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Патент USA US2118930

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‘May 31, 1938.
2,118,930
E. D. LILJA
ELECTRICAL CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Nov. 16, 1935
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INVENTOR
ATTORNEYS
May 31, 1938.
2,1 18,930
E. D.- LILJA
ELECTRICAL CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Nov. 16, 1935~
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May 31, 1938.
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ELECTRICAL CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Nov. 16, 1935
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2,118,930
Patented May 31, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,118,930
ELECTRICAL CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM
Edgar D. Lilia, Rockford, Ill., assignor to Howard
D. Colman, Rockford, Ill.
Application November 16, 1935, Serial No. 50,192
5 Claims. (Cl. 268-1)
application of the system without departing
This invention relates to an electrical control
from the spirit and scope of the invention as
system whereby the operation of a power driv
en closure operator at one point may be initiated
under manual control from another point, and
it has particular reference to a control system
of this character adapted for use under condi
tions which render it impractical to employ a
direct metallic control circuit between the two
points.
More speci?cally considered, the invention re
lates to an electrical control system especially
adapted for use in the control from a moving or
stationary vehicle of power driven mechanism
for opening and closing garage doors, driveway
15 gates, and the like.
The primary object of the invention is to pro
vide a new and improved electrical control sys
tem of the above general character which is sim
ple in construction and dependable in opera
20 tion, and which is relatively inexpensive to man
ufacture and install.
Another object is to provide a control system
of the above general character in which the vari
ous elements are so combined and coordinated
that the system may be operated on low volt
age current such as is supplied by the storage
battery of a motor vehicle and which, by reason
of the entire absence of special current genera
tors, induction coils, vacuum tubes, etc., may be
30
of very simple and inexpensive construction and
capable of operating inde?nitely without requir
ing attention or replacement of parts.
expressed in the appended claims.
4
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a perspective view of a garage hav U!
ing a driveway leading thereto and showing a
motor vehicle equipped with signal transmitting
apparatus in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view of the signal
transmitting apparatus.
tor comprising a part of the signal transmitting
apparatus.
Fig. 4 is a. schematic view of the receiving ap
paratus and door operator.
Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional view through
the antenna.
Fig. 6 is a schematic view of a modi?ed form
of the receiving apparatus.
For the purpose of illustration, I have shown 20
in the drawings and will hereinafter describe
the invention as applied to the control of a
power driven garage door operator from a mo
tor vehicle. It will be appreciated, however, that
the system may be employed equally well for 25
controlling other closure operators, for example,
driveway gates and the like. Generally stated,
the control system embodies a signal transmit
ter 5 carried by a motor vehicle and a signal re
ceiver 6 (Fig. 4) associated with a door operator 30
1 and e?ective to initiate the operation of the
same in response to a signal‘ sent out by the
Another object is to provide an improved con
transmitter. The transmitter 5 includes a man
trol system of simple and relatively inexpensive
construction adapted to initiate the operation of
erative to supply a pulsating or ?uctuating cur
the closure operator only in response to a signal
of predetermined frequency whereby unauthor
ized operation of the same is prevented and false
operation by stray currents, lightning discharges,
40 etc. is effectually avoided.
A further object is to provide an improved
ually controllable signal generating means op
rent of a predetermined, relatively low frequency
to a low resistance antenna 8 comprising, in the
present instance, two loops or turns of wire,
carried by the vehicle. Connected with the re
ceiver 6, which is located in the garage, is a re
electrical control system employing signalling
ceiving coil 9 which is suitably placed in or near
the driveway by which the vehicle approaches or
current of relatively low frequency such as can
leaves the garage so as to be inductively in
be readily supplied by a simple interrupter or vi
45 brator operating from the storage battery of a
motor vehicle, the system being su?lciently sen
sitive so that extremely accurate positioning of
the signal transmitting means with respect to
the receiving means is unnecessary.
Still another object is to provide an improved
signal receiving relay adapted to operate on
extremely feeble signal currents of predeter
mined low frequency.
Other objects and advantages will be appar
ent from the following description taken in con
nection with the accompanying drawings where
in the invention is illustrated in a preferred em
bodiment. It will be understood, however, that
changes may be made in the construction and
arrangement employed and in the particular
10
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view of the vibra
35
40
?uenced by the ?uctuating magnetic ?eld set up
around the antenna by the current ?owing there
in.
