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Патент USA US2118491

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May 24, 1938.
Fiied Feb. 6, 1955
6 Sheets-Sheet 1
May 24, 1938.
2,1 18,49 1
Filed Feb. 6, 1955
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
May 24, 1938-'
Filed Feb. 6, 1935
s Sheets-Sheet 5
____"" “l'
Harr CZ. Chase,‘
May 24, 1938.
2,1 18,491,
' Filed Feb. 6, 1955
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
0/. Claws,
May 24, 1938.
Filed Feb. 6, 1935
By 70%11/70,
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
)tu, album 91' (ii/fry,
May 24, 1938.
Filed Feb. 6, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
./‘ -~
~ Harry (Z. C/uwe.
(1mm 7" ¥J~ (7111,‘ W5
Patented May 24, 1938
2,118,491 I
Harry A. Chuse, Madison, Wis.
Application February 6, 1935, Serial‘ No. 5,201
6 Claims. (Cl. 92-44)
This invention, relating to paper making meth
ods and machines, comprises improvements with
hoFig. '7 is a sectional view of an inverted suction
reference to wet‘sheet formation, the whole proc
Fig. 8 is a side elevation of a frame used for
wire replacement, with an indication in dotted
lines of the machine in condition for wire re- 5
ess and means for making the wet paper sheet
in the course of manufacture of paper in a con
tinuous sheet, the construction and mode of op
eration of machines of the Fourdrinier type, and ' Referring ?rst to the illustrative machine
the facilities for removal and replacement of the shown in Figs. 1 to 3, it will be observed that this
making wires of such machines. By-the several machine has a short making wire I which passes
10 features of the invention, a substantially new
type of Fourdrinier machine is provided, the ob
jectives of which are to obtain higher speeds
of operation in the making of various grades of
paper than would ordinarily be obtainable in
15 making like grades on a Fourdrinier machine of
conventional character, to vgive superior paper
formation at such higher speeds, to make the wet
paper sheet with both sides alike or much more
nearly alike than when made by conventional
practice, to provide facilities for changing the
wire much more conveniently and far more quick
ly than heretofore, and which machine, by virtue
of its simpli?cation and relatively small size, will
give a large saving in floor space, savings in cost
of wires and in losses incident to wire replace
ment, savings in pulp, savings in original invest
ment, upkeep and operation.
The invention will be described with reference
to an illustrative process and machine and cer
tain contemplated modi?ed practices and ma
chines shown in the accompanying drawings:
In said drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a machine of one
practicable construction embodying and adapted
for practicing the invention.
Fig. 2 is a section of the vat and suction breast
Fig. 2a is a detail view showing a cross-section
of a portion of a vat side wall and improved
deckle means.
Fig. 2b is a detail view of Fig. 2, showing a mod
Fig. 31s a view half in front elevation and half
in section of the suction breast roll and its sup
ports; this view being shortened by omitting most
of the intermediate portion of said breast roll and
bringing its end portions close together.
Fig. 4 is -a sectional view ‘representing a modifi
Fig. 5 is a sectional view representing another
around a breast roll 2 and a suction couch roll 3; 10
the upper run of the wire being supported by a
few table rolls 4, a series of ?at suction boxes 5,
a supporting roll 6 between the ?rst and second
.sets of ?at suction boxes, and a guide roll ‘I;
' while the lower run of the wire is engaged by 15
guide rolls 8 and an adjustable stretch roll 9 by
which the wire is maintained in proper tension,
said stretch roll being'adjustable within the limits
of its two extreme positions which are indicated
in Fig. 1 by the dotted lines 9‘1 and 9b. 1
At the outset it will be noticed that the breast
roll 2 is much larger in proportion to the other
machinery than the ordinary breast roll of a con
ventional Fourdrinier paper making machine.
This large breast roll is of the suctiontype, pro 25
viding a vacuum area on the upper half ' of its
ascending side. The pulp solution from which
the wet paper sheet is made is supplied to the
wire on said vacuum area of the breast roll, which
vacuum area is sealed by the solution and wet 30
sheet which forms from the ?bers contained in
said solution. The suction breast roll is prefer
ably of the type comprising a rotating cylindrical
metal shell, closely perforated, and an internal
stationary suction box cooperating with the in; 35
terior surface of the shell to enclose a space in
commimication with suitable vacuum pumping
apparatus, preferably a high power positive ro
tary vacuum pump (not shown). However the
suction box equipment in this instance is of a
type to divide the vacuum area of. the breast roll
longitudinally into zones, and to permit mainte
nance of di?'erent degrees of vacuum action on
the different zones of said vacuum area. For this
purpose, as shown in Fig. 2, the suction box i0 is
longitudinally divided internally, by partitions
ll, into a series of separate suction compart
ments, in this instance four compartments l2, l3,
l4, IS, the length of which corresponds to the
width of the paper sheet to be made.
These sep- 50
Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the machine
in condition for wire replacement, and of means
arate compartments communicate with the_ vacu
um pumping apparatus through separate passages
controlled by separate valves presently to be re
ferred to. By adjustment of said valves the vac
associated therewith for wire replacement.
uum or suction in the several compartments of 65
the suction box can be regulated. ~ In practice it
is intended to maintain the lowest vacuum in the
compartment l2 and successively higher vacuums
in the compartments ll, I4 and II.
In the speci?c construction shown, the suction
breast roll is of the type in which its rotary shell
is mounted on bearings carried by the suction box,
the latter being mounted on fixed supports. As
shown in Fig. 3, the suction box i ii, enclosed by
the rotating perforated shell, has end extensions
I! which project through the ends of the shell
and rest on standardsul'l rising from ?xed base
members or supports ll. The supporting stand
I1 and their base members it are shown as
16 pipe sections of large dimension. In the opera
tion of removing and replacing the making wire
I, as hereinafter referred to, it is necessary to re
move the supporting standards l’! or supports i8.
Hence, to permit quick removal of said standards
I‘! or supports II, the suction box extensions may
be detachably secured to said standards by swing
bolts or the like, while said standards may be
similarly detachably secured to the base mem
berslor supports II which are detachably bolted
to the floor.
