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Патент USA US2118479

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May 24, 1938.
'r. 5. SEE ET AL
2,118,479
SUBMERGED COMBUSTION BURNER
Filed March 24, 1938
5 Sheets-Sheet l
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May 24, 1938.
T. 5. SEE ET AL
2,118,479
SUBMERGED COMBUSTION BURNER
Filed March 24‘ 1938
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
May 24, 1938.
2,118,479
T. 5. SEE ET AL
SUBMERGED COMBUSTION BURNER
I Filed March 24’ 1938
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Patented May 24, 1938‘
UNITED STATES
‘ 2,118,479
PATENT OFFICE
2,118,479
SUBMERGED COMBUSTION BURNER
Theodore S. See, Hammond. Ind., John Edward
'l'egarden, Calumet City, 111., and Arthur Wil
liams, Munster, lnd., aaslgnors to Submerged
Combustion Company of America, Inc.. Ham
mond. Ind., a corporation of Indiana
Application March 24, 1938, Serial No. 197,940
30 Claims. (Cl. 126-360)
This invention relates to an improved method portant feature of the present invention resides
of submerged combustion and a novel submerged
combustion burner capable of practicing the
method, and has for a principal object the pro
5 vision of a burner, adapted to perform the novel
method, which is rugged and durable in con
struction in order to withstand the severe usage
to which submerged combustion burners are sub
ject, is efficient and economical in operation, and
I0 at the same time comparatively simple in design
and construction.
Submerged combustion burners of the type
which form the subject matter of this application
are used for heating purposes and accordingly
are to be contrasted with burners of the oxy
acetylene or blow torch type. They may be em
in the provision of an improved and novel burner
which may be placed in position within a tank.
allowed to remain there as a more or less per
m'anent ‘fixture, and will operate satisfactorily
at all times and under all conditions. Another
important quality of the invention consists in
the fact that the burner is capable of withstand
ing the severe usage to which it is subjected.
Another feature of the invention which con
tributes to accomplishment of the recited objects
resides in the inclusion in the improved burner
of ignition means which permits the burner to
be turned on and off automatically or manually
and operates efliciently under all trying condi
tions.
15
in order to be capable of universal application,
must be rigidly and durable constructed, and yet
in order to meet the required conditions of per
formance must additionally be suiilciently sim
pli?ed in construction that it will operate eco
Another feature of the invention resides in the
provision of a burner which is safe. Back?res
and explosions in burners of this type are com
mon and dangerous and any burner which meets 20
the service requirements must be so constructed
as to eliminate all hazard or tendency in these
directions. A further feature resides in an im
proved method of admixing air and fuel within
the burner in order to economize on fuel and
nomically over an extended period of time with
out breakdown. Additionally, in case of break
down, it must be so constructed that it can be
feature resides in the shape and arrangement of
the burner, which comprises the characteristic
ployed in heating tanks, such, for example, as
hot water tanks, or they may be employed for
such severe purposes as heating pickling baths
20 containing sulphuric acid. A burner of this type,
easily, cheaply and conveniently repaired.
It has been found that in order for burners
of this type to be entirely satisfactory they must
be capable of being placed in position in a tank
to be heated and allowed to remain there inde?
nitely without removal. This preferably entails
35 the feature of igniting and extinguishing them
while they are in position within the tank, pro
tectlng the vital parts from corrosion and other
destructive forces, and includes problems of )cool
ing, circulation and the like. Above all, in order
10 to be commercially acceptable, such burners must
face and overcome all operation, maintenance
and cost problems.
Today'there are no combustion burners avail
able which satisfactorily meet the strict require45 ments outlined above, although several complex
and comparatively delicate submerged combus
tion burners have been designed and are in lim
ited use. Such burners, however, are subject to
numerous objections which have retarded their
50 commercial development and have prevented
their extensive adoption. They get out of repair
easily, require adjustment frequently, or in many
other respects fail to meet the standards required
of a successful submerged combustion burner.
with the foregoing desiderata in view, an im
55
produce high heating e?iciency.
Still another
of being constructed in the shape of an L.
The
stem of the L is adapted to be disposed vertically 30
along the side wall of a heating or pickling tank
and the base of the L is arranged to extend more
or less horizontally along the floor of the tank.
Attached to the upper extremity of the stem are
the connections through which the fuel and ig 35
nition devices are admitted to the burner. These
connections conveniently overlie the wall of the
heating tank, and although the burner as thus
balanced in position is a more or less permanent
?xture and part of the tank, it can nevertheless 40
be conveniently removed as a unit.
A still further feature of the invention which
contributes to the accomplishment oi’ the recited
objects resides in the provision of a burner, the
parts and arrangements of which are such that 45
the likelihood of parts burning out or wearing
away is largely eliminated. Still further features
and objects of the invention will become appar
ent from a reading of the following specification
in the light of the accompanying drawings, in 50
which
Figure 1 shows in side elevation a portion of a
liquid tank or reservoir with the burner in posi
tion, and its attendant control system sche
matically illustrated;
2
Figure 2 is a top plan detail view of the burner
head shown in Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a view, similar to Figure l, of a
heating tank with a burner and the attendant
control system shown in outline;
Figure, 4 is a view in side elevation of the
burner shown in Figures 1 and 3; ‘
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic view or a heating
tank showing several burners in position in a
10 tank and the direction 01' circulation oi‘ the liquid
~heated and agitated thereby:
Figure 6 and Figure 7 are detailed views, in
section, of two types of burners constructed in
accordance with the present invention and em
15
bodying the principles thereof; and
Figure 8 is a view ci’ a burner plate arrange
ment taken along the line 8-8 of Figure 7.