45
Thus, an alternating voltage is induced in I
the receiving coil 9, and serves to energize the
receiver 6 (Fig. 4) which, as shown herein, is
in the form of a sensitive tuned relay adapted
to close its switch in upon receiving signal cur 50
rent of a predetermined frequency. The switch
Ill, through the medium of a switching device
Ii, initiates the operation of the door operator
1 to open or close the garage doors as required.
The signal transmitter 5 is preferably con 55
structed in the form of a compact, enclosed unit
for convenient mounting, for example, on the in
ner side of the instrument panel of the vehicle.
It includes a. vibrator l2 (Figs. 2 and 3) adapted
to periodically close and open a circuit for the 60
2
2,1 18,980 '
antenna 8 through the medium of a switch I4.
While the vibrator I2 may be oscillated manually
electrical contact therebetween. Aperture 2!
permits the member to move freely upon the clo-_
or in any other convenient manner, I prefer to
employ an electro-magnet for this purpose and to
this end, provide a switch I3 adapted to be actu
ated alternately with the switch I4 for control
ling the circuit of the magnet. The vibrator I2
preferably is in the form of a comparatively stiff
reed of steel or other suitable material which is
10 insulated from and rigidly supported at one end
by a supporting post I5 carried on a base plate
I6 of insulating material constituting the base of
the transmitter unit. Riveted or otherwise suit
ably attached to the free end of the reed is a
15 weight H of magnetic material suitably propor
tioned with respect to the stillness of the reed
so as to give the reed a desired natural period
of vibration. This period may desirably be va
ried in different transmitters so that each trans
20 mitter will be effective to initiate the operation
of a particular receiver and door operator only,.
thus providing for selective operation under con
sure of switch I4 so that the damping effect on
ditions in which a number of vehicles use the
same driveway in approaching the garage.
In the illustrative embodiment, a driving mag
25
net I8 is provided for oscillating the vibrator I2.
The magnet may be of any suitable type and, as
shown herein, comprises a winding I9 upon a
magnetic core 20' from which it is insulated by
30 a spool 2I (Fig. 3) of insulating material.
Pole
piece members 22 enable the magnet to act upon
the weight I‘! of the vibrator with maximum effi
ciency. These members may take the form of
elongated strips of magnetic material secured at
35 one end to the respective ends of the core 20 and
having the other end projecting substantially be
yond the outer edge of the winding I9 and spaced
apart to provide su?icient clearance to enable the
weight I‘! of the vibrator to pass between them.
40 The magnet may conveniently be supported on
the base I6 by non-magnetic brackets 23 so that
the projecting ends of the pole pieces 22 will lie
adjacent the upper edges of the vibrator weight
I‘! in the idle position thereof. Thus, when the
45 magnet is energized, the pole pieces will attract
the weight and raise the same against the ?exural
restoring force of the vibrator reed.
Operatively associated with the vibrator I2 and
adapted to be opened and closed in accordance
50 with its vibrations are the switches I3 and I4
(Fig. 3), which are included, respectively, in the
driving magnet circuit and the antenna circuit.
As shown herein, the switches are carried respec
tively by spring members 24 and 25 supported
55 on the post I5 on opposite sides of and insulated
from the vibrator I2. Switch I3 is adapted to
be closed by the vibrator I2 when the latter is
in its normal inactive position, the switch I4 be
ing open at this time. When the vibrator is raised
60 under the influence of the magnet I8, switch I3
is opened and switch I4 is closed. The reverse
takes place upon the release of the vibrator, that
is, switch _I3 is closed and switch I4 is opened. .
Accurate adjustment of the switches I3 and
65 I4 is effected by means of adjusting screws 26
and 21, respectively. The adjusting screws are
conveniently carried by an arm or bracket 28
supported at one end on the vibrator supporting
post I5 and projecting forwardly substantially
70 parallel to the vibrator I2. Adjusting screw 27
. is arranged to project through an aperture 29
(Fig. 2) in the switch member 25 and is provided
with a head adapted to serve as a limit stop for
the member. An insulating washer 30 interposed
75 between the member and screw head prevents
the vibrator I2 is kept at a minimum. Spring
member 25, of course, follows the vibrator in its
downward movement but in this case, the head of
screw 21 de?nes the limit of downward movement
of the member and thereby determines the point
at which the switch I4 is opened. Thus, member
25 is enabled to follow the movements of the vi
10
brator I2 without materially interfering with such
movement and, at the same time, the opening and
closing of switch I4 at the proper time is insured.
