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Патент USA US2118981

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May 31, 1938.
H. M. MUNCHERYAN
2,118,981
ELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBE
Filed July 3, 1936
INVENTOR.
Hrand
BY
j?urzclzer an
ATTORNEY
‘ Patented May 31, 1938
Fro
2,118,981
ELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBE
Hrand M. Muncheryan, Los Angeles, Calif.
Application July 3, 1936, Serial No. 883191,‘;
9 Claims.
(01. 176-122)
My invention relates to electric discharge tubes
adapted for illumination, recti?cation, and volt
wardly of the envelope for exhausting the en
velope of air and re?lling it with the required
age regulation which can be mounted and oper
gases. This tube has an opening 28 leading to?
the interior of the envelope, and its free end is
ated in an ordinary incandescent lamp socket.
It is a purpose of my invention to provide a
tube of this character which is capable of being
started and operated at voltages" corresponding
to the low operating voltages of incandescent
lamps.
10
A further purpose of my invention is the pro
vision of an electric discharge tube which, with
no increase in current consumption and at low
‘operating temperatures, produces illumination
of considerably greater intensity than is pos
15 sible with incandescent lamps, and of the same
radiant character as incandescent lamps.
It is also a purpose of my invention to provide
an electric discharge tube embodying electrodes
having electron-emitting chemicals which, dur
20 ing operation of the tube, partially decompose
and produce a gaseous medium having that
characteristic of producing radiant light of great
intensity and daylight in color, when ionized.
I will describe only one form of electric dis
25 charge tube embodying my invention, and will
then point out the novel features thereof in
claims.
In the accompanying drawing:
Fig. 1 is a view showing in longitudinal section‘
80 one form of electric discharge tube embodying
my invention.
Fig. 2 is a similar view taken at right angles
to Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken on the
35 line 3—3 of Fig. 1.
’
Fig. 4 is a view showing in detail perspective
the electro-conducting elements of the tube.
Referring now to the drawing, the tube in
no
cludes a transparent envelope l5 which is gen
erally similar to an incandescent lamp bulb. The
envelope is provided with a central glass stem l6
' through which pass leads I‘! and Ill.
The‘ en
velope is mounted in a standard base which in-~
cludes a threaded metal cup l9 ?lled with a body
45 of insulation 20, the lead I‘! passing through the
insulation and electrically connected to the .cup
in any convenient manner, as at 2|. The cup
has an open bottom closed by an insulating cap
22 and secured to this capby a tubular rivet 23
50 is a metal contact disk 24.
A lead 25 is secured
to and extends inwardly from the disk for con
nection to one terminal of a choke coil 26 sit
uated within the body 20. The other terminal
of the coil is connected to the lead l8. '
55
From the glass stem I6 a tube 21 passes out
sealed o? after the pumping process. Integral 5
with the inner end of the stem I6 is a bowl
shaped glass support 29 enclosing two electrodes
30 preferably, although not necessarily, of sub
stantially semi-circular form with their ?at sides
confronting. These electrodes are electrically 10
separated one from the other by a septum 3| of
insulating material which is preferably transpar
ent, such as mica.
The septum is of a width slightly less than the
internal diameter of the envelope, and of such a 15
length as to terminate short of the rounded end
of the envelope. It is supported in ?xed posi
tion by a pair of electro-conducting elements 32
and 33, in the form of metal strips arranged
centrally at opposite sides of the septum with
one of’ their ends extending between the elec
trodes 30 and spot-welded thereto so as to be
electrically connected therewith. The other ends
of the strips are bent in opposite directions
around the free end of the septum and spaced
from each other as shown.
The element strips are provided with integral
and lateral extensions 32“ and 33“, respectively,
bent and extended through slots 34 in the sep
tum 3|, so that the free ends of the extensions
of one strip are disposed at the opposite side of
the septum from that of the respective strip, and
in spaced relation to the other strip. Also, the
extensions of one strip are staggered with rela
tion to those of the other strip to provide inter
vening electric discharge gaps. It will be un
derstood that the gap between the terminals of
the strips which are bent around the end of the
septum also constitute an electrical discharge
gap
40
Thus it is now apparent that the two elec
tro-conducting elements 32 and 33 are electri
cally connected to the respective electrodes 30
and electrically disconnected from each other,
with discharge gaps along the length thereof
and at the free terminals thereof. Further, the
association of the strips and extensions with the
electrodes and septum, is such that the septum is
securely held in ?xed position within the enve
lope.
,
At the center of each electrode 30 is a recep
tacle 35 perforated or porous and of inverted cup
form. This receptacle is secured in the electrode
by screw-threading, indicated at 36, or in any
other suitable manner, and it contains a compo
50
2
2,118,981
sition 31 constituting a source of carbon dioxide,
as will be presently described. To the electrodes
30 are connected the leads I‘! and I8, respectively,
so that the receptacles and the compositions
therein constitute parts of the electrodes.
