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Патент USA US2119127

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May 31, 1938.
2,119,127
w. H. CARRIER ET AL
VENTILATING AND CONDITIONING SYSTEM
Filed April 5, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet l
I
J.
INVENTORS.
WILL/.5 H. CAPE/E1? m
BY
fog/v H. Homo/v,
AAM OZ.)
ATTORNEY.
May 31, 1938.
w. H. CARRIER El‘ AL
‘ 2,119,127
VENTILATING AND CONDITIONING SYSTEM
Filed April 5, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
mg. 2.
40
10
1 Q2
//5
l_______
INVENTORS.‘
WILL/6 H. CARP/E/émvo
fox-,w. H, HOLTQN/
ATTORNEY.
2,119,121
Patented May 31, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
' 2,119,127
VENTILATING AND oonnmomc
srs'rsu
~
Willis H. Carrier, Essex Fells, and John H. Hol
ton, Maplewood, N. 1., assignors, by mesne as
signments, to Carrier Corporation, Newark,
. N. J., a corporation of Delaware
Application April 5, 1935, Serial No. 14,812
3 Claim.
(01. 98-38)
This invention relates to air conditioning, and
more particularly to a method of and means for
{positively ventilating conditioned enclosures.
_
5
In the art of conditioning enclosures, it is
general practice to recondition and recirculate
air withdrawn from the enclosure, adding to the
recirculated air a quantity of fresh air su?lcient
to meet the physiological requirements of the
occupants, to prevent the atmosphere of the en
10 closure from becoming vitiated and odoriferous,
and to compensate for air losses through doors,
windows and the like. Under certain conditions,
however, systems heretofore in use have failed to
add the requisite quantity of fresh air to the re
15 circulated air, the atmosphere of the enclosure
becoming unhealthy and unpleasant in conse
quence.
The rate of air ?ow established by a fan,
blower or other draft device is determined in part
by the static pressures existing on the intake and
exhaust sides of the device. Thus, when a fan
moves air from a point on the intake side of the
fan to a point on the exhaust side of the fan, it
will move a greater volume of air per unit time
if the static pressures at both points.are the
same than if the static pressure of the point on
provide a system of and means for ventilating
and conditioning an enclosure assuringa positive
supply of outdoor air to the enclosure to be con
ditioned.
,_
It is another object of the invention to draw‘ 5
gases from two sources of supply in substantially
constant volumetric ratio, notwithstanding var
iations in the static pressures of said sources
of supply.
a
‘
It is another object of the invention to with
10
draw a volume of air from an enclosure to be
conditioned, to add thereto a desired volume of
~fresh air and to discharge the resultant mixture
into the enclosure.
Still another object of the invention is to pro 15
vide means for supplying fresh or outdoor air
from a single point of supply to a plurality of
conditioning units positioned in and/or serving
a plurality oi’ enclosures.
A further object of the invention is to provide 20
an air conditioning and ventilating system with
which desired atmospheric conditions within an
enclosure may be obtained at all times, and
which will be relatively simple, practical, e?icient
25
and inexpensive.
A feature of the invention resides in the-pro
the intake side is below that of the point on the . vision of a fresh air fan in combination with a
exhaust side. So also, a fan device which draws
separate volumes of air from two sources of sup
ply at thesame static pressure will continue to
30
draw such air volumes in ?xed proportion only
so long as the static pressures at the sources re
main unchanged; if the static pressure of one
source of supply should fall, the fan would draw
less air from that source, a correspondingly
greater amount of air being drawn from the
other source of supply. If it be assumed that a
fan device supplying air to an enclosure draws air
from within the enclosure and from outside the
enclosure in desired proportions, it will be ap
4 parent that any fall in the outside static pres
sure will cause an unbalanced condition in which
an insufficient quantity of outside air is supplied
to the enclosure.
Such a condition of unbalance might obtain,
for example, when the wind blows against a build
ing, the fresh air intake being on the sheltered or
leeward side thereof, for it is well known that
an area of negative pressure is developed on the
leeward side of an obstruction to the rapid ?ow
80 also, a condition of unbalance of out
door and indoor static pressures results from
50 of air.