The operation of the switch I3 is controlled in
generally the same manner by the adjusting
screw 26. To this end switch member 24‘is pro
vided along one edge with an upstanding lug 3|
arranged to project toward the adjusting screw
and substantially above the vibrator I2. The up
per end of the lug 3| is ?anged inwardly to pre 20
sent a bearing surface for engagement with the
insulating tip 26“ of the screw 26 which thus limits
the movement of spring 24 in one direction with
out interfering with its free movement in the'
other direction.
25
The electrical connections of the transmitter
5 may be readily seen by reference to Fig. 2 of
the drawings. Current for operating the trans
mitter may be conveniently supplied by a bat
tery 32 having one terminal grounded on the 30
frame of the vehicle and the other terminal con
nected to the transmitter via a manually oper
able switch 33. The switch 33 may be of any
suitable type and is preferably mounted so as to
be within easy reach of the driver of the vehicle.
A conductor 34 provides a connection between the
ungrounded terminal of the battery 32 and one
contact of the switch, the other contact of the
switch being connected by a conductor 35 to a
terminal lug 36 mounted on the base I6 of the 40
transmitter unit. From terminal lug 3B, the cir
cuit extends through a protecting fuse 31, ter
minal lug 38, conductor 39 to one terminal of the
magnet I8. The other terminal of the magnet
is connected by a conductor 40 with the switch
member 24 which, in one position of the vibrator
I2, is electrically connected with the vibrator by
the switch I3. Vibrator I2, in turn is connected
by a conductor M with a terminal lug 42 grounded
on the frame of the vehicle. It will be apparent
that, upon closure of the switch 33, magnet III
will become energized and attract the weight I‘I
carried by the vibrator I2, thus raising the vibra
tor and interrupting the magnet circuit by open
ing the switch I3. To prevent excessive spark
ing, the switch may be shunted by a condenser 43
and resistance 44 connected in series.
Each energization of the magnet I8, in addi
tion to opening the switch I3 as above described,
will also close the switch I4 to complete a cir 60
cuit through the antenna 8. This circuit may
be traced from the battery connected terminal
lug 38, through the outer antenna coil, terminal
lug 45, inner antenna coil, terminal lug 46, con
ductor 41, switch member 25, switch I4, and vi
brator I2 to grounded terminal 42. Thus, at
each closure of the switch I 4, antenna 8 will
be connected directly across the terminals of
the battery 32.
-
-
While the antenna 8 may be of any suitable 70
construction, to facilitate its manufacture and
installation, I prefer to employ a multi-conduc~
tor cable of the ordinary commercial type having
relatively heavy conductors 43a and 44* enclosed
in an insulating sheath 88 as shown in Fig. 5. 75
3
2,118,930
The cable may be conveniently attached to the
of the receiving coil 8, both coils comprising a
running gear of the car to form a ?at generally
operates and enclosing as large an area as is
relatively large number of turns so that the
current in the receiving system will be low and
the losses in the cable 50 between the coils will
be negligible. The open ends ‘of the member
practicable thus providing a maximum operat
ing range. For connecting the conductors of
52 are bifurcated and disposed so as to face each
other across a narrow air gap and thus consti
rectangular loop disposed in a plane substantial
ly parallel to the surface over which the vehicle
the cable to form a plurality of serially con
tute opposed pole pieces 53 and 54 between which
nected loops,v I provide suitable terminal lugs
a permanently magnetized armature 55 is sus
such as the terminal lug 45 ‘on the base l6 of
pended.
the transmitter. Suitable terminal lugs 38 and
45 provide convenient means for connecting the
terminals of the antenna to the transmitting
device. The particular improved construction of
By reason of the bifurcated construction of
the pole pieces, the alternating ?ux will be con
centrated at the ends of the armature where it
will be most effective in producing armature
torque. As shown herein, the armature is car
mm by a ?exible ribbon 56, preferably in the
form of a flat steel spring, supported at oppo
the transmitting antenna forms no part of my
present invention but is described and claimed
in my copending divisional application Serial
No. 105,560, ?led October 14, 1936. When the
antenna is connected across the battery 32 by
20 the transmitting device 5 as above described,
the current flow therein sets up a magnetic field
which pulsates at vibrator frequency and serves
to induce an alternating voltage of correspond
ing frequency in the receiving coil 9 whenever
25 the vehicle is positioned so that the coil lies
under the area enclosed by the antenna.
By
reason of the low resistance of the antenna, a
sui?ciently heavy current flow may be obtained
from an ordinary six-volt storage battery to pro
30 vide effective signalling. The use of special
transmitter batteries, step-up transformers or
induction coils is thus avoided and by reason of
the absence of these elements, an emcient trans
mitter may be constructed in very compact form
35 and at a minimum cost.
