of the shaft IS
as the disk 67 and its cooperating holding device in conjunction with thernumber of projections
69, 12, 86, magnets GM, YM, RM, and contacts 2| on the wheel 20 Will produce such interrup
65
associated with the binding posts ‘I43, l5, 16. Or tion in the frequencies of the trackside and train
a plurality of selector groups, each independent carried circuits as to affect only the reed 56 be
of the otherycould be employed to satisfy the cause that reed has been made predeterminedly
needs of the service and system. While, in the of a length to establish a period of vibration
therein agreeing with that frequency. There
70 diagram, the selector magnets GM, YM, etc., are
shown to be controlled by frequency relays em
fore, the closing ,of the circuit through 6| will
ploying a tuned reed to operate an electrical
energize the GM magnet and also the RM mag
contact, it is to be understood that any suitable net connected in the return circuit thereof, re
form of electrical or mechanical devices may be
sulting in the withdrawal of the RM pin 83 from
used to indicate the presence of a predetermined its normal position in the orbit of the lug 68 and
35 of the brakes.
is’
35'
50
55..
60
65
70
75
5
2,1 18,476
tacts 96, 9| thereby breaking the'circuit through,
ary transformer circuit will be changed to that of
the generator 39, thus causing cessation of the.
vibration of the reed 55, leaving the contact 68
open, and causing deenergization of YM and RM,
and deenergizing, the holding magnet 12. This,
immediately releases the holding ?nger 86 from
a notch of the holding disk 69 and permits the
tacts 93, 95 resulting in reenergization of the
holding magnet 12 to move the holding ?nger 86
the moving of the pin 11 of the GM magnet
into said orbit. However, the movement of the
pin Tljust stated causes opening of the con
shaft 66 to again rotate the selector lug 68 until
it comes in contact with the stop pin 11 in its
11 will vcause said lug to engage the spring con
tact associated with the binding post ‘I6 and com
plete a circuit through the G (green) light.
normal position.
The above operation to initiate the green light
15 signal has been described as and when the train
inductor 35 is in registry with the trackside in
ductor I. When these two inductors pass out of
registry, as with the continued movement of the
train in the direction of the arrow 48, then the
20 frequency in the primary circuit of the trans
form-er 43 is changed to the normal frequency of
the generator 39, inducing a corresponding
change in frequencies passing through the mag-v
nets 52, 53 etc. and the reed 56 will then stop
vibrating since it is no more in resonance with
'
In the operation of the device to illuminate the
R (red) lamp, magnet 58 of the roadside circuits 15
must ?rst be deenergized to open contact II.
This is accomplished in any ‘desired manner in
accordance with traffic signal conditions, and
when the contact II is so, opened, then the path
of low reluctance through the trackside inductor
is not interrupted by any of the choke coils 6, 1,
8 or 9. This results in the maximum flow of
magnetic ?ux when the train inductor passes
over the trackside inductor, and this in turn re
sults in the voltage through coil 45 being in 25
the generator frequency.’ Cessation of vibration
creased to neutralize the voltage through coil 48,
of this reed causes the contact 6| to remain open
and thereby causes the current to drop to zero
leaving the GM and RM magnets deenergized, the
former causing retraction of its pin 11 from the
30 orbit of the lug 68 with prior closing of contacts
96, 9| to reenergize the holding magnet 12 which
results in the engagement of the holding ?nger
86 with the proper notch of the holding disk
69 to retain the lug‘ 68 in contact to continue
35 illumination of the G (green) light. Simultane
ously with this is the release of the pin 83 from
the RM magnet to move into its normal position
in the orbit of the lug 68 when the latter is next
released from the position just described.
40 1 ‘The Y (yellow) lamp is lighted when the train
inductor passes over the trackside inductor in
substantially the same manner except that the
through the primary of the transformer.
There
is correspondingly no ?ow of current from the
secondary of said transformer, resulting in de 30
energization of all frequency relays and magnets
such as 5|, 52, and 53 etc. However, when mag
net 5| is deenergized, contact I83 is open, break
ing the circuit to and through the holding mag
net 12 immediately releasing the holding ?nger 86 35
from its notch in the holding disk 53, and permit
ting the shaft 66 to rotate the lug 68 until it is
stopped by the RM pin 83 which is normally in
the orbit of said lug. When this occurs, said lug
will engage the contact ?nger of post 14 and 40
complete the circuit through the R lamp.
