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Патент USA US2119007

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May 31, 1938.
2,119,007
G_ DALEN
OIL BURNING APPARATUS
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed July 13, 1935
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BY
I
INVENTOR.
W 49.44.’,
.
ilk ATTORNEY.
Patented May 31, 1938
2,119,007
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,119,007
OIL BURNING APPARATUS
Gustaf, Dalén, Lidinga. Sweden, assignor to
Svenska Aktiebolaget Gasaccumulator, Stock
holm, Sweden, a corporation of Sweden‘
Application July 13, 1935, Serial No. 31,196 '
In Sweden July 20,1934
21 Claims.
The present invention relates to oil burning
apparatus and has particular reference to oil
burners for burning hydro-carbon fuel vapor pro
(Cl. 158-89)
which as a .rule approaches the temperature of
combustion in the upper portions of the burner,
the variation of the speci?c weight of the gases is
duced from relatively heavy hydro-carbon fuels.
even more pronounced on the oil' vapor side of
Still more particularly the invention relates to oil
burners of the kind in which one or more perfo
the burner wall. In ‘addition to this, the‘ drop in
pressure due to the work of acceleration expended
' rated walls, usually in the form 'of cylindrical
tubes, separate air and fuel vapor chambers and
in which. the air passes through the perforations
10 of the walls to form a combustible gas mixture in
on the combustion gases, for which there is no
corresponding amount of work on the air side of
the burner wall, tends to produce a still larger
variation in the pressure differential.
10
With previous types of burners it has there
,
In burners of this kind, combustion occurs in fore proved to be impossible to keep the pressure.
the form of a series of independent ?ames each ' difference constant over the entire height of the
localized at one of the perforations in the wall burner. If.’ the pressure differential is normal
structure and heretofore such burners have been for proper combustion at the center of the height
subject to unsatisfactory operation because of _ a of the burner wall, then the ?ames formed in the
number of factors among which the following are upper part of the burner become incandescent
the fuel chamber.
important. Hydro-carbon oil vapors break down
and soot forming because of too high air velocity.
by “cracking” at a temperature of around 1,000°
‘while in the lower part of the burner the pressure
of the air may not exceed the pressure of the 20
fuel vapor ‘and may even be less, in which event
there may be flow of fuel vapor into the air cham
ber which is exactly thereverse of what is de~
sired. The last mentioned phenomena are more
C. When this occurs, free carbon is formed
which usually occurs as soot and the ?ame be
comes incandescent. Such operation should be
avoided and combustion should therefore take
place at a temperature below 1,000" C.
The temperature of combustion is however ' pronounced the higher the rate of fuel con
among other things dependent upon the velocity sumption is in a given burner. In burners where
of the air entering the mass of oil vapor. The the oil vapor is produced by vaporization caused
higher the velocity of the air, the higher the by some of the heat that is produced by the .
temperature of combustion tends to become and burner, the vaporizing surface or surfaces are
the greater the tendency to form free carbon. - usually in the lower part of the burner and re 30
From experiment it has been found that air ceive most of the heat from the ?ame or flames
velocities up to‘about thirty centimeters per produced in this part of the burner. The more
second are most suitable for the combustion of fuel there is supplied to the burner, the more
heat must be supplied to the vaporizing surfaces
pure oil vapor formed from ordinary crude or
fuel oil. In order to accelerate the entering from the lower ?ames of the burner. However,
for reasons pointed out above, the conditions ob
air to this maximum velocity requires a pressure
taining at high burner capacity are likelyto
differential corresponding to about ?ve milli
cause the ?ames in the lower part of the burner
meters of air. Additional pressure correspond
ing to possibly a fraction of a millimeter may be to diminish or even go out, just at the time when
required to overcome friction in the air inlet they are most required. Such action leads to 40
incomplete vaporization and to the formation of
ori?ces but this is so small that it may for prac
tical purposes be neglected. In order to secure coke in the vaporizing apparatus to such an ex
the best results, the pressure differential should tent as to render continued operation of the
also be substantially constant over the entire .burner impossible.
It is the general object of the present inven
45 height of the burner.
tion to improve upon burner constructions of the
As burners of the character under considera
tion have heretofore been constructed, this is character under discussion so as to provide for
however not the‘ case.