In the embodiment herein disclosed, the re
ceiving coil 9 is located in the driveway so that
a vehicle must pass over it to enter the garage. .
To provide the necessary protection for the coil,
40 it is preferably sealed in a non-magnetic annu
lar casing member 48 of generally U-shaped cross
section (Fig. 4) adapted to fit tightly against
the surface of the driveway. The casing may
be secured in place by means of suitable screws
45 passing through the external ?ange 49 of the
casing and anchored in the driveway. Thus,
the coil may be installed in existing driveways
with a minimum of labor and expense.
An
electrical connection between the receiving coil
50 9 and the exciting coil of the receiving relay 5
is provided by a suitable two conductor cable
50 which may conveniently be located under
ground. While only one receiving coil has been
shown in the preferred embodiment, it will be
55 apparent that a plurality of such coils connected
in series with the receiving relay may be em
ployed if desired. For example, by providing a
coil 9 in the floor of the garage, the door open
ing and closing mechanism can be conveniently
60 controlled from the car after theisame is run into
the garage. Two receiving coils 9 would of
course be necessary where the system is applied
to the opening and closing of - the gate in a
driveway in which case the two coils would be
65 mounted on opposite sides of the gate at any
desired distance therefrom.
Referring now to Fig. 4 of the drawings, the
construction of the receiving relay 6 and the
apparatus controlled thereby will be described.
70 The actuating element of the relay comprises an
exciting coil 5| wound on one leg of a generally
0 shaped iron core member 52 which is prefer
ably of laminated construction. To insure the
delivery of maximum energy to the relay, the
75 impedance of the coil 5| is matched with that
‘
10
site ends by a'frame mounted on the core 52.
In its preferred form, the frame comprises side
members 51 and 58 of bakelite or other suitable
insulating material secured in any suitable man
ner between the bifurcated ends of the respective
pole pieces 53 and 54 with the inner faces of the
members substantially flush with the ends of
theassociated pole pieces. Secured to the upper
ends of the frame members is a top plate 59
of brass or other non-magnetic electrically con
ductive material provided with a slot 60 for an
choring the ribbon 55. The ribbon may be an
chored securely to the plate 59 by means of a
screw 5| threading into the plate and adapted to
clamp the ribbon against the back wall of the
slot 50. A similar plate 63 secured to the lower
ends of the frame members 51 and 58 provides
a suitable anchorage for the other end of the .
ribbon 56. Armature 55 is thus suspended mid
way between the pole pieces 53 and 54 and is free
to rock about an axis defined by the ribbon 5B.
The circuit controlling function of the relay is
effected through the medium of the switch “I, 40
one contact point of which is carried by an arm
64 formed on the armature 55. The other con
tact point of the switch may conveniently com
prise a contact screw 55 threading into a metal
bracket 55 supported on the frame member 58.
Adjustment of the contact points of the switch
is effected by turning the screw 65. By rocking
the armature about its axis, the switch in is
opened and closed thus effecting switching opera
tions to be described hereinafter.
50
When no current is ?owing in the exciting coil
5|, the magnetic forces acting on the armature
55 are substantially balanced and the armature
'remains parallel to the pole faces. Energization
of the coil upsets this balance, pole pieces 53 and .
54 attracting opposite ends of the armature, each
end being attracted by the two pole pieces alter
nately at twice vibrator frequency as a result of
the polarity reversals produced in the pole pieces
by the alternating exciting current. Thus the
armature is caused to oscillate angularly at excit
ing frequency about the ribbon as an axis, and
against the torsional restoring force exerted by
the ribbon. It will be appreciated, however, that
the armature oscillations will attain maximum 65
amplitude only when the frequency of the excit
ing current corresponds to the natural frequency
of vibration of the armature assembly. This
natural frequency of vibration is a function of
the moment of inertia of the armature 55 and
the torsional stiffness of the ribbon 55. Excita
tion of the coil 5| by an alternating or pulsat
ing current of a corresponding frequency will
thus cause the armature 55 to vibrate and the
vibrations will quickly attain maximum ampli
4
2,118,980
tude. Switch ll may conveniently be adjusted
to close when the armature vibrates substantial
ly at maximum amplitude and thus becomes
effective to complete the control circuits. On
the other hand, the armature vibrations will
not attain su?lcient amplitude to close the switch
ll when the coil 5| is excited by an alternating
or pulsating current of a frequency differing ma
terially from the natural frequency of the ar
10
mature assembly. Thus, the relay is operable
only by signal currents of a predetermined fre
quency, and false operation from stray currents,
lightning discharges, etc. is effectually avoided.