As shown in Fig. 3, the suction roll shell is
equipped with annular heads 20 rigidly secured to
the ends of the shell. Mounted on the suction
box extensions within said heads are annular
80 supports or rings 2i. The heads 20 are rotatably
mounted or journalled on said rings 2i through
suitable interposed antifriction bearings 22.
These bearings may be of any suitable roller type,
each bearing comprising rings having confront
85 ing grooves or raceways and a series of bearing
rollers arranged between said rings. Attached to
the heads 2. are annular cover plates 23 by which
the bearings are concealed and housed.
To facilitate erection and also allow axial mo
tion of the suction breast roll if desired, the sup
porting rings 2i are mounted on the suction box
extensions through roller supports. As shown in
Figs. 2 and 3:’the said supporting rings 2| are con
structed at opposite sides with bearing mem
46 bers 24 arranged horizontally and parallel with
the axis of the suction roll. These bearing mem
, bers bear on rollers 25 which bear on tracks or
supports 26 carried by the suction box exten
sions, the axis of said rollers 25 being at right an
gles to the axis of the suction roll. By this con
struction the two supporting rings 2| together
the roller bearings on tracks carried by the suc
tion box extensions, facilitates erection.
As before stated, the suction box compartments
i 2, I3, I‘, i 5 communicate with the vacuum pump
ing apparatus through separate passages con
trolled by separate valves. These valve controlled
passages may be in one or both of the suction box
extensions and supporting standards therefor, it
being contemplated that in narrow machines it
will su?lce to exhaust the suction box compart 10
ments through one set of outlet openings at one
end oi’ the box, while in wide machines it may be
desirable to exhaust‘ through two sets of outlet
openings at both ends of the box. In the illustra
tive machine the exhaust is through the suction
box extension and support therefor shown in Fig.
l and at the right-hand end of Fig. 3. Said suc
tion box extension is a hollow body internally
partitioned by intersecting webs, one of which is
indicated by dotted lines at 30 in Fig. l and the
other of which is similarly indicated at 3i in Fig.
3. By means of said internal webs, the said suc~ ’
tion box extension is divided into four passages
which lead respectively from the four suction box
compartments, the two passages below the web
ll being respectively in communication with the
suction box‘ compartments l2 and I6, and the
other two passages being respectively in com
munication with the suction box compartments
i3 and H. The four passages Just referred 30
to communicate respectively with four com
partments in the supporting standard on pipe
section I‘! which is internally partitioned by
the webs 32 and 33 shown in dotted lines in
Fig. l and by another unseen web similar to
and intersecting the web 32. The said four
compartments in the supporting standard ll
communicate through openings controlled by
valves 34 with a chamber which communicates
through pipe 35 with the vacuum pumping appa
ratus. The valves 34 are operated by screw rods
having handwheels 38. The two valves shown in
Fig. 1 control the passages leading from the suc
tion box compartments i3 and H. The valves
whichcontrol the passages leading from the suc
tion box compartments i2 and I5 are behind
those shown in Fig. l, as will be apparent from
Fig. 3. It will be understood that in case it is de
sired to exhaust the suction box compartments
through both ends, the passages and valves here
in described as contained in the suction box ex
tension and support shown at the right-hand
with the suction roll journalled thereon can move
axially as a unit. The rollers 25 and parts 24 and
side of the machine in Figs. 1 and 3 are to be
26 are shown arranged in recessed portions of the
55 supporting rings 2|. By con?ning said rollers 25
between the vertical surfaces 21 and opposite
duplicated in the suction box extension and sup
port at the opposite side, and that said support
at said opposite side may be connected through
?at surfaces of the suction box extensions, and
by forming said rollers with beveled peripheries
engaging correspondingly shaped grooves in the
bearing members 24 and tracks 26, the supporting
a pipe 31 with either an independent vacuum
pumping apparatus or with the same vacuum
pumping apparatus as that which connects with
the suction box through the pipe 35.
The foregoing describes one practicable type of 60
rings 2i are held ?rmly against movement other ' suction breast roll and equipment therefor where
than axial. By forming the suction box exten
by to provide an extended vacuum area to which
sions with ?anges 20 and 29 (Fig. 2), the end the pulp solution is supplied, said area being di
openings in the suction roll are substantially vided longitudinally into zones subject to sue
closed. The purpose of providing for axial mo
cessively increasing degrees of vacuum action in 65
tion of the suction roll is to permit application of the direction of travel of the wire, the lowest
a device for moving the roll to and fro axially for vacuum action being on the lowest zone and the
shaking the wire i in case a wire shake should
70 be desired. ‘However in the practice of the meth
od provided by the present invention, as herein
after more fully set forth, the use of a wire shake
will ordinarily not be necessary. Aside from the
matter of a shake, the construction described,
75 having the roll-supporting rings 2| mounted on
next higher zone having a higher vacuum action
and so on. The present invention includes the 70
speci?c novel features of construction embodied
in this suction breast roll and associated equip
ment, but in broader aspects the invention is
not limited to any speci?c construction of breast
roll other than one which will function to main 76
tain a vacuum area with successively different de
grees of vacuum on successively higher zones of
said area.
The pulp solution for paper sheet formation,
i. e. water containing properly prepared and ?ne
ly divided pulp ?bres in suspension, is supplied to
and prevent or oppose the orientation of the pulp
?bers in parallelism.
The pulp solution could be supplied to the wire
in other ways than as indicated in Fig. 2. For ex—
ample, the solution could ?ow at a regular rate 5
upward to the level desired to be maintained in
the wire on the vacuum area of the breast roll,
any suitable vat cooperating with the breast roll
under conditions to maintain a body of-said solu
tion of desired'height bearing on a segment of
to hold a body of solution bearing on a segment of
10 said area, the solution being supplied at a con
stant rate and, under proper operating condi
its‘ vacuum area.
' However
the arrangement
shown in Fig. 2 is desirable since, due to the 10
hydraulic head behindthe ?owing body of water
tions, being utilized as fast as it is supplied. As supplied to the wire I, or in other words due to
shown in Fig. 2 the solution is supplied from a the higher level of the liquid in the head vat 38
head vat 38 to which the solution ?ows from
The solution ?ows from the head vat
through the lower vat chute 40 to the breast roll,
said chute being constructed to provide adjacent
to the breast roll a suitable supplemental vat or
solution holder 4! which cooperates with the
15 pipe 39.