Turning first to Figures 1 and 3, the burner is
indicated generally by the reference numeral ill
20 and is mounted within a tank I! containing a
liquid to be heated, the surface 01’ the liquid being
indicated by the reference numeral it. At the
right oi‘ the tank, as shown in these ?gures, is
located a control system by means of which the
25 proper operation and functioning of the burner
is regulated. Inasmuch as this system will not
be claimed in this application but forms the sub
ject matter of my copending application Serial
No. 127,068, filed February 23, 1937, it will not
be described in detail in the instant application,
although in order to illustrate and disclose a
complete working system and apparatus a brief
résumé of its construction and-operation will be
given. Although, as just stated, the burner and
35 not the control system forms the subject mat
ter of this application, the latter rather than the
former will be ?rst described in order to dispose
oi’ the unclaimed subject matter at the outset.
Control system
A compression unit I! has mounted upon one
extremity 01' its rotating shaft an air com
pressing unit It, and upon its opposite extremity
a gas compressor unit 20. Gas or other suitable
fuel is supplied from an appropriate source
through a conduit 22 which leads to the gas
compressor. A governor 24 is included for the
purpose oi’ controlling the gas supply so that
its pressure is the same as that 01' the air supply,
50 and to this end, in order to regulate the pressure,
one side or the governor 24 is in communication,
by means of a conduit 26, with a main air pas
sageway 20 which connects with the air com
pressor I! through an oil separator 30. In the
56 event that gas for operating the burner is avail
able at a pressure su?iciently high to overcome
the resistance due to the head 01’ solution in the
tank II, the gas main may be connected directly
to the governor 24. On the other hand, if the gas
pressure available is not sumciently high for
this purpose the gas compressor 20 may con
veniently be employed to develop the necessary
pressure.
From the governor the gas is led to a valve
structure 32 which is provided with two solenoid
valves 34 and 38, one of which controls the how
of gas to a pilot jet, as hereinafter described, and
the other of which controls the main supply of
gas to the burner. Both the stream of gas ?owing
70 to the pilot jet and the main gas supply ?ow
through measuring ori?ces and control valves.
The measuring ori?ce and control valve for the
pilot gas are 38 and ‘II, respectively, and for the
main gas supply 42 and II. The ori?ce for the
pilot gas is connected to a manometer l8 located
within the instrument case 48, and the ori?ce l2 1
for the main gas supply is so arranged that a
manometer'can be easily connected to connec
tions 50. when and if desired.
From the solenoid valves 34 and 36 the two gas
lines lead directly to the burner. The pilot gas
flows through a pilot jet 52 located in the upper
extremity'of the burner, hereinafter to be more
fully described, and the main gas flows through
a conduit 54 (positioned in the rear of the pilot 10
gas tube as shown in Figure l and clearly shown
in Figure 2) and thence into a main gas supply
passageway 56, which also will be described more
fully further on.
The air supplied by the compressor is also di 15
vided into two parts. A small amount of air
called the pilot air is fed through a by~pass con
duit ill to a pilot air supply line 62, whereas the
main air line ?ows through the conduit 28 to
the burner in the manner previously described. 20
The air to the pilot supply ?ows through a con
trol valve 64 and a measuring ori?ce 88, and
connections may be included in the line 60 so
that a manometer can be easily connected when
desired in order that the flow of pilot air may 25
be observed.
,
Turning now to the ignition control, the burner
is provided with an igniter 10, the flow oi’ current
to which is controlled by a constant current
transformer 14 which consists of a three-pillar 30
laminated iron core with a stationary low voltage
secondary coil below and a ?oating l10-volt pri
mary coil above, both of which are mounted
around the central pillar. Any variations in line
voltage within 25% above or below normal change 35
the position of the primary coil but will not
change the secondary ignition current. The cur
rent from the secondary coil of the transformer
14 to the igniter 10 also passes through a thermal
element 16. The passage of the current through
the thermal element 16 causes it to heat up and 40
bend or expand to the right, as illustrated in
Figure 1, actuating the pilot and main gas
switches 18 and an. After an interval of sixty to
ninety seconds from the beginning 01' the cycle
the pilot gas switch 18 closes the circuit to the
pilot gas solenoid valve 34, allowing the pilot gas
to ?ow to the burner. After a further interval
of ten to ?fteen seconds the main gas switch ‘I!
closes the circuit to the main gas supply solenoid
valve 36, allowing the main gas supply to ?ow 60
to the burner. At the same time that the main
gas supply switch 80 closes the circuit to the main
gas solenoid valve 36, it also closes the circuit
to a magnet 82. This magnet closes and locks
the pilot and main gas switches in closed circuit 55
position and at the same time moves the ignition
switch 84 to open circuit position and locks it
there. With this ignition switch in open circuit
position the current to the transformer 14 is
turned off. The control will remain in this posi~ 60
tion, which is known as running position, until
the current to the control is cut off, when all
switches will return to their initial position.