‘ "stack effect", whenever the indoor air is warmer
or colder than the outside air.
55
It is the general object of the invention to
return air fan, said fans cooperating to supply
to an enclosure a mixture of fresh and return
air in substantially fixed proportions at all times. 30
A feature of the invention resides in drawing air
from an area of substantially constant static
pressure, drawing other air from an area of var
iable static pressure, mixing the air drawn from
each of said areas to form a mixture of sub
stantially constant proportions, and supplying
the mixture to an enclosure.
-
A further feature of the invention resides in
the introduction of fresh air into the condition
ing unit at a point beyond the return air fans, 40
and in such a manner that substantially all of
the fresh air is subjected to the conditioning
action of the unit.
Still another feature of the invention resides
in the provision of sound-absorbing means in
combination with the fresh air fan, wher'eby quiet
operation of the apparatus is assured.
Other objects and features of the invention, in
cluding advantages in design, construction and
operation, will be apparent from the following 50
description, to be read in connection with the ac
companying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view, partly in
section, of one form of the invention, showing
the conditioning unit and the i'resh air intake
2
-
2,119,127
unit, and the general assembly of the units with
in a decorative outer casing;
Fig. 2 is a section through the conditioning
unit, taken on the line 2.—2 of Fig. 1, showing
the return air intake and the fresh air distribut
ing duct :
Fig. 3 is a section through the fresh air intake
unit, taken on the line 3--3 of Fig. 1, illustrating
the manner in which the unit may be connected
to a partially opened window;
Fig. 4 illustrates an alternative form of the
invention in which a two-stage ventilating fan
is utilized.
‘
Referring now to the drawings, and consider
ing particularly Figs. 1-3, t- e numeral .lll desig
nates generally a casing housing the conditioning
unit Ii and the fresh air intake unit I2. Fans
ll of the unit II are suitably driven, as by motor
ll, and draw air from the enclosure through the
grille l5 of the casing Ill and through a filter I5
of any desired type, discharging it upwardly
through the unit.
When humidi?cation is re
quired, water is fed to nozzle I‘! through supply
pipe l8 and is impinged against target I9, where
by it is distributed throughout the unit as ?ne
spray, readily to be taken up by air passing
through the unit. Plates 45 serve to distribute
the recirculated air throughout the unit and to
prevent the drainage of excess spray water into
the fan scrolls. Such water collects in the chan
nels 46 of plates 45 and is delivered to sump 23.
Partition 28, extending throughout the length
of the unit ll, divides the upper part of the unit
into two passageways. In one of these are posi
tioned the conditioning coils 2| , of the ?nned or
other desired type, which may be supplied with
refrigerant during the warmer periods of the
year, or with steam, hot water or the like for
heating during the colder periods of the year.
If desired, of course, separate heating coils and
cooling coils may be provided. In the other pas
sageway are positioned the eliminator plates 22,
the function of which is to remove entrained
spray water from air passing therethrough. Such
water, or water condensed from the air by coils
2| when cooling and dehumidi?cation are effect
ed, falls into sump 23, whence it may be disposed
of in any desired manner, as by drainage through
outlet 24. Dampers 25 control the proportions of
air passing through the conditioning coils and
through the bypass.
.
of the unit l2. The air then passes through the
sound-absorbing baiiie arrangement to the rear
of unit I2, and is discharged into connecting‘
duct 34.
From duct 34, the fresh ‘air passes into dis
tributing duct 35 in unit ll. As illustrated, this
distributing duct has a‘ discharge opening 35 ex
tending substantially throughout the length of
unit II. It is to-be noted that the fresh air is
introduced into unit || above the recirculated air
fans l8. These fans, then, are not required to
handle b.
return and fresh air, as in the con
ventional unit, but return air only. Thus, the
total volume of air passing through the unit II
to the enclosure is not that handled by the
fans | 3 alone, but that handled by the fans l3
and the fan 30, so that the total air capacity of
the unit II is increased.