In practice, the envelope is adapted to be ?lled
with a mixture of neon, argon and carbon dioxide,
or any of the other inert rare gases in combina
tion with carbon dioxide. This mixture is con
10 tained in the envelope at a pressure of between 7
and 16 millimeters of mercury pressure, with a
preferred pressure of 9 millimeters. Preferably,
the gases are employed in the ratio of 60% neon,
10% argon, and 30% carbon dioxide.
The electrodes 30 are made of any suitable re
oxide, either of which are good- electron-emitting
materials.
'
In operation of the tube, a potential applied to
the electrodes momentarily establishes a starting
path for the discharge having a rising voltage
characteristic. This starting path includes the
coated elements 32 and 33 and their extensions,
the extensions and the free ends of the elements .
functioning as auxiliary electrodes, With alter
nating current applied to the tube, ?rst the ex
tensions of one element and then the other oper
ate as cathodes and anodes.
soon as a potential is applied a
appears simultaneously at each
element extensions, and as the
Accordingly, as
close ?tting glow
gap between the
current ?ow in 15
fractory metal such as copper, iron, or nickel, creases the glow spreads along the whole length
preferably copper; The copper is coated with any of the strips until eventually the current is trans
suitable electron-emitting substance such as a . ferred to the gaseous path between the electrodes,
mixture of thorium and zirconium compounds. and the function of the strips and extensions
I have found that 75% to 90% thorium oxide and ceases almost entirely. With transfer of current
10% to 25% zirconium oxide gives very satis
to the gaseous medium a running path from one
factory results.
.
electrode around the septum to the other elec
The receptacle 35 may be made of perforated trode is established having a falling voltage char
metal or carbon. In either event the composition
acteristic. Once this running path is completed
31 constituting the source of carbon dioxide pref
the positive luminous column is completed within
erably comprises barium carbide 20%, to 30%,
magnesium carbonate 50% to 60%, and lantha
num carbonate 20% to 30%, all mixed with a
binder of equal parts of sodium silicate and zir—
conium hydride.
_
By virtue of the many auxiliaryelectrodes thus
provided, and the large volume of electrons
emitted from the elements 32 and 33 and their
coatings 39, starting and further ionization of
'
carbonates are desirable because during the
operation of the tube the salt dissociates into the
element radical and carbonate radical. The
carbonate radical still further dissociates into car
bon dioxide and the remaining oxygen combining
with the element radical forms an oxide of that
element.
the envelope.
As the amount of carbon dioxide gas in '
_ the inert gaseous ?lling in the envelope is rapidly
effected to reduce the starting period and the
period of prolongation of the luminous column.
Carbon dioxide has been selected as constitut
ing a part of the gaseous ?lling because it pos
sesses that property when ionized of producing,
for all practical purposes, white light or day
the envelope decreases by use, the carbonate salts light, and, hence, a light which is radiant and of
thereby compensate, for this decrease by produc
great intensity. However, carbon dioxide is ioniz
40 ing carbon dioxide gas. As this cycle goes on,. able only at relatively high voltages, and hence,
carbon dioxide is constantly fed into the path of if used alone in a tube, the tube could not be oper
the discharge where it is utilized together with ated on 110 volt current in place of an incan
other gaseous matters in the production of light descent lamp. Therefore, to effect ionization of
in the envelope.
'
45
Barium carbide further decomposes into barium
and carbide radical which reacts with the oxygen
given off by carbonate radicals of magnesium and
lanthanum, and produces more carbon dioxide,
which is essentially utilized in the production of a
50 luminous column of light between the electrodes.
Zirconium hydride acts as dissociator of barium
carbide into barium and carbon, and also acts as
a catalyst in the formation of carbon dioxide of
this free carbon and the excess oxygen liberated
by the carbonate radicals.
carbon dioxide without increasing the potential
applied, it is mixed with one or more inert gases
which are ionizable at relatively low voltages.
Thus, through initial ionization of the inert
gases ionization of carbon dioxide is e?ected
without increasing the voltage beyond that neces
sary to ionize the inert gases.
'
My reason for selecting carbon dioxide is not
because it is the only chemical that possesses that
property of producing radiant light of great
luminosity when ionized, but because it is the
cheapest of known chemicals possessing this 55
Further, zirconium has the property of absorb- a property. Other related chemicals and anthra
ing a large quantity of carbon dioxide gas during quinone and its related group may be employed.