The temperature oi’ the liquid within the tank 65
l2 may be controlled by a thermostat 88 which
is immersed in the liquid, and any changes in
temperature occurring in the latter tend to ac
tuate a mercury switch 90 which controls the
supply of current to the ignition control. The 70
thermostat 88 may be adjusted to control the
temperature of the liquid by means of an adjust
ing screw 92, and the igniting temperature for
which the control is set may be indicated by a
pointer 84 on a suitable scale 96.
75
8,118,479
In operation, a starting button III is pressed.
thereby energizing the coil in the starting switch
box III. Current is thereupon supplied to the
compressor motor it and the ignition control.
Air is supplied from the compressor il forcing
the liquid from the inside of the burner and the
combustion chamber and commencing agitation
of the liquid in the tank.
‘Assuming that the
thermostatic switch Si is in closed circuit posi
tion calling for heat, current iiowsthrough the
transformer 14. The igniter ‘ill thereupon be
comes heated and after sixty to ninety seconds
the thermal element 16 has moved far enough
to actuate the pilot‘ gas supply switch 18, causing
16 the latter to move to closed circuit position, there
by opening the pilot solenoid valve SI and allow
ing the pilot gas to ?ow to the burner. Approxi
mately ten to twenty seconds after the pilot switch
has closed the main gas supply switch it will
move to closed position, opening the main sole~
noid valve 36 and allowing the main gas supply
to ?ow to the burner. This gas will be ignited
by the pilot ?ame in a manner hereai'ter more
fully to be described. At the same time that the
main gas supply switch 80 moves to closed circuit
position the magnet 82 is energized, locking the
instrument in running position with the pilot
and main gas supply switches 18 and 80 in closed
circuit position and the ignition switch 84 in open
30 circuit position. This running position will be
3
it be observed that the cross-sectional area of the
inner chamber, as de?ned by the cylindrical cas
ing 2“, is quite large as contrasted with the
cross-sectional area of the pilot jet 52. As in all
other features of the burner now being described,
there is a real reason for these proportionate
dimensions.‘ Ordinarily there is a‘ tendency on
the part of a pilot Jet and the ?ame which burns
at the Jet to destroy or burn out the metal of
casing 204, or any other metal immediately 10
nearby, and it has been found that by arranging
the cross-sectional areas in the manner described
and reducing the velocity of the pilot ?ame, there
is a tendency on the part oir the latter to burn
slowly down the center of the tube and not im 15
pinge too severely upon the walls of the casing
204, thereby reducing the likelihood of the eas
ing's being burned out by the pilot ?ame. Fur
thermore, this ?oating or slow burning pilot
?ame entails other features and functions which 20
will presently be described.
The main air supply which supports the com
bustion, or, perhaps it would be more accurate
to say, supplies all of the air for the main com
bustion, passes through the supply pipe 28 and 25
downwardly through the space defined between
the inner casing 201 and the outer casing 200.
This passage of air tends to cool the walls of
the casing 204, within which is burning the pilot
?ame, as it moves downwardly through the burner
maintained until the thermostat 88 moves to open
and ?nally is discharged through openings 228
circuit position by heating of the solution in the
tank, or until the apparatus is stopped by pushing
the manually operated stop control button of
35 the starting switch "it.
As long as the apparatus is running, air is
forced through the liquid in the tank l2, a?ord
formed in a burner plate 222. As shown in Fig
ure 8, the burner plate is an annular member
which is disposed between the inner casing 204
and the outer casing 200, and is provided with
numerous perforations through which the air
passes and by which the stream of air is ?nely
ing a constant agitation while the gas supply is
turned on and off in accordance with the tem
40
perature requirements, this feature constituting
one of the many outstanding characteristics of
the system.
‘
The burner
As shown in Figures 1 and 3, the burner is L
shaped and is arranged with the stem of the L
extending vertically along the side wall of the
tank i2 and the base of the L lying horizontally
above the floor of the tank. In’order to observe
more clearly the construction of the burner the
type illustrated in Figure 1 will ?rst be specif
ically described.
‘
As shown in that ?gure, the burner proper
comprises an outer, cylindrical, elongated, tubu
lar casing 200 having concentrically'arranged
55 within it a second tubular, elongated casing 204.
The latter casing, which is the smaller one and
lies within the larger or outer one, is mainly em
ployed for ignition, purposes. Pilot gas enters
divided.
The main gas supply in the type of burner
shown in Figure 1 enters the cap 206 of the 40
burner through conduit 54 and passes down
wardly through a main gas supply line 56 which
is disposed in the annular space between the
inner and outer casings 2M and 200, respectively.
At its lower extremity the main gas supply pas 45
sageway 56 is joined to a supply ring 224 which
is located adjacent the burner plate 222 and
directly within the path of the pilot ?ame emit
ting from the jet 52.
