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Патент USA US2119142

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May 31, 1938.
M. SHENK
2,119,142
WINDMILL
Filed Oct. 16, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet l
- INVENTOR.
May 31, 1938.
2,119,142
M. SHENK
WINDMILL
Filed Oct. 16, 1933
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
24
19
44—
9
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19
68
19;
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24
$
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=
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MM
2,119,142
Patented May 31, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,119,142
WINDMILL
Mendel Shenk, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Application October 16, 1933, Serial No. 693,701
10 Claims.
(Cl. 170—23)
This application is in the large part a substitute
for the abandoned application, of March 24, 1931,
Serial Number 524,988.
My invention relates to windmills of the rotary
5 type.
The main object of my invention is to provide
a windmill, that is capable of developing con
siderable more power, than the power developed
by existing windmills.
Another object .of my invention is to provide
10
towers utilized for holding a connection or span,
and the connecting ‘means between the towers
arranged to hold the upper bearing of a vertical
shaft.
A further object of my invention is to provide a
vertically arranged shaft carrying a framework of
multangular formation, adapted to pivot a
multiple of independent vanes, and means for
automatically ‘maintaining the vanes in certain
illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and
described hereinafter, wherein similar numerals
refer to like parts throughout the several views,
and in some ?gures only one or two of similar
parts are numbered, in which:
,
'5
Figure 1 is an elevation of the whole structure
of the windmill, and shows the different positions
of the vanes.
‘
Figure 2 isv a plan of the whole structure of the
windmill, and shows the different positions of all 10
the vanes.
,
Figure 3, a plan view of Figure 4, is a detail
illustrating the means of connecting the spokes
and the outer supporting wires with the frame
ring or hoop, and is the basis for some other ‘15 I
things, as set forth.
Figure 4 is a side elevation of Figure 3.
vFigurer5 is a side elevation of Figures 6 and 7,
fastened together, for holding the inner support
angular positionsfor the rotation of the mill.
A still further object of my invention is to pro
ing wires, tie wires, spokes, the take-ups of the 20
vide a windmill with vanes so pivoted, ‘that they
will position themselves quickly, and bring to a
providing the tubular pivots for the bearings‘of
minimum counter-balancing of all kinds.
One feature of my invention consists in a wind
mill with a vertically driven shaft carrying a
Figure 6 is a plan of the bottom part of Figure 5,
which is a'means for holding the inner supporting 25
wires and all the other wires, which intersect
means, utilized for controlling the vanes, and
the vanes.
plurality of concentrically arranged, vertically
at this point.
pivoted vanes, and a plurality of superimposed
horizontally pivoted and axially arranged vanes.
Another feature of my invention consists in the
arrangement of the vanes pivoted in spaced rela
Figure 7 is a top view of the upper half fastened
to that of Figure 6.
Figure 8 is a side elevation of the vertical vanes. ‘30
Figure 9 is a front elevational view of one of
tion to each other, in such a ‘manner as to enable
the vanes to utilize the full energy of the wind.
the vertical vanes.
One unique feature of my invention consists
in the provision of a windmill having a vertically
driven rotor, that is suitably connected to shaft
ing adapted to drive mechanisms heavier, than
that of the existing windmills.
One of the advantages of my invention consists
40 in the unique arrangement of the framework of
the rotor, and the arrangement of the vanes piv
oted thereon.
Another advantage of my invention consists in
the arrangement and means utilized for auto
“ matically controlling the position of the vertically
pivoted vanes.
Still another advantage of my invention con
sists in the means utilized for holding the ‘frame
work, tie rods or wires, securely, and their con
nections to the rotating shaft.
One of ‘the most important ‘advantages of my
invention consists in providing a windmill having
a vertically driven shaft with a unique form of
"stopping means.
'
p
I attain these objects preferably ‘by ‘the means
Figure 10 is a diagrammatic view illustrating
the means utilized for balancing the folded hori
zontal vanes 12 and the means for taking up the '35
slack of their vane controllers.
Figure 11 is a plan of a folded vane controller.
Figure 12 is a diagrammatic view of the stop
ping mechanism No. 1.
Figure 13 is a plan illustrating, how the con- 40
necting ropes are connected to the spool. '
Figure 14 shows the connection of the hori
zontally pivoted vanes 14, with the spool of Fig
ure 13.
.
Figure 15 is a modi?ed diagrammatic View 45
illustrating the different positions of the verti
cal vanes during the operation of the device on :a
miniature size.
. '
‘ Figure 16 is a diagrammatic plan, illustrating
the means utilized for taking up the slack of ‘the ‘50
vane controllers during thev movement of the
vanes
I6.
1
Figure 17 is an elevation ‘of a shield forlthe
:pulley of Figure 16.
-
'
.
The ‘windmill, as illustrated in Figures 1 ‘and 2, ‘55
2
2,119,142
“consists of a pair of structural towers A and A1,
having a cross framework or bridge B with a
safe passageway near the top, and a building C
between the towers.