20 breast roll to hold the body of the pulp solution
which bears on the vacuum area. Said'solu
tion holder 4i includes the extended side
boards or vat side walls 42 having arcuate bot
toms of curvature corresponding to and closely
adjacent but not in contact with the cylindrical
than in the vat chute, the solution is supplied
under a velocity head or with a momentum, which 16
assists in the flow of the water from the/solution
through the wire and web of stock depositing
Having thus far described the illustrative ma
chine generally, and also particularly with ref 20
erence to the speci?c construction of and various
improved features embodied in the suction breast
roll and suction equipment therefor and means
for supplying the pulp solution to the wire, ref
erence will now be made to the method of paper
sheet forming surface which is provided by the
making practiced thereon.
wire on the breast roll.
The process of wet sheet formation which takes
place on the suction breast roll is one in which
the deposition and compacting of stock on every
It will be understood
that the body of pulp solution bearing on the
breast roll is con?ned laterally by said side boards
30 42 or by said side boards and appropriate deckle , square inch or other unit area of the traveling 30
An improved deckle means is included in the
illustrative construction. One of the two side
boards 42 is shown in cross section in Fig. 2a. In
85 this ?gure the inside surface of the side board is
designated by the numeral 43. The side board
has an-arcuate recess of oblong cross section con
taining an in?ated rubber tube 44 formed with a
rib 45 which projects through a slot in the side
40 board to the inside lower corner thereof. The
rubber tube 44, which may be similar to the inner
tube of an automobile tire, is provided with a
projecting tube 46 having a non-return check
valve, whereby air can be pumped into the tube
45 44 for in?ating it. The tube 44 is in?ated to the
degree necessary to force the edge of the rib 45
against the wire, thereby providing excellent
deckling means. The side board is constructed
wire is induced by vacuum action successively
increasing as the web of deposited stock builds
up, whereby to compensate for the progressive
loss of gravity head and the increasing resistance
to flow of water from the solution through the
wire due to the increasing thickness of the web.
In Fig. 2, the several strata of pulp solutionwhich
bear on the successive zones of the vacuum area
of the breast roll are indicated by horizontal dash
and dotted-lines dividing said strata. The said 40
strata are designated by the numerals 5|, 52, 53,
54. The top level of the liquid in the solution
holder 4| is designated by the numeral 55. It
will be apparent that the gravity head is greatest
on the‘ lowest stratum, which sustains the weight .45
of the liquid above it, so that, if there were no
vacuum action to be considered, the liquid pres
sure would be greatest on the lowest zone of the
with a lower separate section 41 to permit as
vacuum area.
sembly of the parts. It will be understood that
subjected to the least degree of vacuum.
both side boards are of similar construction with
succeeding zone of the vacuum area is under a
respect to the deckling means, and that the edges
of the deckle ribs 45 bear on the wire in verti
cal planes substantially coincident with the end
walls of the suction box compartments. The
solution holder 4i may be constructed to permit
lateral adjustment of the side boards 42, and the
suction box compartments may be provided with
adjustable end deckle heads, in order to permit
manufacture of different widths of paper sheets.
Such details are not illustrated, since laterally
adjustable vat side boards and adjustable end
less gravity head and greater degree of vacuum
action than the preceding zone. The uppermost
zone is under the least gravity head (which re
duces to zero at the liquid level) and the greatest
vacuum action. This tends to equalize the flow
of water from the supplied solution through the
wire throughout the whole area on which the
body of solution bears, and hence through every
unit area of the wire from the time of deposition 60
of. the ?rst ?bers until the completion of the web
deckle heads for suction boxes are well-known in
the art.
In Fig. 2, the numeral 49 designates a recti?er
consisting of a perforated plate in cylindrical form
disposed in the vat chute transversely thereof.
This recti?er, which may be a mutilated hollow
cylinder having its cylindrical
wall closely
perforated, is mounted on the shaft 50 which is
rapidly oscillated, preferably both rotatably and
axially, by any suitable mechanism (not shown),
thereby oscillating the recti?er so as to diffuse or
76 agitate the pulp solution ?owing therethrough
On the other hand this zone is
Every 50
of deposited stock on such unit area. Conse
quently it tends to equalize the velocity with >
which the ?bers are deposited throughout the
entire process of building the web and to cause
all deposited stock to cling to the wire'and to
travel therewith at the same velocity as the wire.
The stock being supplied in constant volume to
the breast roll at a rate of ?ow appropriate for
the desired weight or thickness of paper to be 70
made, the machine attendant should regulate the
valves controllingthe discharge from the several
suction box compartments so that the discharge
from each compartment is approximately equal
to the discharge from each of the other compart
merits and so that the total discharge just takes
care of the total stock supplied or removes all
water from the solution supplied to the breast
roll (excepting that percentage of water which is
tenaciously held in the deposited stock itself).
This causes the wet sheet to build up substan
tially uniformly and promotes perfect formation
at high speeds. The increase of vacuum action
on each succeeding zone of the vacuum area
10 makes up for the loss of head on that zone and
also for the resistance to flow due to the increas
ing thickness of the web. The ?ow being ap
may be passed almost at once over the ?at suc
tion boxes 5 and then passed over the suction
couch roll 0 which performs the usual function
of subjecting the traveling sheet to a constantv
high tension vacuum action sufiicient to expel
a certain amount of the tenaciously held water in
the sheet and thus reduce it to condition for han
dling through ordinary press equipment or for
undergoing the ensuing operations required in
paper manufacture.
For best results in paper formation, the stock
proximately equalized throughout the whole
used should be highly dilute; it being desirable
that the pulp solution supplied to the wire should
area of the forming surface on which the body
of pulp solution bears, the ?bers deposit on the
wire at substantially the same rate and equal
of properly prepared and ?nely divided pulp ?
velocities as the wire passes through the succes
sive zones of the vacuum area, while the deposit
ed stock is held to the wire with increasing in
tensity as the building up of the sheet proceeds.
Thus nearly ideally uniform conditions exist
during the whole process. As all deposited stock
is tightly held to and moves with the wire at
the same velocity as the wire, there is substan
tially no opportunity for fibers to roll or form
lumps, and as the force inducing the flow and
deposition of ?bers increases on the successive
zones there is practically no opportunity for the
dragging of deposited stock from the sheet as it
30 passes through successive strata of the solution.