Thus, as the slow burning pilot ?ame reaches 50
its point of exit from the inner chamber it im
pinges upon the gas leaving the supply ring 224
and mixes intimately with air passing through
the openings 220 in the burner plate 222. In this
manner the combustible mixture is formed at a 56
point below the liquid level ll of the tank and
also below the extremity of the inner and outer
chambers. Combustion ensues as the mixture,
the tube through jet 82,,hereinbefore referred to,
having been ignited by the pilot ?ame. passes
which is in communication with the pilot gas
solenoid valve ‘ii. The jet 52 is arranged to ex
tend downwardly from a burner cap 208 through
an annular opening formed within a ring member
downwardly through the stem of the L and into
the combustion chamber 230 formed in the base
of the L.
As illustrated, the combustion chamber 230
208 and terminates slightly above, but in close
65 proximation to, the igniter ‘Iii which, in the op
eration of the machine, is heated to incandes
cence by means responsive to temperature vari
ations imparted by the bath or solution to the
thermostat I8. As pilot air enters the upper
70 portion of the burner it passes downwardly
through the annular opening within the ring 208
into the inner or pilot chamber and admlxes
with gas or other iuel ?owing from the pilot jet
‘2. The velocity of the pilot air and gas through
75 the inner chamber is comparatively low, and let
which extends across the ?oor oi‘ the tank is pro
vided with outlets extending along its opposite
sides and with outlets formed in this fashion the
circulation in the tank will follow the direction
of the arrows shown in Figure 5. thereby secur
ing an extremely e?lcient form of agitation and
turbulence, resulting in considerable economy 70
through use of a burner of the type described.
At present tanks of this type are generally
heated by bubbling steam upwardly through them
from openings'in the ?oor oi’ the tank, despite
the fact that this practice results in tremendous 15
4
2,118,479
loss of thermal e?iciency and likewise does not
secure the same amount or degree of agitation
that may be obtained through use of the instant
invention. For example, in the heating of
pickling tanks in steel plants the increased agi
tation tends to eliminate the hydrogen bubbles.
thereby permitting the acid in the solution to
reach the metal more thoroughly, in turn reduc
ing embrittlement of the metal. It has been
10 found possible to reduce the pickling time by one
half through employment of. this burner and
still obtain improved results. Thus, by the new
method it has been determined that suitable
pickling operations can be performed at lower
15 temperatures, namely 140° F. as compared with
180” F., and yet production can be increased
by 105%. Furthermore, when steam is employed
more acid vapor is released than with the im
proved burner, thereby causing dilution of the
20 solution through loss of sulphuric acid, resulting
in expense which may be substantially eliminated
through employment of the burner described
herein.
Turning now to the burner illustrated in Fig
25 ure 6, it will be observed that certain modi?ca
tions have been made which in no way depart
from the scope or spirit of the present invention,
although this modi?cation of the burner may be
preferable in various installations and under
30 various conditions. The control system for all
of the burners shown in the drawings may be the
same and therefore need not be referred to in
connection with the remaining description which
is devoted to the burners themselves. As shown
burner plate. This arrangement insures proper
mixing and prevents the pilot ?ame from pro
jecting far below the burner plate, in which con
dition gas pockets are’ likely to form and ex
plosions are likely to occur. When this burner
is in position in the tank it occupies approxi
mately the same relative location as shown by
the burner in Figure 3 so that the igniter and
the pilot jet are again located above the liquid
level and the main gas and air are supplied and 10
mixed below the liquid level and are ignited by
the pilot ?ame at a point below the liquid level.
Combustion takes place within the combustion
chamber 230 in the manner already described.
Turning now to Figure 7, there is there shown
a still further modi?cation oi the burner in which
the pilot gas enters through the jet 52 in the
manner already described and the pilot air
through the annular ring 208, also previously
described. Main air is admitted to the outer 20
chamber through a conduit 320 and mixes with
the pilot flame below the burner plate 222. As shown in this modification, there is no main gas
supply and in accordance with this treatment
of the invention su?lcient gas may be introduced
through the jet 52 to supply all'that is needed for
proper combustion, or alternatively, a combined
mixture of main air and main gas may be sup‘
plied through the conduit 320 to flow down
wardly through the outer chamber and to become 30
ignited by the pilot ?ame after it has passed
through the burner plate 222. Both of these
modi?cations are contemplated, although ordi
narily separate provision for the admission of
in Figure 6, pilot gas is admitted through an ' main air and main gas will be found preferable.
upper conduit 3“, pilot air through a next lower In the arrangement shown in Figure '7 the igniter
conduit 302, main gas through a next lower con
10 is present in the position heretofore described,
duit 3M, and main air through a bottom con
and from the description that has been given in
duit 306. The pilot gas enters the burner cap connection with previous constructions and
40 206 and flows downwardly through the pilot jet figures the operation of the burner will be
52, as in the previously ‘described constructions. apparent.