By reason of the auxiliary electrodes as de O
processing of the tube, as well as when the tube is
scribed above and the choke coil 26,‘sputtering
inactive. In the latter case, the absorption prop
erty of zirconium is utilized to reduce the number due to abnormal current density or ?uctuations
of carbon dioxide molecules in the envelope and at the electrodes during any interval of current
thereby facilitate ionization of the inert gases
when restarting the tube, thus rendering the car
bon dioxide as emitted from the composition more
easily ionizable.
The electro-conducting elements 32 and 33 and
their extensions are made of any metal having
that property ‘of emitting electrons when a poten
70 tial is applied thereto while coated with an alkali
earth metal. Cadmium, antimony and aluminum
are metals possessing this electron-emitting prop
erty, and preferably I employ aluminum. In the
drawing, 39 indicates the coating of an alkali
76 earth metal such as magnesium oxide or barium
alternation, is eliminated.
I claim:
1. An electric discharge tube, comprising; an '
envelope containing a gaseous ?lling; a pair of
electrodes mounted side by side within the en
velope; a septum of insulating material extend
ing between the electrodes; and electro-conduct
ing elements secured to the electrodes and em
bracing the septum for holding the latter in 70
?xed position within the envelope.
2. An electric discharge tube, comprising; an
envelope containing a gaseous ?lling; a pair of
electrodes mounted side by side within the en
velope; a septum of insulating material extending 75
2,118,981
3
element having parts extending through the sep
8. An electric discharge tube, comprising; an
envelope containing an inert gas; a pair of elec-;
trodes side by side within the envelope adjacent
one end thereof; each comprising a cupped body
tum and'spaced from the parts of the other ele
ment to form intervening gaps.
emitti'ng substance, and a porous receptacle ?xed
between the electrodes; and at least a pair of
electro-conducting elements on opposite sides of
the septum secured to the electrodes and each
3. An electrode for discharge tubes, compris
ing; a body of refractory metal coated with an
electron-emitting substance; a porous receptacle
10V of electro-conducting material; and a composi
tion in said receptacle comprising barium carbide,
magnesium carbonate and lanthanum carbonate.
4. An electrode for discharge tubes, compris
ing; a body of refractory metal coated with an
electron-emitting substance; a porous receptacle
of electro-conducting material; a composition in
said receptacle comprising barium carbide, mag
nesium carbonate and lanthanum carbonate; and
a binder comprising zirconium hydride and an
equal amount of sodium silicate.
5. An electrode for discharge tubes, compris
ing; a body of refractory metal coated with an
electron-emitting substance; a porous receptacle
of electro-conducting material; and a composi
tion in said receptacle comprising 20% to 30%
barium carbide, 50% to 60% magnesium carbon
ate, and 20% to 30% lanthanum carbonate.
6. In an electric discharge tube, a pair of elec
trodes; a septum of insulating material between
30 the electrodes; elements on opposite sides of the
septum electrically connected to the electrodes
and electrically disconnected from each other,
each of said elements being constructed of alu
minum coated with magnesium oxide.
7. In an electric discharge tube; a septum of
insulating material having slots therein; and a
pair of electro-conducting elements at opposite
sides of the septum having lateral extensions,
the extensions of one element being extended
through certain of the slots and the extensions of
the other element being extended through the
remaining slots and spaced from the extensions
of the ?rst element to provide intervening gaps.
of a refractory metal coated with an electron
centrally within the body and containing carbon
ates for producing carbon dioxide gas in the en
velope; a slotted septum of insulating material
having one end between the electrode bodies and
the other end spaced from the other end of the
envelope; a pair of electro-conducting strips at
opposite sides of the septum having one of their
ends secured to the electrode bodies and the other
of their ends extended around the free end of the
septum; angular extensions on said strips pro
jecting through the slots of the septum and co
acting with each other and the strips to secure
the septum in fixed position within the tube and
to form gaps between the strips and extensions;
and a coating of electro-emitting material on the
strips and extensions.
9. An electric discharge tube, comprising; an
envelope containing an inert gas; a pair of elec
trodes side by side within the envelope adjacent
one end thereof; each comprising a cupped body
10
15
20
25
of a refractory metal coated with an electron
emitting substance, and a porous receptacle ?xed
centrally within the body and containing car
bonates for producing carbon dioxide gas in the
envelope; a slotted septum of insulating mate
rial having one end between the electrode bodies
and the other end spaced from the other end of
the envelope; a pair of electro-conducting strips
at opposite sides of the septum having one of 35
their ends secured to the electrode bodies and the
other of their ends extended around the free end
of the septum; and extensions on said strips pro
jecting through the slots of the septum and co
acting with each other and the strips to secure 40
the septum in ?xed position within the tube and
to form gaps between the strips and extensions.
HRAND M. MUNCHERYAN.
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