At the same time, the relay is extremely sensi
tive, the low mass of the armature and the small
amount of unlaminated material in the magnetic
circuit perniitting it to operate on a very feeble
current of the proper frequency.
In order to adapt the relay 6 for service with
various transmitters and to provide for its ac
curate tuning, means are provided whereby the
natural period of vibration of' thearmature as
sembly may be conveniently adjusted. As here
in shown, the adjusting means includes a screw
81 disposed in a vertical slot 68 formed in the
frame member 51, the screw being journaled at
one end in a bearing formed in the frame mem
ber and rotatably anchored at the other end in
the top plate 59 of the frame assembly. Thread
ed onto the screw 61 is an arm 89 having a slot
18 in its projecting end for slidably receiving
the ribbon 58. By turning the screw 81, the
position of the arm 69 with respect to the arma
ture 55 can be varied as desired, the effective
length of the ribbon 56 being ilikewise varied
with a corresponding variation 'in the natural
period of vibration of the armature assembly.
Thus, the vibrating elements of the relay may
be adjusted or “tuned” to make the relay re
sponsive to alternating currents of any desired
frequency within the limits imposed by the char
acter of the parts involved.
'
It will be appreciated that only a very small
force is required to set the armature 55 of the
relay in motion and to prevent this from oc
curring accidentally, means are provided for pro
tecting the relay mechanism from mechanical
vibration or shock which might be transmitted
through the garage or other structure on which
relay 8 to effect the required door opening or
closing operation of the mechanism ‘I is the
switching device ll comprising electromagnetic
relays ‘I5 and 18.
The relays ‘l5 and 18 are
preferably so inter-connected with the door op
erating mechanism that relay 15 is effective to
control the opening of the garage door and re
lay ‘I8 is effective to control the closing of the
door.
The door operating mechanism 1 may be of any 10
suitable and well known type and, as shown here
in, comprises a reversible motor 11 adapted. to
drive a door actuating device 18 through the me
dium of a drive shaft 19. A suitable brake 80
for insuring quick stopping of the mechanism is
provided and is adapted to be released by means
of a solenoid 8| under control of the relays l5
and 15. Also included in the operating mecha
nism ‘I is a switching device 82 having one switch
83 which is closed as the garage door moves into 20
closed position and a second switch 84 closed
when the door moves into open position. Upon
closure of one of the switches, the other switch,
of course, is opened.
_
As shown herein, the switch 83 is adapted, when 25
closed, to connect one terminal of relay 15 to con
ductor 85 of the power line over which current
from any suitable source is supplied to the door
operator. Switch 84, when closed, is adapted to
connect the corresponding terminal of relay 16 30
to line conductor 85. The other terminals of the
relays 15 and 16 are connected in multiple to one
side of the switch in by way of a conductor 88 and
the metal bracket 86. The other side of switch III
is electrically connected to conductor 81 of the 35
power line, the connection including the switch
arm 84, armature 55, ribbon 58, supporting plate
59 and ‘conductor 88 which is electrically con
nected to the plate. It will thus be appment that
the closure of switch [0 will complete a circuit 40
for one or the other of relays 15 or 18 depending
upon the position of the garage doors and the
switching device 82. LfI'hus, if the doors are closed,
switch 83 will likewise be closed and switch III
will complete a circuit for relay 15. If the doors 45
are open, switch 84 will be'closed, hence switch
‘ID will complete the circuit for relay 18. Similar
control may be effected manually by means of the
auxiliary manually operable switch 89 connected
the relay is mounted. To this end, the relay in shunt with the switch Ill and which, for con
mechanism is resiliently supported on a bracket »venient manipulation, may be mounted on one 50
‘H of generally U shaped form which is adapted of- the walls of the garage.
to be attached to the wall or other part of the
It will be observed that each of the relays l5
garage. As shown herein, the resilient support
for the relay mechanism is provided by springs and ‘I6 is provided with three switches designated
90, SI, and 82, and 90“, 9| a, and 92“, respectively. .