Here again, just as in the type of burner shown
Before departing from a discussion of the
in Figure 1, the jet is surrounded by an annular burner it is appropriate to devote a few words to
ring 208 which permits the passage of pilot air mention of its simplicity. Complex and involved
burner structures with moving parts or parts
45 between the ring and the jet 52. The igniter ‘Iii
is once more located in close association with the
which burn out exist today. but such structures
pilot jet to ignite the pilot ?ame which passes are to be contrasted with and distinguished from
slowly downwardly through the enlarged inner the type of structure described herein which is
chamber that is de?ned by an elongated, tubular extremely simple in design and operation and
or cylindrical casing 308. Arranged to surround carefully avoids all presently determinable possi
50
the inner chamber is an intermediate chamber
bilities of falling into disrepair through the oper
for the main gas supply de?ned by a concen
ation of moving parts, parts being burned away,
trically arranged cylindrical casing 3"]. The improper adjustments or complex structures.
main gas entering through the passageway 3M The parts of the burner are largely ordinary tubes
?ows downwardly through this intermediate but they have been so shaped, so coordinated and ,
chamber and emerges in the manner shown by
so arranged as a result of many years trial and
the arrows in Figure 6. Located concentrically
oir and arranged to surround the casing 3"] is an
outer casing 3I2 forming an outer chamber
through which the main air supply ?ows. The
burner plate 222 is provided with the customary
ciently despite the severe conditions of usage to
which the burner is submitted. Such parts as
apertures through which the main air and gas
supply and the pilot ?ame pass to cause the fuel
supplies to be intermingled and co-mixed below
the burner and to pass into the combustion
chamber 230 which extends horizontally across
the ?oor of the tank. It has been found desir
able, and herein resides a feature oir the inven
tion, to maintain the supply of main air in the
70 outer chamber at a high velocity as compared
with the ?ow of the pilot ?ame through the
inner chamber, and the purpose of this is to cause
the pilot ?ame to be pulled outwardly in the di
rection shown by the arrows in Figure 6, thereby
15 ?owing across the gas delivering apertures in the
experience that they function properly and effi
the pilot jet and the igniter are above the liquid
level and out of contact with the solution, thereby
preventing attack at these points. Ignition oc
curs above the liquid level and the pilot ?ame only
is conducted downwardly through the inner
chamber until it reaches a point below the liquid
level, whereupon the main combustible supply is
admitted, following which combustion takes place.
Owing to the fact that both heat and acid may
be present within the solution within the tank
(ill
and also within the burner, the metal parts of the
burner have been found to be subject to severe
wear and attack. and in order to reduce the like
lihood of destruction as far as possible, experi
mentation has revealed that certain alloys manu
factured by the Carborundum Company and sold 75
8, 1 18,479
under the trade-marks "Hastelloy C” and
"Hastelloy D" are suitable for the construction of
the burner parts. "Hastelloy C" comprises nickel
58% to 60%, molybdenum approximately 17%,
and chromium approximately 15%, whereas
"Hastelloy D" contains nickel approidmately 85%
to 90% and approximately 3% of copper. The
exact chemistries of these metals can be obtained
by reference to the manufacturers or proper
10 chemical analysis, although an important dis
covery resides in the selection of this metal for
the purpose of constructing the burner parts
which are subject to attack, and invention is be
lieved to reside in the employment of these spe
ll ci?c metals for these speci?c purposes, although
no attempt to claim them will be made in this
application.
‘
Installation and operation
The burners may be constructed in varying
sizes and of course their exact form may be modi
?ed within the limits of the invention without
departing from the scope and spirit thereof, as
set forth in the claims appended hereto. As
illustrated in Figures 1 and 3, burners suitable for
use in pickling tanks and, of course, other tanks
oi‘ similar nature are illustrated. These burners
are large and heavy and when they are installed
they are intended to remain in position for
months and operate day and night without the
necessity of removal for any purpose whatsoever.
They may weight several hundred pounds, and
when put in position constitute ?xtures, more or
less, of the tanks in which they are installed.
However, the burners are constructed in such a
manner that ii’ for any purpose they have to be
inspected or repaired, removal may be e?ected
readily without damage to the tank or disassem
bling the burner.
In operation. gas and air are supplied to the
burner by the air and gas compressor at pressures
sufhclent to deliver the products of combustion
against the head of the liquid in the tank. The
flow of gas is controlled by the governor so that
46 the correct air and gas ratio is maintained at all
times. The ignition of the air-gas mixture is
accomplished in three steps. > First, the hot wire
igniter is heated to incandescence by the passage
through it of a high amperage, low voltage cur
rent; second, the pilot jet is ignited by the hot
wire igniter; and third. the main flow of gas and
air is ignited by the pilot Set. In order to main
tain a constant rate of agitation in the solution
tank irrespective oi‘ the delivery of the solution.
the air delivered by the compressor is fed con
tinuously through the burner and the liquid.
However, if the temperature 01' the liquid falls
below the set control point, the thermostat which
is immersed in the solution acts to turn on the gas
supply, causing main gas to be fed to the burner
and ignited by it. When the solution is raised
to the desired temperature the gas is automati
cally turned off. In this way a constant rate of
agitation and constant temperature are main
tained, and in this feature resides an important
aspect of the invention. ‘The apparatus is started
and stopped by pressing a button in the starting
switch. Nothing more in the way of operation
or supervision is required on the part of the oper
ator.
various operations necessary for the
70 ignitionThe
cycle, temperature control and continu
ous regulations are all accomplished automati
cally. Ordinarily a single installation will con
sist of a compressor unit, a burner and the neces
75 sary apparatus for ‘ignition and control, although
in some installations it may be suitable to con
nect two burners to a single compressor unit.