As the uppermost zone of the vacuum area,
being the zone of highest vacuum, extends be
yond the level of the body of pulp solution bear
ing on the breast roll, the advantageous effects
35 mentioned are continued until the wet sheet has
passed entirely from and free of the solution. By
the action of the highest vacuum on the sheet
after it emerges from the body of solution, an
advantageous compacting and moisture reduc
By maintaining the
40 ing action is also obtained.
level of the solution which bears on the breast
roll approximately at or nearly as high as the
uppermost part of the roll, and by forming the
suction compartment 15 so that the last zone of
the vacuum area extends beyond the point where
the wire runs straight, i. e. beyond the vertical
center line of the roll as seen in Fig. 2, the web
or sheet of wet stock on the wire is held tightly
thereto and is traveling at the same velocity as
the wire as it goes off horizontally at full speed.
Moreover the wet sheet by the time it leaves the
influence of the suction should be as intact and of
as low a moisture content as the sheet made on a
conventional type of Fourdrinier machine when
it reaches the ?rst of the flat suction boxes.
Hence there is no need of a long series of table
rolls and shake sections as found on the ordinary
Fourdrinier. Though in some-cases a process
in accordance with this invention may be em
ployed for forming a sheet which when it leaves
the vacuum area is still so wet as to render ‘it ad
visable to employ a short forming table and short
deckle straps on the wire, and a shake for the
wire', yet ordinarily such expedients will be un
05 necessary.
The illustrative machine has no
shaking mechanism. It has a short series of
table rolls 4, although even these may be more
than necessary in many speci?c practices. It
has short deckles 48 which may be of the same
70 construction as in Fig. 2a. The sheet being
taken on the horizontal run of the wire at the
same speed as the wire i and ordinarily in sub
stantially or nearly as intact and moisture-re
.duced condition as when it reaches the ?rst ?at
75 suction box on the conventional Fourdrinier, it
contain only about or even less than % per cent
bers in suspension,i. e. about or less than one
part by weight of ?bers to about 400 parts of wa
ter. In high speed paper making on conventional
Fourdrinier machines it has not always been pos
sible to use as highly dilute stock as desired, ow
ing to the di?iculties of removing the water
therefrom through the wire, which difficulties
have led to the use in modern high speed Four
driniers of longer forming tables and 'wires, more
table rolls and more extensive suction box equip
ment. Moreover in high speed paper making on
conventional Fourdriniers there is a tendency for
the stock settling on the wire to lag behind the
wire. The stock even if supplied to the wire from
high speed slice nozzles tends to lag behind the
wire as it progresses, causing or allowing pulp ?
bers to roll or gather into lumps or conglomera
tions, and thus giving a spotty paper formation
readily apparent when the ?nished paper sheet
is held to the light. This di?iculty with the con
ventional Fourdrinier has been somewhat reduced
by the employment of wire shakes or devices for
jogging the forming table. However with the
method herein described it is possible, using stock
of even mixture and extremely high dilution, to
obtain at high speeds an almost perfectly formed
sheet, on a short wire, without any shake.
It will be apparent that the method of wet sheet
formation herein described is superior to that
which takes place on the type of machine in 45
which the wet sheet forms over the vacuum area
of -a suction roll on a wire passing around said
roll, but in which the whole vacuum area or part
thereof on which the body of solution bears is
under the same degree of vacuum; for in such, 50
prior type of machine, due to the variation in the
gravity head from the bottom to the top of such
area, and also the progressive resistance to flow
through the wire resulting from the increasing
thickness of the web of fibers building up on the 55
wire, the water does not flow through the wire
substantially uniformly throughout said area, and
not all water is drawn from the solution that
ought to be, some of it remaining in the vat;
moreover in said prior type of machine the fibers
are deposited on the wire at different velocities
and are held with progressively diminishing force
as the formation progresses, so that the move
ment of substantially all deposited stock at pre
cisely the same speed as the wire is not insured 65
and there is opportunity, due to the constant
churning‘of the body of solution by the rotating
cylinder, for the washing or tearing of loosely
felted fibers from the layer of deposited stock and
for the rolling of loosely felted ?bers on the sur 70
face of the stock layer, with consequent imper
factions in formation. On the other hand, by the
method of the present invention, the water can
be drawn from the solution through the wire ap
proximately uniformly throughout the segment
I 5
of the vacuum area on which the body of pulp
solution bears, and as every unit area of the wire
traverses the successive zones of said segment the
?bers are deposited thereon at approximately the
same rate and velocity, and the ?bers are held
to the wire and web of stock building up thereon
with increasing force on the successive zones, giv- ”
ing substantially uniform conditions throughout
the process and insuring the retention of substan
10 tially all the deposited stock, the movement of
all deposited stock at the same high speed as the
wire, and avoiding or minimizing opportunity for
such vmodified ‘methods, each or which apparatus.
may be considered as embodied, for example, in
a machine of the general type disclosed in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 4 the making wire 51 passes around a
suction breast roll 59 of the same general char
acter and mode of operation as that shown in
Fig. 1 but having in this instance a plurality of
suction boxes 59, 69, 6|, each internally parti
tioned or divided longitudinally into a series of
separate suction compartments which are ex 10
hausted through vacuum pumping apparatus
connected with the respective compartments
the dragging o? oi‘ ?bers or the rolling of ?bers _ through separate passages controlled by separate
into lumps or conglomerations.
valves. Pulp solution is supplied to the wire on
Another advantage‘of this method is that it the several vacuum areas provided by the sev 15
permits reduction in the work of ?ltering white
water. Ordinarily all white water recovered from
a paper machine is ?ltered for recovery of the
short ?bers that pass through the wire.‘ In the
20 process provided by the present invention, the var
ious discharges of white water from the suction
breast roll can be segregated. The water received
in the suction box compartment i2 will have a
relatively vlarge amount of short ?ber, which
should be recovered by complete ?ltering in the
usual way.