12, there being a pair. of such springs connect
Switch
90 is adapted upon closure to complete
ing between the relay mechanism and each leg
a. holding circuit for relay 15 so as to maintain
of the bracket ‘H. One spring 12 of each pair the
relay energized independent of the switch l0
is anchored at one end to the bracket leg ad
or
the
switch 89 which e?'e'cts its initial energiza
60 jacent its upper edge and the other end is an
tion and thus insure the operation of the control 60
chored to a lug or ear 13 attached to the upper
mechanism through a complete door opening
side of the core 52. The other spring 12 is an
chored at one end to the bracket leg adjacent its cycle. Switch tilla functions in the same manner
lower edge and the other end is anchored to for relay 15. Switch 9|, upon closure, completes
a lug or ear H attached to the lower side of
the core 52. Thus, the core is yieldably sus
pended in a substantially horizontal position be
tween the two legs of the bracket ‘H and the
relay mechanism is protected against mechani
70 cal vibration or shock by reason of the resiliency
of the springs 12.
The relay 8, through the medium of its switch
l0, initiates the operation 01' the door opening
and closing mechanism ‘I upon receiving the
75 proper signal impulses. Cooperating with the
a circuit over conductor 93 for operating the
motor Tl in a direction such that the garage doors 65
will be moved from closed to open position.
Switch illa completes a circuit for the motor 11
over a, conductor 94 so as to cause the motor to
move the doors from open to closed position.
Switches 92 and 92IL complete an operating cir 70
cuit for the solenoid 8| to release the brake 8!!
whenever the motor 11 is operated.
The control system comprising the present in
vention, as will be appreciated from the foregoing
description, provides a convenient means whereby 75
5
2,118,980
the driver of a motor vehicle is enabled to open
open or closed condition of the garage doors.
or close the doors of a building, such as a garage,
When the doors are closed the relay 15 will be
without leaving the vehicle. Assuming that the
energized over a circuit which includes the line -
garage doors are closed as the vehicle approaches,
conductor 81, the conductor 88, switch I8, a con
ductor 99, a normally closed switch I88 adapt
ed to be opened by the relay 15 when energized,
a conductor IN, a normally closed switch I82
adapted to be opened when the relay 16 is ener
gized, a conductor I83, winding of the relay 15,
a conductor I84, the switch 83, through a circuit 10
breaker I85, to the line conductor 85. The re
lay 15, on energizing, completes a holding circuit
for itself by closing the switch 98, the holding
the driver will close the manual switch 33 for a
short interval, several seconds for example, when
the vehicle is passing over the receiving coil 9 in
the driveway. Closure of switch 33 sets the
transmitter 5 in action whereby a pulsating cur
10 rent of a predetermined low frequency is sent
through the antenna 8. The pulsating magnetic
?eld surrounding the antenna induces an alter
nating current in the circuit including the re
ceiving coil 9, which current causes the armature
of relay 6 to vibrate at its natural frequency so
as to close its switch I8.
, Since it is assumed that the garage doors are
I86 which limits the current flow through the 15
coil to a value such that the coil will not be
come overheated on sustained energization. The
closed at this time, the switch 83 associated with
the door operator will necessarily be closed and
relay 15, on energizing, also opens the initial
energizing circuit at the switch I88, thereby pre
switch I8 will therefore complete an initial ener
gizing circuit for relay 15. The relay upon ener
gizing closes a holding circuit for itself at switch
98 so as to maintain its energized condition inde
pendently of switch I8 until the garage doors
venting further energization at high voltage in
are completely opened. Relay 15 also completes
operating circuits for the door operating motor
11 and the brake releasing solenoid 8|, and the
motor, accordingly, moves the doors to open posi
tion. When the doors reach the limit of their
movement to open position, switch 83 is opened
thereby deenergizing relay 15 and interrupting
the operation of the motor 11.
‘
If it is desired to close the doors with the vehicle
in the garage, the manual switch 89 is closed
momentarily. The doors being open at this time,
switch 84 will necessarily be closed so that relay
16 will energize in response to the closure of
switch 89. Relay 16 completes its holding circuit
at switch 98B and likewise completes operating
circuits for the motor 11 and brake releasing
solenoid 8|. These circuits are automatically in
terrupted by the opening of switch 84 as the doors
reach the closed position.
In taking the vehicle from the garage, the above
described sequence of operation in opening and
closing the doors will be reversed. Manual switch
89 will be operated to open the doors. As the
vehicle passes over receiving coil 9, the actuation
of switch 33 will initiate .the door closing
operation.