To prevent any possible misunderstanding con
cerning the supply of gas and air during the op
eration of the burner it may be said in conclusion
that air will at all times flow through the burner
to maintain agitation in the tank, but the pilot
?ame and the main ?ame will be extinguished
when the temperature of the solution rises above
the point for which the thermostat is set. Thus, 10
when the liquid is overheated no fuel passes to the »
burner and no fuel is wasted or lost. Not even
the pilot ?ame burns during such intervals, al
though without departing from the spirit of the
invention it would be possible, it desired, to permit 15
the pilot to burn after shutting off the main gas
supply. This is a feature of economy that can
well afford to be mentioned.
This application is a continuation-in-part of
my copending application, Serial No. 94,716 ?led
Aug. 6, 1936.
Having thus described the invention, what we
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent of the United States is:
1. A submerged combustion burner of the char
acter described, comprising, in combination, an
outer casing, an inner casing spaced from the
outer casing, means for supplying a combustible
mixture of pilot fuel and pilot air to the inner
casing, an igniter associated with the inner cas
30
ing and adapted to ignite the combustible mixture
of pilot fuel and pilot air, means for conducting
a main fuel supply to the burner, and ‘means for
admitting a main air supply to the space between
the inner and outer casings.
2. A submerged combustion burner of the char
acter described, comprising, in combination, a
plurality of tubular casings concentrically ar
ranged to form an inner and an outer chamber,
said inner chamber being closed from the outer
chamber at its upper extremity and in communi
cation with the outer chamber at its lower ex
tremity, and being provided with an interior
opening at its/upper extremity, a tubular fuel jet
adapted to extend through the opening formed at
the upper extremity of the inner tubular casing,
said tubular jet being smaller than said opening,
whereby an annular space surrounds the jet,
means for supplying air to the opening surround
ing the Jet whereby said air and fuel form a com 50
bustible mixture, means for igniting the combusti
ble mixture interiorally of the inner casing, means
for introducing a main fuel supply to the burner,
and means for introducing a main supply of air
to the space between the inner and outer casing. 65
3. A submerged combustion burner of the char
acter ' described,
comprising,
in
combination,
means for conducting a combustible mixture of
fuel and primary air to a point below the level
of the liquid in which the burner is submerged
and means for introducing a main supply of air
to the combustible mixture below the point of said
liquid level.
4. A submerged combustion burner of the char
acter described, comprising, in combination,
means for conducting a combustible pilot mixture
of fuel and air to a point below the level of the
liquid in which the burner is submerged and
means for introducing a main supply of air to the
combustible mixture below the point of said liquid 70
level, together with means for introducing a main
supply of fuel to the combustible mixture also at
a point below said liquid level.
5. A submerged combustion burner of the char
acter described, comprising, in combustion, an 16
6
2,115,479
inner chamber and an outer chamber arranged
to extend vertically from a point above the sur
face of the liquid in which the burner is sub
merged to a point below the surface of the liquid
in which said burner is submerged said chambers
wherein combustion is carried out in direct con
tact with the liquid in which the burner is sub
merged, comprising, in combination, means for
introducing a supply of fuel and air to the stem
of the L, means for igniting the fuel and air so
having open lower extremities and being otherwise
closed, means for introducing fuel to one of said -
chambers, means for introducing air to another
of said chambers, and anigniter-associated with
10 the burner for igniting the fuel.
6. A submerged combustion burner of the char
acter described, comprising, in combination, an
inner chamber, an outer chamber, and an inter
mediate chamber, means for admitting a supply
15 of pilot fuel and air to the inner chamber, means
for admitting a supply of main air to the outer
chamber, and means for introducing a supply of
main fuel to the intermediate chamber, together
with an igniter for igniting the admixture of pilot
air and fuel as such admixture enters the inner
chamber.
7. A submerged combustion burner of the char
acter described, comprising, in combination,
means for igniting a combustible mixture of pilot
air and pilot fuel, means for conducting the
ignited mixture to a point below the level of the
water in which the burner is submerged, means
for subsequently adding a supply of main air to
the ignited mixture, and additional means for
30 subsequently adding a supply of main fuel to the
ignited mixture.
8. A submerged combustion burner of the char
acter described, comprising, in combination, an
elongated tubular outer casing, an elongated tubu
35 lar inner casing connected to the outer casing at
its upper extremity and extending lengthwise par
tially through said elongated outer casing, means
for admitting an admixture of air and fuel to the
inner elongated casing and an igniter perma
nently associated with said inner casing for ignit
ing the admixture of air and fuel supplied thereto,
said burner being at least partially submerged in
a liquid.
9. A submerged combustion burner of the char
45 acter described, comprising, in combination,
means for supplying an admixture of pilot air and
pilot fuel to the burner, means for igniting said
admixture of pilot air and pilot fuel, means for
supplying main air to the burner to support com
bustion and means for supplying main fuel to the
burner also to support combustion, said main fuel
supplying means being positioned in the path of
the ?ame which results from the ignition of pilot
air and fuel.
55
_
10. An L-shaped submerged combustion burner
wherein combustion is carried out in direct con
tact with the liquid in which the burner is sub
merged, comprislng, in combination, fuel and air
admixing means positioned within the stem of
60 the L and a submerged combustion chamber posi
tioned within the base of the L.