The bridge B carries a system of rollers I, into
which the upper end of the rotatable shaft E
is ?tted, and the lower end of the shaft passing
through an opening in the top of the building C,
is ?tted into a floating bearing 2.
Upon this shaft, preferably of a tubular for
mation, are arranged a plurality of discs 3,
adapted to hold a plurality of wires or spokes
4 of su?icient strength that are connected to a
plurality of connectors 5, as shown detailed in
15 the enlarged Figures 3 and 4, which in their
turn connect a plurality of tubular elements 6,
shown in Figure 2, forming a multangular hoop
of the rotor D.
Said wires or spokes 4 are arranged in pairs.
20 One end of each wire is fastened to‘ the opposite
sides of the periphery of the disc 3, and the other
ends of both the wires are fastened to one con
nector 5, thus giving this frame the stability of a
wheel, and allowing, besides, a considerable in
25 crease of its diameter. (Figure 2.)
Such multangular frames are arranged hori
zontally, and are ?ve in number, shown in Fig
ure 1, one above the other; but they can be more
or less, if desired.
30
As this number of multangular frames makes
the shaft E unusually long, and this shaft can
not be made too thick and heavy, therefore, at
both ends of the shaft E additional discs 'I and
‘I1 are set up, which are connected with strong
35 stay wires 8 and 81 to the connectors 5 of the
outer two multangular frames, at the top and
bottom of the rotor D.
These connectors in their turn are intercon
nected with the aligned connectors 5 of all the
inner multangular frames, by vertical reinforc
ing or supporting wires 9 of su?icient strength,
thussecuring the shaft E against dangerous vi
' brations, which may result in its bending or even
breaking, and at the same time it protects also
45 the frames of the rotor against dangerous Vi
brations, especially during a storm, which may
twist and even break parts of the rotor structure.
Additonal stay wires may connect the con
nectors 5 and the discs 3 higher up if desired.
Within these multangular frames, the tie wires
I8 are connected together to the carrier spokes
or wires 4, by means of connectors II, shown in
Figures 5 to 7 inclusive, hereinafter referred to.
Another set of vertical supporting wires, indi
55 cated by the dot-and-dash lines I I) of Figure 1,
join the stay wires 8 and 81 and all the inner
connectors II of all the other multangular
frames, which they meet on their way.
However, the number of these inner vertical
60 supporting wires I0 is just half of the number
of the outer vertical supporting wires 9.
These rods or wires, tightened in a manner to
be described hereinafter, make this framework
of the rotor D strong and solid.
The upper portion of this rotor-structure car
ries a series of outer double vanes I2, I2a, I21
and I2a1, and inner double vanes I3, I3a, I31 and
I3a1.
The next lower portion of the rotor-structure
-70 carries a series of outer vanes I 4 and I41, and.
inner vanes I5 and I51, consisting of single vane
only.
'
. 'All of these vanes are pivoted horizontally on,
or about, every other spoke 4- and its extension
These spokes are carrier spokes, The re
75 41.
mainder of the rotor-structure carries a series
of outer vanes I 6, I61, and inner vanes I‘! and I11,
of still another type, (see Figures 8 and 9), which
are pivoted vertically on the pivotal parts of the
connectors 5 and II, respectively, see Figures 1
to 5.
As shown in Figure 2, the number of the inner
vanes is just half the number of the outer vanes.
In case a third set of inner vanes is desired, then
their number must be half of the vanes of the 10
second set. By this arrangement the vanes, by
a su?icient distance between each other, receive
the highest effect of the windpower.
The vane controller I9 keeps the vane in the
desired angular positions, and consists preferably 15
of two or more linked wires, or of other metallic
links, one end of which is connected with the
vane, and the other end is connected with the
connector, 5 or II, of the following angle of the
same ring-formation, as shown in Figure 2.
20
The bottom end of the vertical rotor shaft E
carries a, bevelled gear 20, that is connected with
a system of gears and a stopping device.
The vanes of all types are not pivoted end
wise, as in other constructions, but the ?rst type
is pivoted in or near the middle, and the other
two types are pivoted about one quarter or one
third the distance from one edge, and three
quarters, or two-thirds from the opposite edge.
This arrangement enables the vanes to change 30
their position much quicker, takes away some
of the strain of the vane-controller I9, allows
the vane-controller to- be shorter, and lessens the
shock at the connection-points of the vane-con
troller.
.
35
From the connectors 5 of the'upper two mul
tangular frames, a tubular piece 41 is extended
outwardly in the line of the carrier spoke 4. The
outer end of each extension 41 is tied by wires
411 to the nearest connectors 5, right and left 40
on the same frame, see Figure 2.
For a better stability, the outer end of the ex
tension 41 can also be tied to the connector 5
of the above frame. It is not indicated here in
order to avoid crowding.
45
The vanes I2, I3, I4 and I5, are pivoted with
one end to the carrier-spoke 4 and with the
other end to the corresponding extension 41.
This arrangement makes the size of the mul
tangular hoops smaller, and brings the point of 50
support of the vane-controller, the opposite con
nector 5,’ against the middle of the foregoing
vane, what is advantageous in many respects, as
seen in Figures 1 and 2.