Generally, the return air is more nearly suit
able for distribution to the enclosure, and re—
quires less conditioning, than the fresh air. It
is generally desirable, therefore, that practically
all of the fresh air be conditioned, whereas part
of the return air may be bypassed around the
heat exchanger coils. Accordingly, in the pre
ferred arrangement illustrated, the opening 38
is located under coils 2| so that substantially all
of the air ?owing through the opening is directed
in contact with the coils 2 I , except in the extreme
case when the dampers 25 are closed. In this
arrangement, substantially all of the air ?owing
through the bypass is return air.
Dampers 25 are pivotally mounted and adapted
to swing from a horizontal position to a position
approaching vertical. When the dampers 25 are
in a horizontal position, they cover the heat ex
change coils 2|, and prevent air from passing
through the passageway in which the-coils are
situated. When the dampers 25 are in this hori
zontal position, substantially all of the air pass
ing through the unit (both fresh and return air)
passes through the chamber in which plates 22
are situated.
When the dampers 25 are swung
upwardly, they permit the passage of air through
the passageway having coils 2|. When the right
hand damper 25, (as seen in Fig. 2) is raised to
its maximum position, it permits maximum air
flow through coils 2| , and cuts off air ?ow through
plates 22. Intermediate positions of the right
hand damper 25 cause desired portions of the
total air handled by the unit to pass in contact
Fresh air is supplied to the unit |2 through
the duct 25. The outdoor opening of this duct
may be positioned in accordance with engineer
ing expedience. For purposes of illustration, the
duct is shown connected to a partially opened
window 21 in the wall 28 of the enclosure. The
fresh air is drawn in through duct 28 and
through ?lter 28, as by the fan 38, driven by
coils 2|, while the room air discharged by the
fan |3, passes partly through the plates 22 and
motor 3|.
partly through the coils 2|.
1
The function of the fan 3|! is to provide a posi
tive supply of fresh air to the enclosure, not
withstanding such di?erence in static pressure
as may exist between the enclosure and the out
doors. Accordingly, fan 30 is designed 'to run at
comparatively high speeds, in order that it may
overcome a relatively low outdoor static pressure.
High speed fans are noisy in operation, however.
Thus, applicant provides a sound absorbing sys
tem in the .base of unit |2 to deaden the sound
of the fans.
The sound absorber consists of a
series of ?bre ballies 32, in-the ‘sealed casing of
the unit l2, which provide a tortuous path for
the air. De?ector plates 33 distribute the air
discharged by the fan 30 throughout the width
through the coils 2|, and through the plates 22.
Ordinarily, the dampers 25 are so adjusted that
air ?ows through both the coils 2| and the plates
22. Because the fresh air duct 35 opens directly
under the coils 2|, substantially all of the air
issuing from duct 35 passes upwardly through the .
Should the outdoor static pressure approximate
or become greater than that of the enclosure, or
should the wall 28 be on the windward rather
than on the leeward side of the enclosure, fan
3|) would tend to supply an excessive quantity
of fresh air to the enclosure. As provision
against such oversupply, applicant places in duct
26 a self-regulating draft check 31, comprising a
vane portion 38 and a counterweight portion 39.
As air passes into duct 26 at an excessive rate, ‘70
the pressure on the vane 38 tends to swing the
vane shut, thus restricting the passageway and
reducing the flow of air through the duct. When
the pressure is relieved, counterweight 39 swings
the vane open.
3
172,110,127
It will be seen, therefore, that applicant pro
vides for the supply of a substantially ?xed
amount of fresh air to the unit H, regardless of
the static pressure or wind conditions outdoors.
The fresh air is mixed in’ the unit II with the
return air in predetermined proportions, and the
mixture, suitably conditioned, is discharged into
the enclosure through the grille 40. A damper
may be provided in the fresh air intake for vary
10 ing the fresh air supply.
As illustrated and described, the ventilating and
conditioning units are housed in the same cas
ing. It will be understood, however, that the
outer casing I0 is merely decorative and, if
ll desired, may be dispensed with. Further, the
two units need not be adjacent each other, but,
if desired, may be positioned in diil'erent parts
of the enclosureor building served. Again, the
above method of operation and in the construc:
tions set forth, which embody the invention, may
be made without departing from its scope. it is
intended that all matter contained in the above
description or shown in the accompanying draw
ings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not
in a limiting sense.