11. An L-shaped submerged combustion burner
wherein combustion is carried out in direct con
tact with the liquid in which the burner is sub
65
supplied and means for conducting the ignited
admixture of fuel and air to a submerged combus
tion chamber located in the base of the L.
14. An L-shaped submerged combustion burner
wherein combustion is carried out in direct con l0
tact with the liquid in which the burner is sub
merged, comprising, in combination, a plurality
of chambers positioned within,the stem of the
L, means for admitting a combustible supply of
fuel and air to one of the chambers within the 16
stem, means for igniting the combustible mix
turs thus introduced, means for introducing a
main supply of air to the stem of the Lrand a
submerged combustion chamber located in the
base of the L.
15. An L-shaped submerged combustion burner
wherein combustion is carried out in direct con
tact with the liquid in which the burner is sub
merged, comprising, in combination, a plurality
of chambers positioned within the stem of the 25
-L, means for admitting a combustible supply of
fuel and air to one of the chambers within the
stem, means for igniting the combustible mixture
thus introduced, means for introducing a main
supply of air to the stem of the L, additional 30
means for introducing a main gas supply to the
stem of the L, and a submerged combustion
chamber located in the base of the L.
.
16. An L-shaped submerged combustion burner
wherein combustion is carried out in direct con 35
tact with the liquid in which the burner is sub
merged, comprising, in combination, means for
igniting an admixture of fuel and air in the stem
of the L, and a submerged combustion chamber
located in the base of the L.
17. An improved method of submerged com
bustion within a pool of liquid which comprises
initially igniting an admixture of fuel and pri
mary air, advancing the ignited admixture in the
form of a column, surrounding the column with
a supply of main air and admitting the air to
the advancing column after the latter has moved
a substantial distance surrounded by said supply
of main air.
18. That improvement in methods of sub
merged combustion within a pool of liquid which
comprises forming and igniting an advancing
column of fuel and air, surrounding the advanc
ing column with a column of main fuel, sur
rounding the column of main fuel with a column 65
of main air and admixing the said columns after
the ignited inner column of fuel and air has ad
vanced a substantial distance.
19. That improvement in methods of sub
merged combustion within a pool of liquid which
comprises forming a combustible column of fuel
and primary air, advancing said column at rel
atively low velocity, associating the advancing
merged, comprising, in combination, fuel supply
column with a supply of main air advancing at
means within the stem of the L and a combustion
a relatively high velocity and subsequently ad
mixing the said columns.
chamber positioned within the base of the L.
12. An L-shaped submerged combustion burner
wherein combustion is carried out in direct con
70 tact with the liquid in which the burner is sub
merged, comprising, in combination, fuel supply
means within the stem of the L, an igniter for the
fuel supply means and a combustion chamber
positioned within the base of the L.
13. An L-shaped submerged combustion burner
20
20. That improvement in methods of sub
merged combustion within a pool of liquid which
comprises forming an inner column of admixed
fuel and air, advancing said column at a rela 70
tively low velocity, surrounding the column with
a supply of main fuel, advancing said main fuel
supply, surrounding said main fuel supply with
a main air supply, advancing said main air sup
7
ply at a relatively high velocity and admixing
all of said advancing columns.
be heated, supplying fuel to said air stream
whenever the temperature of the liquid falls to
21..That improved method of submerged com
bustion within a pool of liquid which comprises
combustible ?uid. and igniting the combustible
igniting an admixture of main fuel and air at
a point above the level of the liquid in which
combustion is to take place, directing the ignited
admixture in the form of a stream to a point be
low the liquid level and adding an air supply
to the stream at a point also below the level of
said liquid.
22. That improved method of submerged com
bustion which comprises igniting an admixture
of fuel and air at a point above the level of the
15 liquid in which combustion is to take place,
directing the ignited admixture in the form of a
stream to a point below the liquid level and add
ing an air supply and main fuel supply to the
stream at a point below the level of said liquid.
23. That improvement in methods of sub
20
merged combustion which comprises igniting a
stream of combustible gas above the liquid in
which combustion takes place, simultaneously
admitting a ring of air around said gas stream,
25 projecting the resultant ?ame to a combustion
none beneath the liquid level and adding main
air and main fuel to the ?ame at a point beneath
the liquid level.
,
a predetermined minimum in order to form a
?uid so formed.
2'7. An improved method of submerged com
bustion which comprises the steps of continu
ously supplying a stream of air to the liquid to
be heated, supplying fuel to said air stream
whenever the temperature of the liquid falls to 10
a predetermined minimum in order to form a
combustible ?uid, igniting the combustible ?uid
so formed, extinguishing the combustible ?uid
and cutting o? the fuel supply when the tem
perature of the liquid reaches a predetermined 15
maximum.
28. An improved method of submerged com
bustion in a pool of liquid which comprises ad
mixing a supply of fuel and air in a downwardly
moving column, burning the admixture in a
horizontally moving stream and dividing the
horizontally moving stream into a plurality of
smaller streams ?owing outwardly therefrom.
29. An improved method of ‘submerged com
bustion within a pool of liquid which comprises 25
burning a combustible mixture in a horizontally
moving main stream and dividing the said main
stream into a plurality of smaller streams ex
24. An improved method of submerged com
tending substantially perpendicular from the
30 bustion which comprises the steps of continu
said main stream.