In the ?rst place, the
comparatively cold oil vapor in the lower portion
of a vapor chamber is much more dense than
the air, while the combustion products in the
upper portion of the burner, which products may
be rich in water vapor, are of less density than
the air.» In the second place, because of the
55 high temperature of the products of combustion
proper combustion over the entire active area
of the burner, regardless of they variations in
the rate at which fuel is supplied ‘to the burner. 50
A further object is to provide improved burner
structure of the character described which will‘
insure adequate combustion and an adequate"
supply of heat in the lower portion of the burner
_ for maintaining vaporizing apparatus at proper 55
2
2,119,007 a
vaporizing temperature. It is a further object
of the invention to provide improved burner struc
ture whereby the rates of combustion at dif
generally at A is provided with a lower base mem
ber Hi having a burner portion I 2 of generally
circular cross section providing a recess I4 from
ferent places or in different zones along the. the bottom of which there extends upwardly a
height of the burner may be controlled in a pre ' short circular flange l6. Adjacent the burner
determined manner so as to produce the desired portion of the base member an extension is pro
relative amounts of heat in the different zones. vided which forms a vaporizer l8 consisting of a
The foregoing objects and other and more de
tailed objects which will appear as this descrip
tion proceeds are obtained by constructing the
burner apparatus in accordance with the fol
lowing general principles. The difference in
vaporizing chamber 20 and a vaporizing surface
22, the chamber 20 being in communication‘ with
the recess l4 by way of passage 24.
v10
Extending upwardly from the base member is
a plurality of burner tubes which will be de
pressure between the gases in the combustion scribed more in detail later. Above the burner
zone of the burner and the surrounding air is tubes there is located the heat receiving member
15 many times greater than is required for forcing,
26 adapted to be heated by the gases of combus
the air into the combustion chamber at the maxi
tion produced in the burner. In the form shown,
mum rate desirable. Heretofore the air for com
this member is a hollow casting providing a com
bustion has been'regulated by throttling the con
bustion gas space 28 and water heating spaces
duit between the outside air and the air chamber 30, the space 28 being in communication with a
of the burner in order to decrease the pressure ?ue opening 32 and water being admitted to and
in the air chamber to a suitable value. In ac-v withdrawnfrom the spaces 30 by means of pipes 20
cordance with the present invention, the air sup
34 and 36 respectively.
ply is throttled individually for the various parts
Liquid fuel is supplied to the vaporizer at a
or sections of the burner in accordance with the‘ suitably controlled rate in known manner from
25 character of the pressure differential ordinarily fuel supply means indicated generally at‘ 38, the
25
existing in the parts of the burner. Such throt
fuel ?owing through passage 40 and dropping to
tling is however not effected by reducing the area the vaporizing surface from the. feeding member
of the burner perforations or ori?ces where such 42. Advantageously a restricted quantity of air,
ori?ces communicate with the vapor or combus
30 tion chamber as this would result either in a de
insu?icient to form a combustible gas mixture in
the vaporizing chamber, is supplied through
30
?ciency of air for combustion or to a penetrative pipe 44.
.
velocity of the air which would exceed the per
The upper portion of the burner structure and
missible maximum.
' the heat receiving member 26 are preferably sur
Accordingly the burner is divided into several rounded by a mass of insulating material indi-'
35 sections each of which ordinarily includes a rela
cated generally at 46, there being an air cham
tively large number of individual perforations but
which, insofar as the principle of the invention
is concerned, may comprise as few as a single
perforation per section. In order to obtain the
40 desired control of the air the arrangement is
made such that the air for each section must
?ow serially ?rst through a series. of throttling
ori?ces which determine the quantity of air sup
plied and then through a second series of ori?ces
45 the combined area of which is sufficiently larger
ber 48 surrounding the outer burner tube. The
lower end of the chamber 48 is in communication
with chamber 50 within the apparatus which
chamber is provided with an air inlet 52. The
lower or base member of the burner, including
the structure forming the vaporizing chamber is
enclosed in a mass of insulating material 46a and
the passage inside of the ?ange I6 is placed in
communication with the atmosphere by means of
the air inlet pipe 53 which is in communication
45
_ than the combined area of the first series of
with chamber 50 and the air inlet 52.
ori?ces so that the desired maximum velocity of
Turning now more particularly to Figs. 2 and
the air entering the combustion space is not ex
3 of the drawings, the burner wall structure com
ceeded. Preferably the latter series of ori?ces prises two sets of perforated tubes, one set of
are
the
perforations
in
the
burner
wall
at
which
50'
which forms an inner burner wall indicated gen
combustion takes place.
