Патент USA US2118947код для вставки
May 31, 11938. E, SCHWNE'K 2,118,947 ' CARBURETOR Filed Jan. 31, 1935 " I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 17722-02I,é'cka'manek ‘ INVENTOR BY If’ 2/ _ _ ATTORNEY May 31, 1938. - E. SCHIM'ANEK 2,118,947 CARBURETOR , Filed Jan. 31, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 l'mz'Zdohima/nek - ’ INVENTOR I 2,118,947 Patented May 31, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,118,947 I cannunn'roa ‘ Emil Schimanek, Muegyetem, Budapest, Hungary ' Application January 31, 1935, Serial No. 4,253 , ' In France February 1‘, 1934 10 Claims. (01. 261_—48) Object of the invention is a carburetor in which the ?oat chamber is replaced by a fuel pressure reduction regulator. Such a carburetor shall also comply with the demands which are 5 required of the carburetor in certain particular cases, especially in aviation which requires car buretors which warrant a regular fuel supply in all positions of the aircraft in the air and inde pendently of centrifugal forces and the like. 10 The carburetor according to the invention war-_ rants such a constant fuel supply to the fuel ori?ce or nozzle, whatever the conditions of ?ight and the pressure variations of the supplying source may be. 15 conical part 5a, according to the height-position of the piston ‘I. g A conduit 42' opens'into the upper part 41 of the channel at its‘ lower end adjacent the cali brated opening l2, which conduit communicates through openings 42 with the space 31 of the discharge passage 3. Further, the cylindrical part. 4_‘| ‘of the channel opens through its upper open end into the space 4| of the air inlet. The pressure reduction regulator is constructed 10. as follows: In the cylindrical part IS a tube-like slider I4 is slidably arranged and supported by two dia phragms l6 and It’, the surfaces of: which have The invention consists in that the fuel supply to a calibrated opening or nozzle of the carbu different areas. These diaphragms are fastened 15 retor is regulated by means of a movable mem body I. ber, such as for instance a slider, the movement The fuel is supplied by means of a pump or from a higher located reservoir or from a reser of which is determined by a system of two- mem 20 branes or diaphragms with different surface areas, which are subjected, on the one side, with their adjacent surfaces to the, preferably constant par tial vacuum on which the admission'of the air is dependent, and on, the ‘other side, to the con 25 stant pressure of the fuel. Fig. 1 shows the carburetor carried out accord ing to the invention in vertical section, and Fig. 2 a partial section through another modi?cation. The body I of the carburetor isprovided with 30 an air inlet 2, and a discharge passage 3 for the combustible mixture which is connected with the inlet of the motor. By means of the throttle valve 4, the power of the motor can be regulated. In the" upper part of the carburetor body a 35 cylinder 6 is arranged in which a piston ‘I is movable which is pushed downward by a spring III thus acting in the same direction as the weight of the piston. This piston 1, according to its in a bell-shaped lower part of the carburetor _ voir under pressure, through the conduit l3\to 20 the carburetor, via the cylindrical part l5 of the same, into the upper part 23 into which a con duit orchannel 19' opens at one end and termi nates' at its other end in a socket l3 serving as _ over-?ow for the fuel. ~ .25 As can. be seen from the drawing, .the slider Id, at the same time, governs the‘ fuel supply through the conduit l3 and the‘ out?ow of the surplus of the fuel through the conduit l3’. The length of the slider I4 is such that the fuel only 30 can ?ow through the conduit [3 and the opening 22 in the slider into the interior of .the slider and into the calibrated opening l2 when the ‘conduit l3’ to the over-?ow is shut off. At the lower end of the slider ‘M a cylinder 25 35 is arranged which is closed by a bottom 25a and in which a piston 26 with valve-?aps 21 is slid able. By thismeans a braking or damping for position in the cylinder 6, closes up more or less the movement of the needle system is provided. I 40 an opening H which forms the communication A'conduit 3la between the‘ sockets 3| connects 40 the space 32 between the two diaphragms with . between the space 31 of the combustible ~dis the space 39 between the cover of the cylinder 6 _ charge socket 3 and the space ll of the air inlet and the piston ‘I, while another conduit between 2. At the bottom of the piston l, a needle 5 is the sockets 35 and 36 establishes the communi attached in such ‘a manner that it is adjustable cation between the space 3'l beneath the larger 45 as to its height. This can be accomplished, for diaphragm l6’, and the space M of the air inlet instance, by screwing the‘ threaded end 8 of the 2. By reason of this construction there exists 'needle into a corresponding thread in the bot the same partial vacuum above the piston ‘I and _ tom of the piston and securing it by nut 9. The in the space 32 between the diaphragms, and the 50 needle 5 extends through a channel in the body , same-pressure below the piston ‘I, and below the 50 I of the carburetor which channel ,is provided larger diaphragm IS’. The ‘carburetor operates as follows: with two cylindrical enlargements l5 and 41 com municating with each other through a calibrated ' opening I2. The needle 5 passes through this 55 opening and closes it up more or less with its > When the motor is at rest the pressure in the space 32 between the two diaphragms is just the same as the pressure in the spaces 34 and 24, 55 2 2,118,947 below the larger and above the smaller dia phragms respectively, is equal to atmospheric pressure when the two diaphragms are in their position of rest as shown inaFig. 