30. That improvement in methods of heating
liquids by means of a plurality of adiacently dis
posed submerged combustion burners which com
ously applying compressed air to the liquid to be
heated, periodically supplying fuel to the com
pressed air and igniting the admixture of fuel
and air whenever the fuel is added to the com
35 pressed air.
25. An improved method of submerged com
bustion which comprises the steps of continu
ously supplying a stream of air to the liquid to
be heated and supplying fuel to said air stream
40‘ whenever the temperature of the liquid falls to
a predetermined minimum in order to form a
prises the steps of discharging the products of
combustion from said burners in ‘a plurality of
substantially horizontal streams beneath the
surface of the liquid in which'the burner is sub
merged and causing the horizontal streams from
adjacent bu~ners to impinge upon one another
to de?ect the said streams and cause them to 40
?ow upwardly.
combustible ?uid.
26. An improved method of submerged com
bustion which comprises the steps of continu
45 ously supplying a stream of air to the liquid to
THEODORE 8. SEE.
JOHN EDWARD TEGARDEN.
ARTHUR WILLIAMS.
OERTIF ICATE 0F CORRECTION .
my 214-: 1938
‘Patent No. 2,ll8,i|.79.
TEEODQRE 8. SEE, ET AL.
It isheneby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first
column, line'52, for the word "weight" read weigh; and second column, line
75, claim 5,. for "combustion" read combination; and that the said Letters
Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may eon
form to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed‘and sealed this 19th day of July, A. D. 1938.
Henry Van Arsdale,
(Seal)
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
45
7
ply at a relatively high velocity and admixing
all of said advancing columns.
be heated, supplying fuel to said air stream
whenever the temperature of the liquid falls to
21..That improved method of submerged com
bustion within a pool of liquid which comprises
combustible ?uid. and igniting the combustible
igniting an admixture of main fuel and air at
a point above the level of the liquid in which
combustion is to take place, directing the ignited
admixture in the form of a stream to a point be
low the liquid level and adding an air supply
to the stream at a point also below the level of
said liquid.
22. That improved method of submerged com
bustion which comprises igniting an admixture
of fuel and air at a point above the level of the
15 liquid in which combustion is to take place,
directing the ignited admixture in the form of a
stream to a point below the liquid level and add
ing an air supply and main fuel supply to the
stream at a point below the level of said liquid.
23. That improvement in methods of sub
20
merged combustion which comprises igniting a
stream of combustible gas above the liquid in
which combustion takes place, simultaneously
admitting a ring of air around said gas stream,
25 projecting the resultant ?ame to a combustion
none beneath the liquid level and adding main
air and main fuel to the ?ame at a point beneath
the liquid level.
,
a predetermined minimum in order to form a
?uid so formed.
2'7. An improved method of submerged com
bustion which comprises the steps of continu
ously supplying a stream of air to the liquid to
be heated, supplying fuel to said air stream
whenever the temperature of the liquid falls to 10
a predetermined minimum in order to form a
combustible ?uid, igniting the combustible ?uid
so formed, extinguishing the combustible ?uid
and cutting o? the fuel supply when the tem
perature of the liquid reaches a predetermined 15
maximum.
28. An improved method of submerged com
bustion in a pool of liquid which comprises ad
mixing a supply of fuel and air in a downwardly
moving column, burning the admixture in a
horizontally moving stream and dividing the
horizontally moving stream into a plurality of
smaller streams ?owing outwardly therefrom.
29. An improved method of ‘submerged com
bustion within a pool of liquid which comprises 25
burning a combustible mixture in a horizontally
moving main stream and dividing the said main
stream into a plurality of smaller streams ex
24. An improved method of submerged com
tending substantially perpendicular from the
30 bustion which comprises the steps of continu
said main stream.
30. That improvement in methods of heating
liquids by means of a plurality of adiacently dis
posed submerged combustion burners which com
ously applying compressed air to the liquid to be
heated, periodically supplying fuel to the com
pressed air and igniting the admixture of fuel
and air whenever the fuel is added to the com
35 pressed air.
25. An improved method of submerged com
bustion which comprises the steps of continu
ously supplying a stream of air to the liquid to
be heated and supplying fuel to said air stream
40‘ whenever the temperature of the liquid falls to
a predetermined minimum in order to form a
prises the steps of discharging the products of
combustion from said burners in ‘a plurality of
substantially horizontal streams beneath the
surface of the liquid in which'the burner is sub
merged and causing the horizontal streams from
adjacent bu~ners to impinge upon one another
to de?ect the said streams and cause them to 40
?ow upwardly.
combustible ?uid.
26. An improved method of submerged com
bustion which comprises the steps of continu
45 ously supplying a stream of air to the liquid to
THEODORE 8. SEE.
JOHN EDWARD TEGARDEN.
ARTHUR WILLIAMS.
OERTIF ICATE 0F CORRECTION .
my 214-: 1938
‘Patent No. 2,ll8,i|.79.
TEEODQRE 8. SEE, ET AL.
It isheneby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first
column, line'52, for the word "weight" read weigh; and second column, line
75, claim 5,. for "combustion" read combination; and that the said Letters
Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may eon
form to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed‘and sealed this 19th day of July, A. D. 1938.
Henry Van Arsdale,
(Seal)
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
45
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