7
,
erally at B and the other set of which forms an 50
For a better understanding of the details of outer burner wall C. The space inside the inner
the nature of the invention and the advantages burner wall B is in communication at its lower
to be derived from its use, reference may best be end with the air inlet pipe 53 and constitutes an
55. had to the ensuing description of embodiments air space for supplying air to the fuel vapor space
of apparatus suitable for carrying the invention 54 which is also the combustion space of the
into effect, and ‘illustrated in the accompanying burner. The space 48 provides a second air
drawings forming a part of this speci?cation. space for supplying air to the combustion space
In the drawings:
_
54 through the outer wall of the burner.
80
Fig. 1 is a more or less diagrammatic vertical
The inner burner wall B is formed inthe pres
section, partly in elevation, of a domestic hot ent embodiment by an inner perforated tube 56 so
water heater equipped with a burner embodying and an outer perforated tube 58, the latter tube
the invention;
resting at its lower end on the base ?ange I6.
Fig. 2 is a view partly in section and partly in
The two tubes are concentric and spaced apart
65 elevation and on a larger scale of part of the
and the construction is such that the burner wall
burner apparatus shown in Fig. 1;
formed by the tubes is divided into a plurality
Fig. 3 is a view partly in section and partly in of separate sections along the height of the wall.
elevation of the outer burner wall structure In the present embodiment, the division of the
70
shown in Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is an elevation, partly in section, showing
a slightly different form of burner construction;
and -
Fig. 5 is a sectional view showing still another
form of burner-wall construction.
76
Referring now to Fig. 1, the burner indicated
burner )wall into sections is accomplished by in
wardly extending ridges 60 pressed at intervals 70
into the outer tube 58 and contacting the inner
tube 56. Obviously the outer tube may be made
cylindrical and the ridges pressed outwardly from
the surface of the inner tube to obtain the same
effect.
76
3
2,119,007
The outer burner wall construction is similar
to the inner wall construction and comprises. an
the burner will be seriously diminished and in
inner tube 62 and an outer tube 64, each of the
tubes being perforated and the burner wall being
part of the burner.
divided into a number of- sections by means of
spaced inwardly projecting ridges 86 pressed,
from the outer tube.
I
Assuming the burner to be in operation, the
combustion action is as follows:
10
Substantially pure fuel vapor unmixed with
su?icient air to support combustion ?ows under
the in?uence of the draft from the vaporizing
chamber 20 through the passage 24 to the an
nular space provided in the recess 14 of the base
15 member which is outside of .the inner burner
wall and which is in effect a continuation of the
combustion space formed by the passage 54 be
tween the bumer walls. Air, which is drawn
in by the draft through the perforations in the
20 tubes in the inner burn'er wall mixes with the
fuel vapor and forms an ignitible mixture which
extreme cases combustion may even cease in this
.
'
In order to. overcome this condition, I provide
different areas for flow of air in different por
tions of the burner wall structure so that in each
section of the burner the air is throttled to the
degree required to provide proper combustion, '
while at the same time excessive velocity of the
air entering the combustion space due to such 10
throttling is avoided.
To this end, in'the em- -
bodiment illustrated, the inner tube 56 of the in
her wall B and the outer tube 54 of the outer wall
C are constructed as throttling tubes the perfora
tions in which govern the amount of air passing
through the walls, while the outer tube 58 of the -
inner wall and the inner tube 62 of the outer wall
are each constructed as burner tubes the per
forations in which are of greater total area than
the perforations in the throttling tubes, so as to 20
reduce the velocity of the air entering the com
burns in a series of separate ?ames in the ori?ces
or perforations in the burner tube 58. The heat
bustion space.
duction to the vaporizing surface of the vaporizer.