We claim:
1. In an air conditioning apparatus, a ?rst
passage, conditioning means in said ?rst passage, 10
3. second passage adjacent said ?rst passage,
means including a duct below said ?rst passage
and running substantially lengthwise thereof for
routing a ?rst volume of fresh air through said
?rst passage only, in contact with said condi 15
‘ tioning means, and means for supplying a sec
ond‘ volume of return air to said second passage,
and means for supplying said ?rst and second
unit I2 may be designed to serve a plurality of air volumes to an enclosure served by the appa
20
conditioning units H. Thus, duct “a, shown, ratus.
2. In an air conditioning unit, a casing, means
in dot and dash lines inFig. 1, may convey fresh
air to another conditioning unit remote from within the casing for forming within the casing
the unit l2 illustrated, or to a series of remote a ?rst passageway and a second passageway,
heat exchange means in said ?rst passageway,
conditioning units.
means for drawing air from a ?rst source and 25
In the alternative form of the invention illus
for routing said air through said ?rst passage
trated in Fig. 4, the high speed fan 30 is re
way exclusively, means for/drawing air from
placed by a two-stage fan 4| comprising sec
tions ‘la and lib. The static pressure built up another source and routing said last mentioned
by a fan is a function of the speed of the fan. air through said ?rst and second passageways,
Static pressure, however, may be built up in and means for supplying to the enclosure served
steps. Therefore, the two fan sections‘ Ma and by the unit air from said ?rst and second pas
sageways.
lib, in staged or successive operation, while run
3. In an air conditioning apparatus, a ?rst
ning at a speed considerably less than that of
the fan 3|), can draw in as much air against passage, conditioning means in said ?rst pas
a reduced outdoor static pressure as the single sage, a second passage adjacent said ?rst pas 35
stagev high speed fan 30. The fan 4| may be sage, means including a duct below said ?rst pas
designed to operate at the same speed as the sage and running substantially lengthwise there
fan I3, handling recirculated air. In' such case, of for routing a ?rst volume of fresh air through
motor [4 may serve to drive both the fresh air said ?rst passage only, in contact with said con
ditioning means, means for supplying a second 40
40 and recirculated air fans, and motor ‘3| may be
dispensed with. Further, when fan sections Ila volume of return air to said second passage and
and llb operate at reduced speed, they produce said ?rst passage, and means for supplying said
only a slight amount of noise, negligible in most ?rst and second air volumes to an enclosure
applications. Thus, the sound absorber arrange
ment of Figs. 1 and 3 may also be eliminated.
served by the apparatus.
Since certain changes in carrying out. the
WILLIS H. CARRIER.
‘JOHN H. HOLTON.
DISCLAIMER
2,119,I_27.—-Willis H. Carrier, Essex Fells, and John H. Holton, Maplewood, N. J.
'
VENTILATING AND CONDITIONING SYSTEM.
Patent dated May 31, 1938.
Disclaimer ?led September 30, 1939, by the assignee, Carrier Corporation.
Hereby enters this disclaimer to claim 2 of said speci?cation, except as relating to
a unit comprising two adjacent horizontally extending passageways through each _
> of which air is caused to ?ow in a vertical direction, the air circulated through said
?rst passageway by-Eassingsaid second passageway, and the air passing through sa1d
second passageway y-passing said ?rst passageway, onl one of said passageways
containmg heat exchange means for thermal treatment 0 air circulated through said
unit.
[O?ic'ial Gazette October 24, 1939.]
3
172,110,127
It will be seen, therefore, that applicant pro
vides for the supply of a substantially ?xed
amount of fresh air to the unit H, regardless of
the static pressure or wind conditions outdoors.
The fresh air is mixed in’ the unit II with the
return air in predetermined proportions, and the
mixture, suitably conditioned, is discharged into
the enclosure through the grille 40. A damper
may be provided in the fresh air intake for vary
10 ing the fresh air supply.