But as the wire passes across the
lowermost stratum of solution, it is accumulating
a part of its paper web, which is a most excellent
?ltering medium so that the water received in the
30 next suction box 13 should contain much less
?ber. Due to the increased thickness of the ?l
tering medium on the wire as it traverses the
upper strata of the’ solution, the water received
in the suction box compartments i4 and I5
63 Li should be as clear as white water that has ordi
narily been ?ltered by passing through the com
monly used save-all ?lters, and hence the water
discharged from the suction box compartments
i4 and I5 will not require ?ltering but can be
40 immediately reused as ?ltered white water. Thus
the ?ltering work required for recovery of short
?ber‘in the water drawn through the making
wire may be considerably reduced. It is apparent
that instead of conducting the entire discharge
45 from the suction box through the pipe 35 to a
single vacuum pumping apparatus, the discharge
from the suction box compartments l4 and i5
could be segregated from the discharge from the
other compartments and conducted to a separate
vacuum pumping apparatus. It is also apparent
that in the illustrated machine, assuming the suc
tion box extension and support therefor at the
left-hand side of the machine to be equipped with
passages and valves duplicating those previously
described with reference to the right-hand side
of the machine, and assuming said left-hand sup
port to be connected by a pipe 31 with a separate
vacuum pumping apparatus, that the valves at
. the right-hand side of the machine controlling
(50 passages in communication with the suction box
compartments l3 and I4 could be closed, while
the valves at the left-hand side of the machine
controlling passages communicating with the suc
tion box compartments i2 and I3 could be closed,
and thus the suction box compartments l2 and
I3 would be exhausted by one vacuum pumping
apparatus through one side of outlets at one end
of the box and the suction box compartments l4
and I5 would be exhausted by another vacuum
pumping apparatus through the other set of out
lets at the opposite end of the box.
Reference will now be made to certain modi?ed
or elaborated methods of wet sheet making, in
volving the process of formation hereinbefore de
scribed, and to certain apparatus for carrying out
eral suction boxes, the solution being supplied
from head vats through the chutes 62, 93, 64
which are formed to cooperate with the breast
roll to hold the solution thereagainst. These
chutes may be equipped with recti?ers 85 similar 20
to the one shown in Fig.2. The pressure of the
solution on the vacuum area provided by each
vacuum box increases on the successive zones
or such area in the direction of rotation of the
breast roll, while the successively higher degrees 26
of vacuum are maintained on the said zones as
before. As the wire travels with the breast roll
across the ?rst suction box 59 a layer of stock is
deposited on the wire by the forming method al
ready described; and as the wire travels with the 30
breast roll across the second suction box 69 a
second layer is deposited on the ?rst by the same
forming process; and as the wire travels with the
breast roll across the third suction box 6| 9. third
layer of stock formed in like manner is deposited 35
on the second. In this method the paper sheet
can be formed in layers either of the same or dif
ferent stocks. However the paper sheet formed
by such method is substantially different from an
ordinary sheet of paper board or other plural ply 40
paper in that it more closely resembles a homo
geneous sheet, the layers being tightly interlocked
and not readily separable.
It is apparent that
with this method the sheet can be made with a
surface layer or layers of ?ner stock than the 45
intermediate layer. The suction boxes 59, 60 and
iii are formed and arranged so that the high
vacuum zone of the vacuum area provided by one
box is immediately adjacent to the ?rst or low
vacuum zone of the vacuum area provided by the 50
next box. Thus the paper sheet is substantially
always under suction from the time of the depos
iting of the ?rst ?bers to the time the sheet passe
from the in?uence of the last suction box. This
insures the retention of all deposited stock at all- 55
stages of the operation and prevents the centrif
ugal ‘force of the water contained in the stock
from pulling stock from the wire with resultant
imperfections in formation. Opposite the suc
tion boxes 59, 6|], 6| is a suction box 66 exhausted
by suitable pumping apparatus and the vacuum
area provided by which is sealed by an endless
apron of rubberor impervious felt or the like
running about suitable rolls 91. The purpose
of the suction box 66 is to oppose the pull on the 65
shell by the group of suction boxes 59, 69, 6|. It
is contemplated that the suction breast roll 58
will be of still greater diameter than the suction
breast roll shown in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 5 the making wire 68 passes around a 70
suction breast roll 69 having a suction box ‘Ill.
The suction box ‘I0 and its connections and vac
uum pumping apparatus are substantially simi
lar to those described with reference to the ma
chine of Fig. 1, except that the suction box 19 75
is in this instance divided into a greater number
of compartments, each connected with the vac
uum pumping apparatus through a separate valve
controlled passage. The pulp solution is sup
plied to ‘the wire on the vacuum area provided by
the suction box, the solution being supplied from
a head vat through the chute ‘H formed with
the solution holding portion 12 and having a rec
ti?er 13. An ordinary head vat 14 is mounted
10 above the solution holders 12 and arranged to
deposit stock upon the web of ?bers formed on
the wire as it travels the arc of contact with the
body of solution contained in the solution holder
12, the outlet from the head box 14 being ar
15 ranged to supply pulp solution over the high vac
uum zone of the vacuum area of the breast roll.
With this arrangement the paper sheet formed
by the method of formation previously described
can be surfaced with a layer of ?ne stock.
20 longitudinal partition ‘I5 is shown arranged in the
vat chute so as to separate the zone of liquid
which bears on the first zone of the vacuum area
from the superposed body of liquid. ‘The space
between the bottom of the vat chute and the par
25 tition 15 may be supplied with pulp solution from
"the pipe 16. With‘ this arrangement it is possi
ble to form the sheet with a bottom layer of one
kind of stock, an intermediate layer of another
stock, and a top layer of another or superior stock
30 deposited by the ?ow of solution from the ordi
nary head box ‘H. The hydraulic head on the
lower stratum of liquid below the partition 15
is applied alternately to the bottom and top sides
of the paper sheet, drawing the sheet alternately
against the bottom wire and top wire, the ?nal
suction box, namely the last box of the series 5,
being at the underside of the paper sheet so that
the sheet will leave on the bottom wire and go
to the couch roll 3 in the ordinary manner. This
method, in addition to giving approximate simi
larity of appearance to opposite sides of the paper
sheet, will also increase the strength of the paper
due to the ?brillae of the ?bers being turned in
both directions, up and down, and so interlock
ing better.