If the burner is being operated at minimum‘
capacity, the quantity of fuel vapor will'be mixed
with air and burned by the time a level is reached
which should be approximately that of the lower
end of the outer burner wall C. The gases of
combustion thus formed will flow upwardly
through the combustion chamber space, being
obtain a ?xed inlet velocity of the entering air
over “the height of the burner, the ratio of the
‘
If we assume that the area of the perforations
generated by the ?ames in the lower part of the ,in the burner tubes per unit area of these tubes
25 burner opposite the wall of the base member is constant, it will .be evident that the area of the 25
forming the recess I4 is largely absorbed by the , perforations in the throttling tubes must be less
per unit area of the latter tubes. Moreover to.
metal of this member and transmitted by con
mixed'in their passage with additional excess air
which enters through the ~ perforations lying
above those where active combustion takes place.
If the quantity of fuel fed to the burner is in
40 creased, the level of the active flame front rises
in the combustion space ‘as unburned fuel vapor
progressively reaches higher and higher levels in
the burner and is there mixed with the air neces
sary for combustion at the perforations in both
45 the inner and the outer burner walls. At maxi
mum capacity, the ?ame front should be at ‘the
top of the burner.
With an arrangement such as this, there should
be combustion at substantially constant rate in
50 the lower portion of the burner, thus insuringv
delivery of sui?cient heat to the vaporizer to
maintain it at proper vaporizing temperature
under all conditions.
Constant and proper combustion in the various
55 parts of the burner might be easily obtained if
area of the perforations per unit area in the
burner tubes to the area of the perforations per
unit area in the throttling tubes should be con
stant over the height of the burner, whereas the
total area of perforations per section of the
burner wall should be less the greater the pres
sure difference. existing at the section.
A ?xed inlet velocity over the entire height of
the burner is however not always desirable.
On
account of the combustion taking place in the
lower portion of the burner, the unburned oil 40
vapor in the upper portion of the burner is diluted
by combustion gases and is consequently less
dense than in the lower portion. As previously
noted, the maximum entering air velocity 'desir
able for air mixing with pure fuel vapor is about 45
1 30 centimeters per second; _A somewhat higher
velocity is required for the entering air mixing
with diluted vapor in order to obtain a constant
combustion temperature.
In the top part of a
burner of the kind herein disclosed the entering
air velocity may be as high as 50 centimeters per
second. Therefore where higher velocity is de
sired at the upper ‘part of the burner the con
stant relationship of the area of the burner tube
perforations to the area of the throttling tube
the pressure conditions governing the ?ow of
combustion air to the several partsof the burner
perforations mayvbe altered to provide propor
remained-constant under different burner operat
burner tubes or a larger proportional area of
ing conditions. This, however, is not the case “and
perforations in the throttling tubes.
60 as previously explained I overcome the difliculties
tionately smaller area- of perforations in the
Also in some cases, it may be desirable to con
due to the conditions normally arising by dividing
trol the combustion over the height of the burner
the burner walls into different sections to which
the combustion air is admitted in different man-
in a pre-determined manner so that at maximum -
ner. If we suppose for the moment that the per
65 forations in the burner walls are uniform
throughout and so proportioned that proper
combustion is obtained at the lower perforations
of the burner when the burner is operating at
minimum capacity such operation can readily be
70 obtained with such uniform perforations. If
however with such construction the rate of com
bustion is increased then the changes in pressure
along the height of the burner which accompany
such change in rate of operation are such that
75 the rate of combustion in the lower portion'oi‘
60
capacity combustion takes place at ahigher rate
in both the lower and upper portions of the bur
ner than at the middle portion of the burner. In
a construction such as that illustrated this may
be desirable in order to provide su?icient heat
at the lower part of the burner to insure proper
operation of the vaporizing apparatus and to
provide the generation of the greater portion of 70
the heat for the heat requiring parts at a place as
closely-adjacent to such parts as possible. The
reason for the latter is that the loss of heat by
convection to the surroundings of the burner is
less, the nearer they place of combustion to the
Cl
4
2,1 19,007
place of heat utilization. In this sort of arrange
the outer throttling tube 04, two rows of throttling‘
ment the total area of perforations per section
of burner wall should be less at the center of the
perforations ‘llv with perforations 2.2 mm. in
diameter, spaced peripherally 14.8 mm. communi
cate with each of the lower sections 1 and k.~
.Three- rows of throttling orifices communicate 5
burner than at the upper and lower ends thereof.
vIn order to illustrate the foregoing, I will give
the characteristic features of an actual example
of practical burner construction built in accord- -
ance ‘with the invention.