1. , _When the motor is running, the partial vacu um in the space 31, is communicated through the hole 35 to the space 39 over the piston ‘l whereupon the piston is raised, uncovering the opening II. to a corresponding extent so that the air can flow to the motor in the direction ' of the arrow 4|]. The difference between the pressures which exist, on the one'hand, in the space 38 above the piston 1 and, on the other hand, below the 15 piston ‘I, has just the required magnitude in order to balance the weight of the piston 1 aug mented by the pressure of the spring Ill and the weight of the parts connected to the piston. The pressure of the spring is substantially con 20 stant owing to a sufficiently-great number of windings which form the spring. Under these conditions the difference in pressure between the space 4|, on the one side, and the spaces 39, 31, on the other side, will be: constant, whatever 25 the load and the number of revolutions of the motor may be. Therefore, the air will always flow under the in?uence of the same pressure difference through the carburetor in the direc tion of the arrow ll. 30 35 ‘ mentioned above. ' When the motor comes to a standstill the par tial vacuum in the space 32 disappears; the slider sinks and, after having shut-off the fuel supply conduit, opens the over-?ow conduit l9’, whereby the space 23 is put under atmospheric ' pressure. The braking or damping cylinder 25 connected 10 to the diaphragm I6 has the following task: If the throttle valve 4 is rapidly opened the mo tor starts again, and the partial vacuum in the space '39 above the piston ‘I instantaneously rises. This increase of the partial vacuum tends to 15 suddenly lift the piston 1, ‘which movement the piston 26 (provided with valves) at the'lower end of the needle 5 tends to counteract in forc- 1 ing upwards thev fuel contained in the space 30. This pressure is transmittedto the upper cover 20 of the cylinder space 30- and effects the lifting thereof and therewith that of the slider ll, whereby, on the other hand, the opening of the fuel supply conduit l3 isfurther opened and, on the other hand, the pressure in the space 23 is raised. This has theeffect that a larger amount of the fuel passes through the calibrated opening l2, so that a very effective re-starting of the motor can be attained. When the load or the number of revolutions of the motor increases, the piston 'I will rise higher and higher, and a greater amount of air can flow through the carburetor under the same pressure-difference, that is with the'same ve locity. fuel is fed through the calibrated opening I 2 in consequence of the ‘constant pressure-difference , , The air takes the following two ways: firstly, . Such an effect of the piston 28 does not occur 30 if the piston moves downwards, because there by the valve-claps open entirely and the fuel can ?ow‘without resistance through the piston provided with the valves. ' Moreover, the braking which the piston ‘I, when sinking, experiences by the damping, one way through the pre-carbureting stage, by though only to a small extent, tends to force the which the air enters from the space H in they slider l4 downwards and to partially shut off direction of the arrow 43 into the interior of the central channel I‘! and mixes there, ?owing in the fuel supply conduit I 3, whereby the retarding the direction of the arrow 4,5, with the fuel com- . In the modi?cation of the carburetor accord ing to the invention shown in Fig. 2, the over ?ow conduit IQ’ of Fig. 1 has been omitted, and ing out of the calibrated opening;—and'second-' of the motor is favoured. 40 ly, another way in the direction of the arrow 4|,‘ by which the air from the space 4| mixes with the interruption of the fuel supply is effected by 45 the mixture coming through the openings 42 the needle by means of its particular formation, and thereby thoroughly whirls it through. vone portion 55 of the needle taking over the The velocity of the air current through the function of 'a clap ‘or a valve. This portion be channel 4'! may be regulated by changing the comes seated with its lower surface on a seat entrance-area of the same, .for instance by in 5| and thus shuts off the calibrated opening l2. 50 serting rings 48 with‘ different inner diameters. ' While the‘ motor is running the needle 5 is The fuel reaches by the following path the lifted and the valve portion 55 is raised from calibrated opening l2: The. partial vacuum in itsseat so that the fuel can ?ow through the the cylinder space 35 above the-piston ‘I is com opening II. The slider H, in this case, regulates municated through the conduit am to the space the fuelsupply solely through the conduit l3. 