The use of inverted suction boxes to draw the
paper sheet against the top wire requires a spe 16
cial suction box construction to insure the dis
charge of water extracted from the paper sheet
by the upper flat suction boxes. An example of
such a construction is shown in Fig. 7. In this
?gure, the suction box comprises an inverted
box having a bottom ?ller member 84 and a bot
tom plate 85 attached thereto. Vertical holes
88 of small diameter are drilled through the bot
tom plate and ?ller member. The upper por
tions of these small holes or passages 86 are of
slightly larger diameter than the lower portions,
and receive small tubes 81, the interior diameters
of the small brass tubes being equal to the inside
diameters of the lower parts of the passages 86,
so that small diameter smooth bored holes or
passages are provided from the bottom surface of
the perforated bottom plate to the upper ends
should balance the head above said partition so i of the said tubes. The tubes project up into the
as to prevent any tendency to leak around said
suction box, which is exhausted through the
opening 88 and suction pipe 89 connected with
35 partition or to bulge it, The partition ‘I5 is slotted
at 11 to accommodate the oscillatory recti?er. any suitable suction pump. The purpose of this
with this arrangement, as also with that of Fig. construction, involving a multiplicity of small
4, the separate controllable outlets from the var
bored tubes or passages for application of suction
ious suction box compartments permit separate to the bottom side of the suction box, is to insure
handling of two or three types of white water.
the discharge of moisture. If moisture is sucked 40
One of the hardest things to accomplish on an
with air through a vertical glass tube, the mois
ordinary Fourdrinier is to produce a paper sheet ture will start up the tube in slugs which, if the
of substantially the same appearance on both
tube is fair sized, will break and run down the
sides. The diiference in appearance between the side of the tube to the next slug and so on until
opposite sides of the paper sheet, as ordinarily it runs out at the bottom. But with the use of
made on a conventional Fourdrinier machine, is
tubes of very small diameter, say from 1/8" to
due in part to the im rint of the wire on one
1%" inside diameter, the tendency of the mois
side of the sheet and in part to the fact that the ture to separate and fall back down the tubes will
application of suction to the wet paper sheet is _ be largely overcome, or in other words the suc
tion will draw up the moisture slugs quickly
through the small tubes. As the moisture is 60
always on the wire side. The illustrated ma
chine of Fig. 1 embodies a means tending to over
come this ‘di?iculty and'by the use of which paper
can be made with its opposite sides of approxi
mately the same appearance. For this purpose
55 a shorttop wire or endless apron ‘I9 of wire
gages the top surface of the paper ‘sheet and
drawn by the suction action up through the small
vertical tubes it may tend to fall back into the
tubes, and to prevent this a series of small curved
baffles 90 are provided, to insure the discharge 55
of the moisture laterally of the tubes. For this
carrying oil? .of the moisture to the exhaust pas
sage, the upper surface of the tiller member 84
is declined or slopes toward the exhaust pipe as
travels therewith, the top wir'e being driven by
the paper sheet in the same manner that a dandy
The making wire of a Fourdrinier is ordinarily
driven by the suction couch roll. On account
cloth is arranged above the making wire. This
top wire travels around guide rolls 88 mounted
on axles 8|.
The lower run of the top wire en
roll is driven. If desired the top wire can be
positively driven in synchronism with the ma ' of the drag on the wire imposed by the ?at suc
chine to run at the same speed as the lower wire.
tion boxes there is liability of slippage with re
sultant undue wear on the wire and irregular or 65
65 The paper sheet is drawn against the top wire
by the action of inverted fiat suction boxes 82. injurious effects on the wet paper sheet being
These suction boxes 82 are mounted in a frame
made. With the large suction breast roll em
83 which may rest on the main frame of the
ployed in the illustrated machine the load on the
machine, said frame also carrying theaxles of
70 the guide rolls 80.
As showri the rollers 80 are
positioned so that the suction boxes 82 are ar
ranged between the two ‘sets of ordinary ?at suc
tion boxes 5.
Thus the paper sheet is carried
between two wires, namely between the making
75 wire I and the short top wire 19, and the suction
making wire will be still heavier. It is intended
therefore to drive the wire coniointly by the suc 70
tion breast roll and the suction couch roll, these
two rolls being driven in synchronism at the same
surface speeds. As shown in Fig. 3, the suction
breast roll is equipped at its left-hand end with
a sprocket wheel 83 or driving member attached 75
to the roll member or its cover plate by bolts as
shown. This sprocket wheel is driven by a suit
able sprocket chain or other drive 94 from the
drive shaft of the suction couch roll, the drive
being such as to give precisely the same surface
speed to the breast roll as to the suction couch
The suction couch roll 3 may be of any known
and approved type of construction adapted for
subjecting the wet paper sheet on the making
‘wire to the action of a high vacuum.
In" Fig. 1
the suction couch roll journal 95 is shown
mounted in the bearing member 96 which is
mounted on a pedestal 91. In the operation of
15 removing the wire presently to be referred to,
the pedestal 91 is removed.
The bearing mem
ber 96 is therefore detachably secured to the
pedestal by swing bolts or the like, and the
pedestal is similarly detachably secured to its
base 98, the latter being permanently attached
The machine side frames I00 are supported each
by two sets of bearing rollers I09 which bear on
said tracks. Associated with each ‘set of rollers
is a cage IIO which may be attached to the ma
chine side frame and the cross rods of which
space the rollers.
Secured on a cross shaft III
are pinions II2 meshing with horizontal racks
H3 and'lll, the upper racks H3 being on the
machine side frames and the lower racks Ill
being on the tracks I08. The ends of the cross l0
shaft III are squared for application of cranks
by which to operate said shaft. The purpose of
the rack and pinion connection between the
tracks and the machine side frames is to permit
adjusting the machine frame relative to the levers
for contracting the length of the machine as a
The machine frame is partially sup
ported by a pair of jacks II 5, one under each side '
frame near the suction breast roll. These jacks
II5 sustain a sufficient proportion of the load
' to hold the machine frame steady and to prevent
Reference will now be made to certain features vibration; These jacks are of a type _to permit
of construction in the illustrative machine, quick adjustment so that’ they can be quickly
to the ?oor.
whereby to make adjustments necessary for the
LI change of the making wire, and to an improved
method and means for changing the wire. For
convenience, the side of the machine shown in
Fig. 1 will be referred to as its front side. The
driving sprocket from the suction couch roll shaft
to the sprocket wheel of the suction breast roll
is at the back side of the machine. The supports
for the suction breast roll and for the suction
couch roll have already been described. These
supports are independent of the rest of the ma
chine framing, or in other words the suction
breast roll and suction couch roll are each in
dependently supported. The other parts of the
machine are supported by a machine frame com
prising a pair of large side frame members I00,
40 hereinafter referred to as the side frames.