Referring now more particularly to Figs. 2 and
10 3, the throttling tube 56 of the‘ inner burner wall
has a diameter of 44 mm. and a height of 329
mm. The burner tube 58 of the inner burner wall
has a diameter of 49 mm. and a height of 342
mm. The burner tube is'provided with burner
15 perforations or ori?ces 68 which are uniformly
‘spaced from top to bottom of the tube. The per
forations 68 are 2.2 mm. in diameter arranged
with each of sections 1, m and n, the perfora
tions in these latter rows being spaced peripher
ally 18 mm. It will therefore be evident that, as
in the inner burner wall construction, the burner
tube provides a constant area for flow of air 10
per unit height of the burner while the compensa
tion required for difference in pressure is provided
by'a greater degree of throttling per unit area of
the burner wall at the upper portion of the burner
than at the lower portion.
_
15
As previously noted, it may be desirable to dis
tribute the combustion occurring at maximum
in rows spaced vertically 8 mm. apart, with the capacity so that more heat is ‘generated at the
perforations in each row spaced 6 mm. apart top and bottom of the burner than in the middle.
'20 peripherally.
This result may be obtained by a burner construc 20
The ridges 60 in the inner burner ‘tube 58 ' tion as illustrated in Fig. 4 in which for ‘example
divide the space between the two tubes of the in sections f’ and g’ of the inner burner wall
wall into a series of separate sections a, b, c,'d, e, there are fewer perforations per unit area of the
j, g, h and z‘. Sections a to d inclusive each in
sections, both in the burner tube and the throt
25 clude two rows of burner holes, section e includes
tling tube, then in the sections h and i above.
four rows, sections 1', g and-h each include eight The same relationship also is advantageously 25
rows and section i includes five rows.
employed with respect to the total number of
The throttling tube 56 of the inner burner wall perforations in the sections 1' and m’ of the outer
is provided with throttling ori?ces or perforations burner wall as compared with section n.
30 10, also 2.2 mm. in diameter and arranged in
It is not essential in order to carry the inven 30
, rows so that one row communicates with each
tion into effect to make the burner walls hollow
of the sections a to d inclusive. The perforations - as in the embodiments previously described. . If
in these rows are spaced peripherally 7.4 mm. a solid burner wall of relatively heavy cross sec
apart.
Two rows of throttling perforations ‘l0
85 communicate with the section e, perforations in
one row being placed peripherally 7.4 mm. and
the perforations in the remaining row being
spaced peripherally 19.3 mm. Sections 1‘, a and h
each have communicating therewith three rows
40
of throttling perforations spaced peripherally
19.3 mm. and section 2‘ has two rows of throttling
perforations of this latter spacing.
It will be evident that in this embodiment the
area for ?ow of air through the burner tube
is constant per unit area over the height of the
burner. The desired balancing of air flow
through the burner wall~at different heights in
the burner is accomplished by variations in the
spacing of the throttling perforations. It will
be evident that in this instance we have a con
struction where the throttling tube controls the
rate of air flowat different heights by providing
fewer throttling perforations, and consequently
greater throttling effect, for the upper sections
CI :1
than for the lower sections. The least throttling
is effected for the sections a to d inclusive which
sections may be said to represent the zone of com
bustion providing vaporizing heat as distinguished
60
from the zone represented by sections such as
g and h, which provide heat for external use.
The outer burner wall construction is generally
similar to the inner construction. In this wall the
burner tube 62 is 71 mm. in diameter‘ and 270
mm. in height. The ridges‘iiii in the throttling
tube 64 are spaced to divide the wall‘ structure
into separate Sections :i, k, l, m_ and n. The bur
ner tube 62 is provided with perforations ‘l2 uni
formly spaced through the height of the burner.»