In some cases, in orderv to insure positive opera—
tion of the switching relays 15 and 16 in response
to the momentary closure of the switch I8, I have
found it desirable to employ relay coils designed
for use with a substantially lower volt-age'than
the voltage employed for operating the closure
mechanism. Under such conditions, it is desir
able that provision be made for preventing ex
cessive heating of the coils due to sustained en
60
circuit in this case including a suitable resistance
the event that the switch I8 is closed during the
operating cycle of the control mechanism.
When the garage doors are open and the switch
84 is closed, a momentary closure of the switch
I8 energizes the relay 16 over a circuit includ 25
ing the line conductor 81, the conductor 88, the
switch I8, the conductor 99, the switch I88, the
conductor IN, the switch I82, the conductor I83,
winding of the relay 16, a conductor I81, the
switch 84 and circuit breaker I85 to line conduc
tor 85. Energization of the relay 16 completes
a holding circuit for the relay by way of the
switch 98*‘ and resistance I86 and interrupts the
initial energizing circuit at the switch I82.
The operating circuits for the motor 11 and 35
the brake solenoid M are completed by the re
lays 15 and 16 as previously described. Relay
15 closes the circuit for the motor at the switch
9I and closes the circuit for the brake solenoid
at switch 92. Corresponding circuits are closed 40
by the relay 16 at switches 9i“ and 92“, re
spectively.
4
It will be apparent that, with the circuit ar
rangement above described, a relay having a
winding of relatively low impedance may be used. 45
By reason of this low resistance, a comparative
l-y heavy current impulse will be produced upon
the momentary closure of the switch I8, thus
assuring positive operation of the relay. At the
same time, excessive heating of the relays is 50
prevented by providing for limiting the current
by which they are maintained in energized con
dition.
In the modi?ed control system, I have shown
the circuit breaker I85 interposed in one of the 55
line conductors over which current is supplied to
the switching elements of the control system.
While this circuit breaker may be of any suit
able type, I have illustrated a device of the heat
ing coil type embodying a switch I88 which is 60
normally held in a closed position by means of a
fusible element I89. Interposed in the line con
ergization at high voltage. A control system
adapted to employ relays of this character is
illustrated in Fig. 6 of the drawings. In this ?g
ure of the drawings, parts which correspond to ‘ ductor 85 is a resistance element II8 adapted to
those shown in the preferred system as illustrated
in Fig, 4 have been designated with corresponding
reference characters. The sensitive relay 6 and
the receiving coil 9 have been shown diagram
matically, but it will be understood that these
elements are similar in construction to those
shown in Fig. 4.
In the system disclosed in Fig. 6, the momen
tary closure of the switch III in response to a
signal received by the coil 9, energizes either the
relay 15 or 16 depending upon the position of
75 the switching device 82 as determined by the
be overheated by current ?ow therein and‘ ar
ranged so that, when heated for a predetermined 65
time, its temperature will be su?icient to fuse the
element I89. The switch I88 is thereby released
and opens to interrupt the supply of current to
relays‘15 and 16 thereby deenergizing the sys
tem. Preferably the various parts are so ar 70
ranged and constructed that the switch I88 will
be released only when excessive current is drawn
from the line for a considerable length of time.
It will be apparent from the foregoing that I
have provided an improved electrical control sys 75
6
2,118,980
tem for controlling garage door operating ‘mech
of a door or similar closure from a signalling
ianisms from a moving or stationary motor ve
hicle. The control system is extremely simple in
mechanism carried by a moving vehicle and oper
ative while the vehicle is'in motion or without
construction and relatively inexpensive to man
ufacture and install and at the same time is ef
accurately timing the actuation of the signal
?cient and dependable in operation. ‘ Moreover,
combination oi’, cooperating transmitting and re
ceiving coils disposed respectively on the vehicle
it employs a minimum number of parts subject
to wear and none whatever requiring periodic re
placement as is the case with systems employing
10 vacuum tube detectors or the like. Further, the
system employs low voltage electric current of a
predetermined, relatively low frequency for sig
nalling purposes which current can bereadily
generated by a simple interrupter or vibrating
15 device operating from the storage battery of
the motor vehicle and the operating mechanism
responds only to signals of the predetermined‘
frequency. Thus, opening or closing of the ga
rage doors by unauthorized persons, or false op
20
eration, due to stray electric currents, lightning
discharges, etc., is e?'ectually prevented.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a vehicle controlled door operating ap
paratus of the electromagnetic energy transfer
25 type for effecting the opening of a door or simi
lar closure from a signalling mechanism carried
by a moving vehicle and operative while the ve
hicle is in motion or without accurately timing
the actuation of the signal mechanism with the
30 progress of the vehicle, the combination of, co
operating transmitting and receiving coils dis—
posed respectively on the lower portion of the
vehicle and at a point in the path traversed
thereby, transmitting means on the vehicle for
35 exciting said transmitting coil with a low fre
quency interrupted current of a preselected ?xed
frequency, means operable at will for rendering
said transmitting means continuously operative '
for a relatively long cycle of operation, a closure
40 operating mechanism, and receiver means con
nected to said receiving coil for initiating ‘the
operation of said closure mechanism in response
to the electromagnetic induction in said receiving
coil of a voltage of predetermined minimum value
45 and of a predetermined frequency corresponding
to said ?xed frequency for even a small portion
of said cycle of operation of said transmitting
means as said transmitting coil passes over said
receiving coil.
