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Патент USA US2118929

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l May 31, 1938.
Filed March '7, 1935
. £2
Í /
APatented May 31, 1938
Ernst Kramar, Berlin-Tempelhof, Germany, as
signor to C. Lorenz Aktiengesellschaft, Berlin
Tempelhof, Germany, a German company
Application March 7, 1935, Serial No. 9,808
In Germany March 1, 1934
3` Claims;
The invention is an improvement upon that
disclosed in the copending patent application Ser.
No. 722,470, ñled April 26, 1934:,` for System for
landing aeroplanes. In this application, a slip
5. way beacon is described the essential features of
which are that an additional signal is transmitted
to the aeroplane as soon as this reaches the point
where it should begin to descend, and that the
landing is effected in accordance with the in
10 dication of ñeld intensity which the receiver shows
at the moment of the reception of the additional
signal. This method has the advantage that the
receiver need not at the commencement of the
flight be adjusted to have a predetermined sen
15 sitivity, but that it is quite insigniñcant what a
sensitivity the receiver may have. The receiver
should merely be of such a constancy that its
sensitivity is not varied during landing, that is
during the time which there is between the mo
ment of beginning the descent and the moment
of touching the ground.
In order to decrease as far as. possible the ex
penditure in apparatus, the additional signal will
preferably be transmitted by wireless on the same
25 or approximately the same wavelength as is used
for characterizing the gliding path. This path
and the additional signal are differentiated from
each other with the aid of different characteris
tic tones.
The invention described hereafter proposes in
this connection to polarize the two radiations
diñ‘erently with respect to one another. In this
(Cl. Z50-11)
in the necessity for operating with receiving
antennas polarized essentially in the same man
ner. The antennas. employed on the receiving
side, which in most cases are dipoles, are in ac
cordance with another feature of the invention Ul
preferably connected With separate audion stages.
In order that also on the receiving side the en
tire arrangement become as simple as possible,
one could intend to produce gliding path and ad
ditional signal on the basis` of the same wave
length and to distinguish between them by differ
ent tones.
One could intend also to ensure that
the carrier frequencies for gliding path and ad
ditional signal differ from each other slightly.
This would result in the advantage that the con 15
stancy of the transmitters need not be so great
as in the case of the same wave length. In this
event, however, on the receiving side an input
resonance circuit or receiver circuits would have
to be employed, these circuits being so wide as to 20
allow the two carrier frequencies to pass through
with the best constant efficiency. On the other
hand, however, the superposing-tones of the
transmitters must be considerably higher than the
characteristic tones. This method would require 25
the least expenditure on the receiving side, if
the transmission energy and thus the intensity
of the receiving field are very great, In practice,
however, it is for several reasons sought with re
spect to the transmitter side to be successful with 30
way, above all a considerable simplification of
the entire arrangement is attained on the trans
mitter side.
the aid of means as simple as possible. The de
scribed method may then happen to be insuffl
cient. In view of this possibility, the invention
further proposes to provide separate audion
stages in the receiver. This has the advantage
For the gliding path a vertical polarization is
employed, in order to create a good slip-way
guide by means of a simple antenna arrangement
of sharply tuned circuits in employing back cou
pling or dispensing with attenuation, a method
comprising, for instance, a dipole continuously
that in the case of a wide resonance curve can of
40 fed by a high-frequency generator, and two re
flector dipoles keyed alternately. This is espe
cially so if a dipole, fed continuously, and reflector
dipoles are disposed in a position so high above
the ground that a propagation curve suitable for
45 the gliding path is obtained without additional
devices being requisite. If according to the in
vention a horizontally disposed dipole is em
ployed for the additional signal, then a disc
shaped radiation is attained without the aid of
50 additional means, namely a radiation vertical to
the direction in which the aircraft is moving,
provided that the dipole is located in this. direc
The application on the transmitter side of these
different polarizations results on the receiving side
that each carrier wave can be received by means
course not be adopted immediately. The low
frequency may then be gathered at a place after
the audion, so that also here the expenditure on
the receiving side will not be especially great.
The invention will be more fully explained in
the following description taken in conjunction
with the drawing in which Fig. 1 shows the
gliding path in a horizontal section, Fig. 2 in a
vertical section and Fig. 3 the appertaining re
ceiving arrangement.
In Fig. 1 the landing ground is indicated b
AP. The gliding path is obtained by a trans
mission arrangement consisting of a continuously
energized vertical dipole D and two alternately
keyed reflectors Rl and R2. Two shifted ellipse
diagrams are alternately eifective, said diagrams
are blended into a zone of equal field intensity in
the connection line of the two points of intersec
tion, which is marked as angle a in the drawing
and which indicates the flying direction for land
ing, to the pilot. The radiation is vertically polar
ized. The transmission arrangements for the
presignal are provided in a distance d from the
landing ground.
The radiation is horizontally
polarized and is generated by a dipole DI ar
ranged in the landing direction. A disc-shaped
radiation diagram in the form of SI is effected
vertically to the flying direction.
Fig. 2 represents a gliding path method in the
vertical plane and marks the landing ground also
with AP, the Vertical dipole for the gliding path
pli?led in the high frequency ampliñer H, rectified
inthe audion part Al, ampliñed at low frequency
in the member N and conducted to the indicating
instrument J or the telephone T respectively.
The horizontally polarized signals are received
by means of the horizontal dipole E2, rectiñed
in the second audion part A2 Vand conducted to
the common low frequency amplifier N.
What is claimed is:
1. In a slip-way beacon wherein the point at 10
which the descent for landing should be com
menced along a gliding path'is indicated to the
aircraft by an additional signal transmitted by
wireless, the method of aiding the landing of air
craft which comprises transmitting vertically
radiation with D and the horizontal dipole with
DI. The gliding path curve GI, G2 and G3 are
polarized radiations for the gliding path and
transmitting horizontally polarized radiations for
lines of equal field intensity of the vertically
polarized gliding path radiation and the diagram`
rection of landing of said aircraft.
20 Si represents a horizontally polarized signal. The
airplane approaches e. g. at a height h, ascer
tained by means of the barometer-altimeter and
intersects. the radiation of the presignal Si. The
pilot knows thus that he may initiate the landing
and flies e. g. on the curve of constant field in
tensities Gl.
Fig. 3 shows the receiving arrangement. The
vertically polarized gliding path radiation is re
ceived by means of a vertical dipole El, is am
the additional signal in a plane normal to the di
2. The method of landing aircraft according 20
to claim 1 which includes the steps of separately
detecting the gliding path signal and the addi
tional signal and thenV impressing Vsaid detected
signals upon a common signal amplifying path.
3. The method of landing aircraft according 25
to claim l, wherein approximately the same wave
length is employed for both radiations.
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