When the train inductor passes off the track
control for the Y signal is through the magnet
side inductor the normal voltage will be reestab
29 of the trackside circuits and this will create
lished through the transformer 43, thereby caus
45 a certain frequency in the trackside circuit’ corre
sponding to the R. PJM; of the shaft I6 in com
bination with the number of projections 26 on the
control wheel 25. Obviously, the number of pro
jections on the wheel 25 will be different from
the number of projections on any of the other
wheels on said shaft l6. The trackside fre
quency being established, current of a corre
sponding frequency will be induced in the train
carried transformer circuits resulting in the pas
55
into a notch 18 to retain the lug 88 in engage
ment to close the circuit through the Y lamp, and
second the retraction ofv pin 88 out of the orbit 10
of the lug 68 while simultaneously causing the
pin 83 of the RM magnet to move again into its
path. .The stopping of the lug against the pin
50
the former causing ?rst the closing of the con
sage of a current of a frequency through the
magnets 52, 53, etc. such as to cause vibration
of the reed 55, which has been predeterminedly
tuned with resonance of that frequency by virtue
of the clamp 59. Vibration of the reed 55 closes
60 the contact 60 to cause energization of the YM
and» RM magnets, which respectively causes pro
jection of the pin 88 into the orbit of the lug 68
and retraction of the pin 83 out of said orbit.
However, immediately the pin 88 begins to move
65 into said orbit, the contacts 93 and 95 are opened,
thereby deenergizing the holding magnet 12 and
releasing the holding ?nger 86, whereupon the lug
68 will be free to travel around in its orbit until
it is stopped by the pin 88, and in this position
70 said lug will be in engagement with the spring
contact associated with the binding post 15 and
thus close the circuit to and through the Y
(yellow) lamp.
'
When the train inductor passes off the track
side inductor then the frequency of the second
ing voltage in the secondary of ‘said. transformer 45
to reenergize magnet 5! which picks up its ar
mature 54 and closes contact I 83. This results
in the reenergization of the holding magnet 12
bringing the holding ?nger 86 into locking posi
tion with respect to the holding disk 69 to main 50
tain, the lug 68 in engagement with the spring
contact to continue the'illumination of the R
lamp. The pin 83 is normally in the orbit of
the lug 68 and is only moved therefrom when a
frequency is transmitted by the trackside coils. 55
In connection with all the foregoing, it is, of
course, to be understood that this invention is ap-'
plicable to a train system wherein the track is
divided into the usual blocks, insulated from each
other, each block having a trackside inductor lo
60
cated at a point which is called the control lo
cation and which is generally at or-slightly in ad
vance of the entrance to the block. Each induc
tor is also connected .as indicated in the draw
ing to a relay such as It for controlling thercir v65
cuit through the choke coils of the inductor, and
the circuit in which said relay is located also in
cludes contacts such as 23, 28 etc. which may be
opened or closed individually by magnets operat
ed ‘in accordance with the traf?c conditions. 70
Each trackside inductor therefor is adapted, when
the train inductor passes thereover,'to impart to
the latter a signal indicating tra?ic conditions or
to initiate automatically some operation which is
important and necessary to the control of the
w
6
2,118,476
train, the circuits for imparting such signal being
controlled by the particular frequency established
vice on the train controlled by impulses from
said'coil of similar frequency.
by mechanical means such as the wheels 20, 25
etc. Also it should be stated that the governor
ing a train carried inductor having a coil excited
I] may be one so designed as to insure a prede
by a pulsating current as well as an impulse coil
termined and relative constant R. P. M. of the
in inductive relation thereto, a trackside induc
tor with which the train carried inductor is in
ductively cooperable to receive a magnetic ?ux
shaft I6. In other words, if the speed of the motor
turns the shaft l6 too fast, said governor may
operate a switch to open the circuit through the
10 motor so that it will readily be understood that
the R. P. M. of the shaft "5 may be varied to give
one set of predetermined frequencies'through the
various wheels 20, 25 etc. and then the gover
nor may be adjusted whereby a maximum R. P. M.
15 different from the ?rst R. P. M. may be established
as a result of which a different set of predeter
mined frequencies may be given the same wheels.
It is obvious that those skilled in the art may
vary the details of construction as well as com
20 binations of steps constituting the method with
out departing from the spirit of the invention,
25
activated by said exciting coil, said trackside in
ductor having selectively controlled means to
vary at predetermined frequencies said flux ?ow
from said exciting coil through said impulse coil,
and train control signal means controlled by im
pulses from said impulse coil.
7
7. Automatic train control apparatus compris
15
ing a train carried inductor having an exciting
coil and an impulse coil in inductive relation with
the exciting coil, said exciting coil energized
from a train carried source of power to’ establish
a magnetic flux through said coils, a trackside 20
inductor with which the train carried inductor
and therefore it is not desired to be limited to
is inductively cooperable magnetically, said
the foregoing except as may be required by the
trackside inductor offering a path of low re
claims.
luctance for the ?ow of said magnetic flux,
traffic controlled choke coils on said trackside 25
inductor to modify at a predetermined frequency
the quantity of magnetic flux from the exciting
coil through the impulse coil, and train control
signal means controlled by impulses of similar
frequency from said impulse coil.