These perforations are 2.2 mm. in diameter, the
vertical and peripheral spacing of the perforations
being the same as for the inner burner tube 56.
Each of the lower sections :i and It has four rows
of burner perforations ‘l2 communicating there
with while the three upper sections Z, m and 11.
each have eight rows of burner perforations. In
tion of wall thickness is employed, the same‘gen
eral effect may be obtained by utilizing conical 35
or similar air passages of increasing cross section
area from the air side of the burner wall to the
combustion chamber side of the wall. Such a
construction is illustrated more‘ or less diagram
matically in Fig. 5 in which the ‘channels 1'6 in 40
the inner burner wall B’ provide throttling per
forations 10' of relatively small diameter com
municating with burner perforations 68' of rela
tively large diameter. The outer burner wall C’
is similarly constructed with channels 18 provid 45
ing small throttling perforations H’ on the air
side of the wall and larger burner perforations 12'
on the combustion chamber side of the wall.
As in the embodiments previously described, the
throttling effect desired in order to compensate
for different pressure differences at different
heights in the burner is obtained by varying the
distribution of the throttling perforations over
the height’ of the burner in accordance with the
50
principles previously discused.
From the foregoing it will be evident that the
broad concept of the invention may be carried
out in a variety of diiferent specific embodiments
of apparatus and invention is accordingly to be
considered as embracing all forms of apparatus 60
falling within the scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
' 1. In a fuel burner of the kind in which a per
forated partition wall separates a combustion
space, to the lower portionpf which fuel vapor is
admitted, from an air space from which combus-'
tion air flows to the combustion space through
the perforations in the wall, an upwardly extend~
ing partition wall construction comprising two
spaced plates and means for dividing the space 70
between the plates into a plurality of separate
sections one above the other, each of said plates _
having a plurality of perforations therein and
the total area of the perforations for each section
of the plate on the c6mbustion space side of the 75
2,119,007
‘ wall being greater than the total area of the per
forations for each section of the remaining plate.
in communication with the air space than the
total area of the perforations in communication
with the combustion space and said channels be
2. In a fuel burner, a hollow partition wall
separating the combustion space of the burner ing distributed to provide a greater total area for
from the source of air supply having a series of flow of air through the wall per unit area of the
separate sections one above another, a series of wall in the lower portion of the burner ‘than in the
perforations for flow of air from the interior of upper portion of the burner.
9. In a fuel burner, spaced upwardly extend
the several sections to the combustion space of
the burner, and a series of perforations for ?ow ing inner and outer burner wall structures pro
viding therebetween an annular combustion
10 of air from the source of air supply to the interior
space, there being air spaces for combustion air
of the several sections of the wall, the. last men
tioned series of perforations having a less total outside the outer wall structure and inside the
area for each section than the first mentioned inner wall structure, means for causing ‘a col
umn of gaseous fuel having insumcient oxygen
' series.
3. In a fuel burner having a combustion space to be combustible to flow upwardly in said com 15
15
and an air space, a burner wall separating said bustion space, said wall structures being per-‘
‘ spaces comprising two spaced burner tubes and
means dividing the space between the tubes into a
plurality of separate wall sections one above an
20 other, each of said tubes being perforated and the
perforations communicating with said air space
being of less total area than_ the total area of the
perforations communicating with said combus
tion space.
25
4. In a fuel burner having a combustion space
and an air space, a burner wall separating said
spaces comprising two spaced burner tubes and.
means dividing the space between the tubes into
a plurality of separate wall sections one above
another, each of said tubes being perforated, the
forated to provide paths for flow of combustion
air- from the air spaces to the combustion space
and the total area of the outlets of said paths
for ?ow of air into said combustion space from 20
said wall structure being greater than the total
area available for flow of air from one of said
‘air spaces through said paths to said outlets.
10. In a fuel burner, an upwardly extending
burner wall separating a combustion space on
one side of the wall from an air space on the
opposite side of the wall and means for causing
a body of gaseous fuel having insufficient oxygen '
to support combustion to flow upwardly in said
combustion space adjacent to one-face of the
totalarea of the perforations providing communi-‘ wall,'said wall being perforated to provide paths
cation between said air space and each wall sec
tion being less than the total area of the per
forations providing communication between the
;' same wall section and said combustion space.