Said side frames I00 are carried by a pair of
large levers I M fulcrumed on supports
mounted behind or beyond the back side of the
machine as shown in Fig. 6. Said levers have
tail extensions I03 which bear on removable
plates I04 resting on supports I05. Pivoted to
said supports are swing members I08 carrying
large jack screw I01 which bear on the ends
of the lever erg: sions I03 and hold them down
against the removable plates I04. The levers are
thereby rigidly held in the normal position shown
in Figs. 1 and 6.
It will be seen that the entire portion of the
machine between the suction breast roll and suc
tion couch roll is carried on the two large levers
IOI, being thus supported from means arranged
at the back side of the machine. However the
machine is constructed so that the machine as
a whole, including the suction breast roll and
00 suction couch roll, can be supported by said
levers and contracted in length, permitting re
moval of the supports for the suction breast roll
and front support 91 for the suction couch roll.
The machine being thus contracted as a whole
and all parts including the suction breast roll
and suction couch roll being supported from the
back side, the making wire can be easily slipped
off from the front side of the machine and a new
making wire can be slipped over it from said
front side by the convenient method and means
hereinafter described.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 6, the levers IOI carry
a pair of longitudinal tracks or rails I08, the
upper surfaces of which are in the same horizon
- tal plane when the levers are in normal position.
withdrawn and quickly replaced. Thus in the
normal position of the levers I 0| the entire 25
weight of the machine, or of that portion of the
machine which is carried by the side frames I00,
is not sustained by said ‘levers, since a substan
tial proportion of the weight is sustained by the
jacks. The machine frame also has additional
support at its end adjacent the suction‘ couch
roll by means of horizontal bars II6 which are
rigid with the side frames and project therefrom
and enter horizontal guideways I H in the suction
couch roll bearing blocks 96, in which guideways 85
the side bars IIB are slidably ?tted for the pur
pose of permitting the machine frame to be
moved toward the suction couch roll. As shown
in Fig. 1, the bearing block 96 has an adjusting
screw II8 which is normally tightened against 40
the bar IIB so as to make a rigid connection be
tween the machine frame and the support for
the suction couch roll. An additional adjusting
screw H9 is provided to be tightened against the
bar when the machine frame is moved close to 45
the suction couch roll.
As before stated the machine as a whole, in
cluding the suction breast roll and suction couch
roll, can be supported by the levers IOI. As
shown the supporting rings 2| on which the suc 50
tion breast roll is journalled are connected with
the machine frame by bars I20. It will be under
stood that there is one of such bars at each side
of the machine, each of said bars I20 connecting
one of the side frames I00 with one of the' roll
supporting rings 2 I. The said bars I20 ‘are shown
connected to the parts I00 and 2I respectively by
pivot joints I2I of the vertical pivot-type, so as
to permit axial motion of the breast roll in case
a wire shake should be applied.
The machine side frames I00 are also equipped
with large rigid members I22. one at each side
of the machine, which are adapted to be rigidly
fastened by bolting to the heads of the suction
breast roll, whereby, in conjunction with the 65
bars I20, the suction breast roll can be connected
with the machine side frames so rigidly as to
permit the said roll to be supported by said side
frames. The side frames can also support the
suction couch roll through the projecting bars 70
In preparing the machine for changing the
wire, it is necessary to elevate the top wire 19
and inverted suction boxes 82 sufficiently to enable
the making wire to be withdrawn and the new 75.
making wire to be inserted between the ordinary
suction boxes 5 and the top wire ‘I3. For this
purpose the frame 83 which carries the suction
boxes 82 and the axles for the guide rolls 80 is
made separable by the bolted joints indicated
at I23, permitting detachment of the portion of
the/frame above the making wire. The whole
structure above the making wire may be removed,
but in the illustrated machine means are pro
vided whereby it can be elevated su?lciently to
raise the lower run of the top wire ‘I9 clear of
the making wire. As shown, the guide roll axles
3| are carried by levers I23 fulcrumed on stand
ards I25 which may be conveniently mounted
15 on the levers IN. The rear ends of the levers
I24 are connected to the tail extensions I03 of
the levers I M by adjustable tie rods I26 equipped
with turn buckles I 21, by adjustment of which
turn buckles the tie rods can be shortened, thereby
canting the levers I23 and lifting the equipment
which is above the making wire to a position such
that it entirely clears the wire.
The changes necessary to be made in the ma
chine in preparation for the changing of the
making wire will now be described, it being un
derstood that these operations need not be made
in the precise order herein stated. The follow
ing order is suggested.
First, remove the deckles 48. pUnloosen the
30 joints I23 of the frame supporting the equipment
above the making wire, and adiustably operate
the turn buckles I21 until the said equipment is
elevated to a position su?iciently clear of the
making wire. Knock out the plates I04 from
35 under the tail extensions I03 oi‘ the levers IOI,
and tighten the screws I01 until the said levers
IOI just take the weight of the machine. Remove
the supporting jacks II! from under the machine
side frames. Attach the members I22 to the heads
of the suction breast roll, so that the suction
breast roll is adapted to be supported by the ma
chine frame. Remove the suction breast roll sup
ports II or I3. Before removing the suction breast
roll supports, the jack screws I01 can be adjusted
to raise the machine frame slightly, so as to take
the weight entirely from said supports and enable
them to be easily removed. The machine is now
ready to be contracted. To permit its contraction
loosen the set screws H8 in the suction couch
60 roll bearing blocks. By applying cranks to the
ends of the cross shaft III, said shaft can be
operated to shift the machine frame toward the
couch roll, carrying with it the suction breast
roll supported thereby, and thus contracting the
length of the machine as a whole while also
providing a su?icient space between the suction
breast roll and the vat ‘I to permit the removal
and replacement of the making wire without inter
ference by the vat structure. The machine having
60 been thus contracted, the set screw H3 is tight
ened to connect the suction couch roll bearing
members rigidly with the machine frame. The
suction couch roll support 91 at the front side
of the machine is then removed. The whole ma
65 chine in contracted condition is now supported
by the levers IOI, providing a cantilever support
from the rear side of the machine, so that the
slack making wire can be readily slipped off from
the front side of the machine, and a new making
wire can be substituted by passing it over the
machine from the front side.