30
8. Automatic train control apparatus compris
ing a train carried inductor having an exciting
coil and an impulse coil in inductive relation with
'
What is claimed is:—
1. In a train signaling system the combination
of trackside inductors and a train carried induc
tor the latter carrying a magnetic ?ux, the
former offering a path of low reluctance to said
30 ?ux; and means on the roadway for interrupting
the flow of flux through the path of low re
luctance at a predetermined frequency to pro
duce a pulsating current in the train carried
inductor of similar frequency.
2. In a train signaling system the combina
35
tion of trackside inductors and a train carried
inductor the latter carrying a magnetic ?ux, the
former offering a path of low reluctance to said
flux; and means on the roadway for selectively
40 interrupting the flow of flux through the path
of low reluctance at different predetermined fre
quencies to produce a plurality of pulsating cur
rents in the train carried inductor of similar
frequency.
45
' - 6. Automatic train control apparatus compris
a
3. In a train signaling system the combination
of trackside inductors and a train carried induc
tor the latter carrying a magnetic flux, the
former offering a. path of low reluctance to said
?ux; means on the roadway for interrupting the
50 ?ow of flux through the path of low reluctance
at a predetermined frequency; and a train car
ried device responsive only to the predetermined
frequency.
4. In a train signaling system the combina
55 tion of trackside inductors and a train carried
inductor the latter carrying a magnetic flux,
the former offering a‘path of low reluctance
the exciting coil, said exciting coil energized
from a train carried source of power to establish 35
a magnetic ?ux through said coils, a trackside
inductor‘with which the train carried inductor
is inductively cooperable magnetically, said
trackside inductor offering a path of low re
luctance- for the flow of said magnetic flux,
tra?ic controlled wayside means cooperating with
said trackside inductor to modify at a predeter
mined frequency the quantity of magnetic ?ux
from the exciting ‘coil through the impulse coil,
and train control signal means controlled by
impulses of similar frequency from said impulse
CO1 .
9. In a train signaling system the combina
tion of trackside inductors and a train carried
inductor the latter carrying a magnetic flux, the 50
former offering a path of low reluctance to said
?ux when said inductors are in registry; and
means on the roadway including said trackside
inductor for establishing pulsations of a pre
determined frequency in the current induced 55
by said flux and ?owing in the trackside inductor.
saidrpulsations inductively modifying the mag
to said flux; and means on the roadway for ‘ netic flux to provide a corresponding pulsating
interrupting the ?ux flow through the path of
60 low reluctance at a predetermined frequency ad
justably in accordance with a predetermined
tra?ic condition, the modi?ed ?ux producing a
pulsating current in the train carried inductor
-of similar frequency for signal control purposes.
5. Automatic train control apparatus compris
65
ing a train carried impulse coil a source of pul
sating current inductively energizing said im
pulse coil through the medium of a magnetic flux;
means including a trackside inductor for con
70 trolling the magnetic flux through said coil when
passing a control location of the track, said track
side inductor including means to intermittently
control the quantity of the magnetic flux through
the impulse coil to establish therethr'ough a
75 current of predetermined frequency; and a de
current in the train carried inductor of similar
frequency when said'inductors are in registry,‘ 60
. 10.'In' a train signaling system the combina
tion of a train carried inductoritrain supplied
energy creating a flow of magnetic ?ux in said
inductor; a trackside inductor offeringa path
of low reluctance to said ?ux flow when the train 65
inductor passes over the trackside inductor; and
means on the roadway including said trackside
inductor for modifying the flow of ?ux through
the path of low reluctance at a predetermined
frequency and consequently producing a modi?ed to
re?ected indication current in the train carried
inductor for signal control purposes.
11. Automatic train control apparatus compris
ing a train carried impulse coil inductively acti
vated by current‘from a train carried source and
2,118,476
establishing a magnetic flux, trackside equipment
including a trackside inductor offering a path of
low reluctance for said magnetic flux when
said coil passes a control location of the track,
said trackside inductor having choke coils for
modifying the flow of magnetic ?ux in accord
ance with a predetermined frequency, said equip
ment further including means for selectively
modifying the predetermined frequency of said
19 ?ux ?ow through the impulse coil, and. train con
trol signal means controlled by impulses from
said impulse coil having a similar frequency.
12. Automatic train control apparatus includ
’
7
ing a train carried impulse coil inductively
activated by current from a train carried source
and establishing a magnetic flux, trackside equip
ment including a trackside inductor oifering a
path of low reluctance for said magnetic flux
when said coil passes a control location of the
track, said trackside‘inductor having choke coils
for modifying the flow of magnetic ?ux in ac
cordance with a predetermined frequency, and
train control signal means controlled by im- 10
pulses from said coil having a similar frequency.
HARRY W. RICHARDS.
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