55 32 between the two diaphragms l6 and it’. 'Since It is to‘ be understood that modi?cations in the diaphragm I5’ is greater than the diaphragm particulars of the construction may be designed 65 ' IS, the slider I4 is lifted and thereby first closes the over~?ow conduit I 9' and then opens the fuel supply conduit l3 as soon as the holes 22 are in alignment therewith. The pressure of the fuel in the space 24 in creases till it preponderates, whereby the dia phragm I6" is pressed downwards so that the slider H tendsto shut off the fuel supply. There 65 upon a balance position of the slider ensues, whereby the fuel pressure is regulated to a con stant‘pressure which can be pre-determined. Under this constant pressure the fuel reaches the calibrated opening II at the other side of 70 which a partial vacuum exists, which has also a constant value. ‘ _ ' 0n starting the motor the level of the fuel rises to the height indicated at 49, correspond ing to the height of the over-?ow conduit l9. 75 As soon as the motor is normally 11.111111118- the without departing from the spirit of the inven tion. In particular, a throttle valve 4' may be placed in the air inlet 2 and either the valve 4 or the valve 4' may be omitted if desired. 60 .What I claim is: 1‘. In a carburetor for an internal combustion engine, an air inlet, a fuel inlet, a fuel cham ber, a mixing chamber, a nozzle between the fuel inlet and chamber, a device for regulating the fuel supply through said nozzle, said device - including diaphragms having pressure surfaces of different sizes to produce a differential ac tion, the diaphragm having the smaller size pres sure. surface being subjected 'on one side to the 70 pressure of the fuel in the fuel chamber and, forming a wall of said chamber and being sub jected on its other side to the partial vacuum set up by the engine. ‘ 2. A carburetor comprising a main housing 75 2,118,947 3 l chamber to the ,engine and a device for regu lower and intermediate compartments, one of said diaphragms having a larger pressure surface than the other diaphragm, .said upper compart lating the ?ow of fuel ,to said mixing chamber, ment ‘being in communication with the fuel having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, a fuel chamber, a mixing chamber, a passage from said ~mixing said device including a cylindrical casing on the chamber, said intermediate compartment being top of‘the housing, a tubular member adapted in communication with the engine passage and said lower compartment being in communication with the air inlet, mechanism for partially regu lating the flow of air and fuel to the engine pas sage including a chamber disposed between the 10 air inlet andengine passage and being in con stant communication with said passage, a piston to cut off communication between the fuel inlet and the fuel chamber, another cylinder carried on the lower end of the tubular member and in 10 communication with the fuel chamber, a piston in said ?rst cylinder under the influence of a spring in said cylinder chamber, a stem depend-‘ ing from said piston, another piston at the lower end of said stem movable in the second cylinder, 15 an auxiliary housing carried on the lower end of the main housing, spaced. diaphragms dividing said auxiliary housing into upper, lower and in termediate compartments, the upper compart ment being in communication with the fuel in let, the intermediate compartment being in com munication with the passage leading to the en gine and the lower compartment being in com munication with the air inlet, said diaphragms having pressure surfaces of different sizes where by they are actuated by varying pressure condi tions. , 3. In a carburetor, a main casing having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, a fuel chamber, a mixing chamber and an'outlet to the engine for the 80 mixture, a tubular member for controlling the flow of fuel to the mixing chamber, an auxiliary casing ?xed to the lower end of the main casing, spaced diaphragms ?xed to the tubular member dividing said latter easing into upper, lower and movable in said latter chamber and normally_ closing communication between the air inlet and engine passage, a spring loaded on said piston to keep it in normal position, a stem depending from said piston and extending into the air chamber below the larger diaphragm and adapt-, ed to curtail the flow of fuel to the mixing cham ber, a chamber formed in the lower end of the 20 movable tubular member and being in communi cation with -the fuel chamber, a piston on the lower end of said stem and movable in said last named chamber against the ?uid pressure for damping the movement of the ?rst piston. 