As illustrated and described, the ventilating and
conditioning units are housed in the same cas
ing. It will be understood, however, that the
outer casing I0 is merely decorative and, if
ll desired, may be dispensed with. Further, the
two units need not be adjacent each other, but,
if desired, may be positioned in diil'erent parts
of the enclosureor building served. Again, the
above method of operation and in the construc:
tions set forth, which embody the invention, may
be made without departing from its scope. it is
intended that all matter contained in the above
description or shown in the accompanying draw
ings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not
in a limiting sense.
We claim:
1. In an air conditioning apparatus, a ?rst
passage, conditioning means in said ?rst passage, 10
3. second passage adjacent said ?rst passage,
means including a duct below said ?rst passage
and running substantially lengthwise thereof for
routing a ?rst volume of fresh air through said
?rst passage only, in contact with said condi 15
‘ tioning means, and means for supplying a sec
ond‘ volume of return air to said second passage,
and means for supplying said ?rst and second
unit I2 may be designed to serve a plurality of air volumes to an enclosure served by the appa
20
conditioning units H. Thus, duct “a, shown, ratus.
2. In an air conditioning unit, a casing, means
in dot and dash lines inFig. 1, may convey fresh
air to another conditioning unit remote from within the casing for forming within the casing
the unit l2 illustrated, or to a series of remote a ?rst passageway and a second passageway,
heat exchange means in said ?rst passageway,
conditioning units.
means for drawing air from a ?rst source and 25
In the alternative form of the invention illus
for routing said air through said ?rst passage
trated in Fig. 4, the high speed fan 30 is re
way exclusively, means for/drawing air from
placed by a two-stage fan 4| comprising sec
tions ‘la and lib. The static pressure built up another source and routing said last mentioned
by a fan is a function of the speed of the fan. air through said ?rst and second passageways,
Static pressure, however, may be built up in and means for supplying to the enclosure served
steps. Therefore, the two fan sections‘ Ma and by the unit air from said ?rst and second pas
sageways.
lib, in staged or successive operation, while run
3. In an air conditioning apparatus, a ?rst
ning at a speed considerably less than that of
the fan 3|), can draw in as much air against passage, conditioning means in said ?rst pas
a reduced outdoor static pressure as the single sage, a second passage adjacent said ?rst pas 35
stagev high speed fan 30. The fan 4| may be sage, means including a duct below said ?rst pas
designed to operate at the same speed as the sage and running substantially lengthwise there
fan I3, handling recirculated air. In' such case, of for routing a ?rst volume of fresh air through
motor [4 may serve to drive both the fresh air said ?rst passage only, in contact with said con
ditioning means, means for supplying a second 40
40 and recirculated air fans, and motor ‘3| may be
dispensed with. Further, when fan sections Ila volume of return air to said second passage and
and llb operate at reduced speed, they produce said ?rst passage, and means for supplying said
only a slight amount of noise, negligible in most ?rst and second air volumes to an enclosure
applications. Thus, the sound absorber arrange
ment of Figs. 1 and 3 may also be eliminated.
served by the apparatus.
Since certain changes in carrying out. the
WILLIS H. CARRIER.
‘JOHN H. HOLTON.
DISCLAIMER
2,119,I_27.—-Willis H. Carrier, Essex Fells, and John H. Holton, Maplewood, N. J.
'
VENTILATING AND CONDITIONING SYSTEM.
Patent dated May 31, 1938.
Disclaimer ?led September 30, 1939, by the assignee, Carrier Corporation.
Hereby enters this disclaimer to claim 2 of said speci?cation, except as relating to
a unit comprising two adjacent horizontally extending passageways through each _
> of which air is caused to ?ow in a vertical direction, the air circulated through said
?rst passageway by-Eassingsaid second passageway, and the air passing through sa1d
second passageway y-passing said ?rst passageway, onl one of said passageways
containmg heat exchange means for thermal treatment 0 air circulated through said
unit.
[O?ic'ial Gazette October 24, 1939.]
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