5. In a fuel burner, two spaced and concentric
burner walls, each of said walls comprising spaced
inner and outer burner tubes and means for
dividing the space between the tubes of each wall
40 into a plurality of separate wall sections one above
another, each of said tubes being perforated, and
the total area of perforations per section in one
of the tubes of each wall being different from
the total area of the perforations in the same sec
tion of the other tube of the same wall.
6. In a fuel burner, an inner tubular burner
wall, an outer tubular burner wall concentric
with and spaced from said inner wall to provide
a combustion space between the two walls, means
for admitting fuel vapor to the lower portion of
said combustion space, means for admitting corn
bustion air to the space surrounding said outer
wall and to the space surrounded by said inner
wall, each of said walls comprising spaced inner
- and outer perforated burner tubes, the perfora
tions in the outer tube of the outer wall and the
inner tube of the inner wall having less total area
for ?ow of air therethrough than the perforations
in the inner tube of the outer wall and the outer
60
tube of the inner wall.
.
,
_
7. In a fuel burner, a perforated partition wall
for separating a combustion space from an air
space, said wall having a series of channels ex,
tending through the material of the wall, said
65 channels increasing in cross sectional area from
the air space side of the wall to the combustion
chamber side of the wall to provide perforations
having a total area for ?ow of air from the air
space less than total area of the perforations to
for flow of air through the wall from said air ,
space to said combustion space, the total area of
the outlets of said paths for ?ow of air into said
combustion space from said wall being greater
than the total area available for ?ow of air from
said air space through said paths to said outlets
and the‘ relation between the values of said areas
per unit area of the wall being different at dif
ferent levels to compensate for the difference be 40
tween the pressure of the air in said air space
and of the gases in the combustion space at such
different levels.
11. In a fuel burner, an upwardly extending
hollow burner wall separating a combustion space 45
on one side of the wall from an air space on the
opposite side of the wall and means for causing‘
a body of gaseous fuel having insu?icient oxy
gen to support combustion to flow upwardly in
said combustion space adjacent one face of said 50
wall, the'iinterior space of said hollow wall be
ing divided into a plurality of separated sections
one above another and said wall being perforated
for flow of air from the air space to the combus
tion space through‘ said sections, the total area 55
of the perforations in communication with the
air space being less than the total area of the
perforations in communication with the combus
tion space and the relation of the total area of
the first mentionedperforations to the total area
cf the second mentioned perforations in differ
ent sections beingdi?erent to compensate for
the difference between the pressures in the air
space and in the combustion space at the levels
of different sections.
1
12. In a fuel burner, a perforated burner wall
structure separating an air space from a com
bustion space to the lower portion of which fuel
vapor is admitted, said wall structure being di
vided‘ into a plurality of sections, one above an
70 flow of air to the combustion space.
8. In a fuel burner, a perforated partition wall
other and providing paths therethrough for ?ow
for separating an air space from a combustion
space, said partition wall having a series of gen
of air from said air space to said combustion
space, the outlet area of said paths for ?ow of
erally conical channels extending therethrough
75 providing perforations having a smaller total area
70
air from said wall structure into said combus- '
tion space being different in different sections
6
2,119,007
and such outlet area in each section being greater
than the area for ?ow of air from said air space
through said paths to the outlets‘ in the same
section.
13. In a fuel burner, a perforated burner wall
structure separating an air space from a com
bustion space to the lower portion of which fuel
vapor is admitted, said wall structure being di
vided into a plurality of sections, one above an
10 other and providing paths therethrough for flow
of air from said air space to said combustion
space, the relative area of the outlet area for ?ow
of air from said wall structure into said combus
tion space with respect to the area for flow of
15 air from said air space through said paths to
the outlets thereof being different in different
sections and said outlet area being relatively
greater for a section where the pressure differ
ence between said .air space and said combustion
20 space is relatively greater than for a section
where such pressure difference is less.