25 6. .A carburetor comprising a body having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, a mixing chamber, a noz zle for the fuel, a fuel pressure regulating mem ber including a slider and spaced diaphragms having pressure surfaces of different sizes for 30 effecting the action of said slider, the movement of said diaphragms being influenced by the dif ference between the partial vacuum prevailing in the carburetor and atmospheric pressure, said ‘ member being adapted to keep constant the fuel partments being in communication with the air ‘pressure in front of the nozzle and means for inlet, another of said compartments being in varying said partial vacuum. communication with the suction side of the en 7. In" a carburetor," an air inlet, a fuel inlet, a gine, and another of said compartments being in ' mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed between the 40 communication with the fuel inlet and forming fuel inlet and chamber, a device for regulating part of the fuel chamber and a piston under the the fuel supply through said nozzle, said device including spaced diaphragms having pressure in?uence of the suction of the engine for par tially controlling the ?ow of air and fuel. surfaces of different sizes to produce a differ 4. In a carburetor, a main casing having an ential action, the pressure surfaces on one side 45 air inlet, a fuel inlet, a fuel chamber, a mixing of said diaphragms being subjected to partial chamber and an outlet to the engine for the vacuum, and one of said surfaces on the other mixture, a tubular member for controlling the side of oneof said diaphragms being subjected ?ow of fuel to the mixing chamber, an auxiliary to fuel pressure, the other of said diaphragms casing ?xed to the lower end of the main casing, being subjected on its opposite side to a pressure spaced diaphragms ?xed to the tubular member greater than the'pressure between said spaced , dividing said latter casing into upper, lower and diaphragms. 8. A ?oatless carburetor comprising an air in intermediate compartments, one of said com partments being in communication with the air let,,a fuel inlet, a nozzle for the fuel, a pressure inlet, another of said compartments being in regulating member for the fuel in front of said nozzle, an automatic throttling device disposed .communication'with the suction side of the en gine, and another of said compartments being in said air inlet and dividing said air inlet into two spaces, said throttling device being in?u in communication with the fuel inlet and form ing part of the fuel chamber, a piston under the enced on the one hand by the atmospheric pres-. in?uence of the suction side of the engine for sure prevailing in the space of the air inlet in partially controlling the ?ow of air and fuel and front of the throttling device and on the other means for damping the movement of said piston, hand by the under pressure prevailing in the said means including a piston on the lower end space of the air inlet behind said throttling de of the stem of the ?rst named‘ piston and movable vice caused- by the suction of the engine and intermediate compartments, one of said com in the fuel. ‘ ' ~ 5. A carburetor comprisinga main casing hav ing an air inlet, a fuel‘ inlet, a fuel chamber, a mixing chamber and a passage from said mixing chamber to the engine, an auxiliary casing ?xed to thebottom of the main casing, mechanism 70 for regulating the flow of fuel to the mixing chamber including a movable tubular member having openings adapted to align with the fuel 35. 40 45 - 50' 55 60 means for imparting said difference in pressure between said spaces to said pressure regulating 65 member for the fuel, said pressure regulating member being actuated by said pressure differ ence. , . 9. A ?oatless carburetor as claimed in claim‘ 8 in which the throttling device comprises a piston 70 acted upon on the one side by the atmospheric pressure prevailing in the space in front of the throttling device and on the other side by the inlet, a pair of pressure responsive‘ diaphragms ?xed to said tubular member at spaced intervals .under pressure prevailing in the space behind the a 75 75 for dividing said auxiliary casing into upper, throttling device and in addition thereto 4 2,118,947 constant spring pressure whereby a variation of the pressure difference on both sides of the piston causes the piston to throttle more or less the passage‘ between both said spaces thereby reestab lishing a constant pressure di?'erence in both said spaces. 10. A floatless carburetor according to claim 7 in which the device for regulating the fuel sup ply through the nozzle'is actuated by a constant 10 pressure diiference, said constant pressure dif ference being obtained by an automatic throt tling device disposed in the air inlet and dividing said air inlet into two spaces, said throttling de vice being influenced‘ on the one hand by the atmospheric pressure prevailing in the space of the air inlet in front of the throttling device and on the other hand by the under pressure prevail ing in the space of the air inlet behind said throt tling device caused by‘ the suction of the engine thereby keeping constant the difference between the pressures prevailing in the said spaces and means for imparting said constant pressure dif ference to said device for regulating the fuel 10 supply through said nozzle. EMIL SCHIMANEK.