2. An apparatus for effecting the operation of
50
a door or similar closure from a moving vehicle
comprising, in combination, a signal transmitter
carried by the vehicle and including a source of
low voltage direct current, a transmitting coil
55 on the lower portion of the vehicle and an inter
rupter for producing in said transmitting coil a
pulsating current of a predetermined low fre
quency, a receiving coil disposed in the path of
the vehicle when approaching _ or leaving the
sm having a
60 closure, a closure operating mec
control switch, and receiver means for actuating
said switch during a momentary association of
the transmitting and receiving coils in the travel
of the vehicle, said receiver means including a
relay having a vibrating armature operative to
close said switch only when the armature reaches
a predetermined maximum amplitude of vibra
tion in response to'the electromagnetic induction
in said receiving coil of a voltage of. predetermined
70 minimum value and of a ?xed frequency corre
mechanism with the progress of the vehicle, the
and at a point in the path traversed thereby,
transmitting means for exciting said transmitting
coil with a low frequency interrupted current 10
of a preselected ilxed frequency thereby to set up
a pulsating magnetic ?eld linking said receiving
coil as said transmitting coil passes closely ad
jacent the same, means operable at will to render
said transmitting means operative for a rela
tively long cycle of operation as the vehicle ap
proaches and passes said receiving coil, a closure
operating mechanism, a relay including a vibrat
ing armature member having a natural frequency
of vibration equal to said preselected ?xed fre 20
quency and an actuating winding for said relay
connected to said receiving coil for exerting a
pulsating magnetic force on said armature, means
providing a polarizing ?eld acting on said arma
ture to increase the sensitivity thereof, and means
including a pair of electrical contacts arranged to
be actuated by said armature only when it reaches
a predetermined maximum amplitude of vibra
tion in response to excitation thereof at its
natural frequency for initiating operation of said 30
closure mechanism, whereby said relay is effective
to operate said closure mechanism in response to
the electromagnetic induction in ‘said receiving
coil of a voltage of predetermined minimum value
and of said ?xed frequency for even a small por— 5 Si
tion of said cycle of operation of said transmitting
means.
4. In a sensitive signalling system for effect
ing the actuation of a closure operator from a
moving vehicle, the combination of, a multi-turn 40
receiving coil mounted stationarily in the path of
the vehicle, a frequency responsive relay having
an actuating winding connected to said receiving
coil, the respective impedances of said receiving
coil and actuating winding-being of the same order
of magnitude to insure a maximum energy. output
to said actuating winding, a closure operating
mechanism including an electric energizing cir
cuit arranged to be completed by said relay, a
transmitting coil carried by the vehicle and dis
posed for passage closely adjacent said receiving
coil as the vehicle progresses along its path, and
means for continuously exciting said transmitting
coil for a relatively long interval of time with an
interrupted current of the fixed frequency to
which said relay responds.
5. In a vehicle controlled closure operating sys
tem, a receiver embodying a multi-turn receiving
coil arranged for electromagnetic linkage with a
relatively moving transmitting coil, a frequency
60
responsive relay embodying a vibratory reed and
an actuating winding therefor connected to said
receiving coil, said winding being eifectve to move
said reed through a predetermined maximum
amplitude of movement only when excited with
a current of selected frequency, the impedance
of said receiving coil and actuating winding being
substantially equal, whereby maximum power is
supplied to said actuating winding, a closure
operating mechanism, and means for initiating 70
sponding to said predetermined frequency of the ' the operation of said closure operating mecha
current produced in the transmitting coil.
nism in response to said maximum amplitude
3. In an apparatus of‘ the electromagnetic vibration of said relay reed.
energy transfer type for effecting the opening
EDGAR D. LILJA.
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