While the machine is being made ‘ready for
changing the wire, which may be done by part of
the machine crew, another part of the crew may
16 be making ready for applying the new making
wire by the method and means now to be de
In Figs. 6 and 8, the new making wire to be
applied is designated by the numeral I28. This
wire is strung around a series of poles I23 held
between a pair of frames I30 and I3I, said frames
‘being of such size and shape as to permit passing
said frames or at least the frame I30 sidewise
over the machine from the front side thereof, and
the said poles being positioned in said frames 10
so that the wire strung around the poles has such
a contour that it can enclose the space which
it is to occupy on the contracted machine. The
two frames, which may be suspended from a crane,
are connected by a top cross beam I32 having an
eye I 33 for attachment of the hook of the cable
by which the frames are suspended. The two
frames are further connected by cross braces I34.
The two frames are preferably alike, although it
is only necessary that the frame I30 should be 20
passed over the machine. The frames may be
of the construction shown in Fig. 8. Said figure
shows the frame I3I. As shown in said ?gure,
the upper and lower parts of' said frame are
connected by vertical members I35 and I36 which
are intended to be removed when the frames are
in use.v The said frames or at least the frame
I30 are constructed with removable lower sections
431, I38, m)
In preparing for application of the new wire, 30
the said frames I30 and HI suspended by a crane
are brought to any convenient position opposite
or near the front side of the machine, with the
frame I30 nearest the said front side. The new
wire I28 having been placed between the two 35
frames, the poles I23 are then mounted in the
frames by passing-said poles through holes in the
frame I3I and into holes in the frame I30. By
operation of the crane, the frames carrying poles
and wire mounted on the poles are moved side
ways over the machine from the front side there
of, so that the frame I30 is passed over the ma
chine to a position beyond the backside thereof
as shown in Fig. 6, while the wire I23 is brought
to a position surrounding the position which it 45
will occupy onthe contracted machine. In Fig. 8,
the outline of the machine in its contracted state
is indicated by dotted lines, being surrounded by
the wire I23. The frames having been brought
to the position represented in Figs. 6 and 8, the 60
poles I23 are withdrawn lengthwise through the
frame "I, and the wire then drops to its position
on the contracted machine.
The frames are then
removed. They can be removed by lifting them
vertically, the lower sections of the frame I30 55
being first removed in order to allow said frame
to clear-the levers IOI and other parts at the
backside of the machine.
The whole operation for changing the wire, in
cluding the preparation of the machine for the (it)
change and the mounting of the new wire in
the frames and carrying it into position and
dropping it into place on the contracted machine
as above described, is more convenient and far
quicker than the operations for wire changing
which have been employed in prior practice even
with the most improved facilities known prior to
the present invention.
In Fig. 1, oppositely inclined boards I40 are
shown arranged to catch any water or moisture 70
that may drip from the paper sheet and conduct
such moisture into the save-all box III.
It will be understood that the illustrated ma
chine may be variously changed in details of con
struction and arrangement to suit various con
ditions and requirements, and that it is not in
dispensable that all features of the invention be
opposing similar medium before the transfer of
used conjointly since the same may be variously
used in various different combinations and sub
If desired the solution holder ll may be pro
vided with a removable top closure as shown at
roll, a traveling making wire passing around said
roll, said roll comprising a rotating cylindrical
I42 in Fig. 2b., The depth of the solution bearing
on the breast roll may be diminished by laying
1.0 on the bottom of the solution holder a so-called
depth deckle, consisting of a block or plate of
desired thickness having a concave edge adjacent
to the breast roll. By use of a number of depth
deckles of different thickness, the depth 01' the
15 solution may be controlled as desired. In Fig. 2b
two depth deckles, one‘ laid upon the other, are
indicated at I43.
What I claim as my invention and desire to
secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a paper making machine, the combination
with a making wire on which the wet sheet is
formed, a top wire running in contact with the
opposite side of the sheet from that in contact
with said making wire, and a series of suction
boxes arranged for drawing the sheet alternately
against the two wires.
2. In a machine of the character set forth in
claim 1 having an inverted ?at suction box across
the bottom of which the top wire runs, the im
said sheet from the medium on which it is formed.
4. In a paper making machine, a suction breast
perforated shell and a stationary suction box
therein, said suction box having extensions pro
iecting through the ends of the roll, supports for
said end extensions, rollers carried by said end
extensions, said rollers having parallel axes at 10
right angles to the axis of the shell, annular sup
ports mounted on said rollers, and annular shell
heads journalled on said supports, the said rollers
permitting axial motion of the breast roll whereby
a wire shake can be applied.
- 5. In a paper making machine, a suction breast
roll, a traveling making wire passing around said
breast roll, said breast roll having suction equip
ment providing a vacuum area on a portion there
of covered by said wire, means for supplying pulp 20
solution to the wire on said vacuum area, said
means including a solution holder cooperating
with the roll to hold a body of said solution bear
ing on a segment thereof, said holder having side
walls with curved under-edges adjacent to the
cylindrical surface which is provided by the wire
on said roll, said side walls having curved recesses
and slots extending from said recesses to the
inner lower corners of said walls, and in?atable
proved construction for said inverted suction box tubes in said recesses, said tubes having ribs ex 30
tending through said slots and bearing against
characterized by a bottom plate closely perfor
ated with small holes and a multiplicity of small said surface to provide deckling means.
6. In a paper making machine, the combina
bore tubes rising from said holes within the
' tion with a traveling porous medium on which
suction-box, for the purpose described.
3. A paper making method characterized by the wet sheet is formed, a deckling means com 35
prising in?atable tubes and ribs projecting there
continuously forming the wet sheet on a travel
ing porous medium and alternately drawing the from against said medium.
sheet by suction against said medium and an
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