14. 'In a fuel burner, a perforated burner wall
structure separating an air space from a com
bustion space to the lower portion of which fuel
25 vapor is admitted, said wall structure being di
vided into a plurality of sections, one above an
other and providing paths therethrough for flow
area of the perforations in the corresponding
portion of the remaining plate.
17. In a fuel burner of the kind in which a per
forated partition wall separates a combustion
space, to the lower portion of which fuel is admit- I
ted, from an air space from which combustion
air flows to the combustion space through the
perforations in the wall, an upwardly extending
partition wall construction comprising two
spaced plates and means for dividing the space 10
between the plates into a plurality of separate
sections one above another, each of saidv
plates having a plurality of perforations there
in and in at least one of the lower sections the
combined area in such section of the perforations 15
in the plate on the combustion space side of the ,
wall being greater than the combined area in
such .section of the perforations in the remain
ing plate.
_
.
18. In a fuel burner having a combustion space 20
and an air space, a burner wall separating said
spaces comprising two spaced burner tubes and
means dividing the space between the tubes into
a plurality of separate wall sections one above
another, each of said tubes being perforated and 25
the perforations providing communication be
tween the interior of at least one of the sections
' of air from said air space to said'combustion ' in the lower portion of the burner and said air
space, the outlet area of said paths for ?ow ‘of
30 air from said wall structure into said combustion
space being greater per unit area of the wall
structure in the lower and upper portions of the
wall than in the middle portion thereof, and the
outlet area of said paths for flow of air from said
35 wall structure into said combustion space in a
lower one of said sections being greater than the
area for ?ow of air from said air space through
said paths to the outlets in the last mentioned
section.
40
‘
'
15. In a fuel-burner a vaporizer for vaporizing
liquid fuel to produce fuel vapor, a perforated
burner wall separating an air space from a com
bustion space to the lower portion of which fuel
vapor is admitted from said vaporizer, said va
45 porizer being in good heat conducting relation
with the combustion space adjacent to the lower
portion of said wall structure, said wall structure
providing paths for flow of air therethrough
from said air space to said combustion space, the
area for such ?ow per unit area of said wall
space being of less total area than the total area
of the perforations providing communication be 30
tween the interior of the last mentioned section
and said combustion space.
'19. In a fuel burner, a perforated burner wall
structure separating an air space from a com
bustion space to which fuel vapor is admitted, 35
said wall structure providing paths therethrough
for flow of air from said air space to said com
bustion space, and the total area of the outlets
of said paths for ?ow of air into said combustion
space from said wall structure being greater than 40
the total area available for ?ow of air from said
air space through said paths to said outlets.
20.v In a fuel burner, a perforated burner wall
structure separating an air space from a combus
tion space to the lower portion of which fuel va
por. is admitted, said wall structure providing
paths therethrough for ?ow of air from said air
space to said combustion space and the total area
of the outlets of said paths for flow of air into said
combustion space from said wall structure in the 50
structure being greater in the lower wall portion ‘ lower portion of the burner being greater than
of the wall structure than above such lower the total area available for flow of air from-said
portion, and the outlet area of said paths for air space through said paths to said outlets in
flow of air from said wall structure into said said lower portion of the burner.
55 combustion space being greater than the area for
21. In a fuel burner, a perforated burner wall
flow of air from said air space through said paths structure separating an air space from a combus
to the outlets thereof in the lower portion of the tion space to the lower portion of which fuel va
burner.
.
'
por is admitted,‘ said wall structure being di
16. In a fuel burner of the kind in which a vided into a plurality of sections, one above an
60 perforated partition wall separates a combustion
other and providing paths therethrough for ?ow 60
space, to the lower portion of which fuel is ad.
of' air from said air space to said combustion
mitted, from an air space from which combus
space, the total area of the- outlets of said paths
tion air flows to the combustion space through for ?ow of air into said combustion space from
the perforations in the wall, an upwardly ex
tending partition wall construction comprising
at least one of said sections in the lower portion
of the burner being greater than the total area
available for flow of air from said air space
two spaced plates, each of said plates having a
plurality of perforations therein and the com
through the paths of ?ow communicating with
bined area of the perforations in the lower por-. the outlets in the same section.
tion of the plate/on the combustion space side
70 of the wall beinggreater than the combined
GUSTAF DALEN.
70
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