The vertically pivoted vanes do not need any
extensions beyond the multangular hoops.
The upper vanes I2 and I3 consist of two halves
each, hinged directly or indirectly, to a spoke
4 and to its extension 41, and can easily be folded
and unfolded, (this will be explained with Fig 60
ure 10). Each free end of these halves is pro
vided with a vane-controller I9 or two of them,
the other ends of which are fastened to the
(dotted) ears 51 of one connector 5 or II, so that
both halves cannot move beyond a desired dis
tance.
The vane-controllers I9 of all the other vanes
are fastened to the longer ends of the vanes, and
the other ends of the vane-controllers are fas
tened to their respective connectors.
70
No matter from which side the wind comes, it
unfolds automatically the vanes I 2 and I3, pushes
away the longer halves of the vanes I4, I5, I6, and
I1, thus bringing them in a resisting, and there
fore, operative position on one side, and in an 75
3
‘2,119,142
inoperative position on the other sideof the-rotor
D, which makes the rotor revolve always in one
direction, as is seen from the Figures land 2, in
accordance with the arrows at the ‘foot of Fig
ure'2.
The vanes like 12 and 14 may differ insize,
vshaperand in other minor particulars, but are
constructed in the same way, as the vanes l6
and
'
Figure '10 illustrates a means for balancing the '
-
The enlarged =outer connector 5, illustrated in ‘horizontal vanes l2 and I3, repeatedin twosuper
the two views of Figures 3 and 4, .is preferably imposed sets. ‘ These vanes are made of two parts
l2 and 12a; the part 12 is provided with a bell
comprised of an inner'portion'5, that is threaded
at both ends ‘to engage ‘the tubings F6, and'jhas crank 32, that :has the upperarm connected by
two holes, to receive the spokes '4 near the cen~
means of .a rope or chain 33 to a pulley 34-, at
.tral part.
tached :to the structure 4a, which is built at the
vtop of the rotor D, (Figure ‘1). This rope or
To each side of this central portion 5, are riv
eted vor screwed through-the holes v2 l, two portions
22 and 2-21. The connectors of the outer frames
of the rotor D have only one portion 22.
The part 22 is provided with a boss 23, in the
centre of which the supporting wire 9 is ?xed,
v20
is connected to the upper arm of another bell
rank 9.21, which is connected to the lowerhalf .15
vane I211.
The other arm .of this bellcrank 3|1 is con
nected by the wire 331 to the upper arm of the
ner.
bellcrank 323, attached to ‘the end of the half
Upon the boss 23, is loosely journaled or pivoted
the vane-controller l9a, or the take-up 24, to the
vane :l2a,-of the second set, and the other‘ arm of
this bellcrank may be connected further down
multangular frame of the rotor D.
The inner connector H, shown in Figures 5, 6
and 7, is preferably comprised of a can-like box
H, to which the upper portion H1 is screwed
through the holes 2|. Both parts are provided
withbosses 23, that centrally carry the supporting
wires l9 secured, either in the way shown, or in
40 any other suitable manner.
'
Upon these bosses 23, the vane-controllers [9a
or the take-ups of the vane-controllers 24 are
loosely journalled or pivoted; over them the nuts
25 are ?xed, and over the nuts the vane-‘bearings
26 are pivoted. All of the parts on the other
side are alike, but set up'in a reversedorder, sub
stantially as shown in Figure 4.
The part II, (Figure 6), has a can-like form
with a bottom beneath. The outside of the bot
tom has a boss 23, and in the centre is a hole
for the end of the supporting wire 19. The wall
of this part II is thicker in four places 21.
Through these thicker places are holes to receive
the spoke-ends 4 and the tie-wires l8, which all
are secured and tightened by nuts like 28 within
the part II.
And the part II1 (Figure '7) is screwed on the
top of part II, through the holes 2|, and lying
60
ehainpassesoverianother pulley 341,~and the end
either by screwing or in any othersuitable man
outer end of which the vane-controller I9 is se
cured, see Figures 11 and 25.
Part 26 is the bearing of the third type vane
25 l6; between 24 and 26 is tightly set up or screwed
a nut 25, but this nut does not press on the part
24, nor on the part 26, and allows them a free
movement around the'boss v23.
The portion 221 has the same parts, as portion
30 22, but in a reversed order, and is destined for
another vane l6, and another vane-controller 19
or l9a to be used on the other side of the same
snugly upon the nuts, secures them in place.
For those multangular frames (Figures 1 and
2), which are adapted for the vanes of the ?rst
two types l2 and M, the connectors 5 and ii are
somewhat simpli?ed, but remain substantially
the same, as the connectors just described.
Figures 8 and 9 illustrate ‘the form of construc
tion of the vanes l6 and H, which consist of a
-metal frame of tubular or L formation, covered
with a. one-piece suitable material. The vane is.
provided with bearings 26, through which the
supporting wire 9 or it passes.
The vane is further provided with ribs 29,
bosses 39 and suitable bracing wires 3| on both
sides lengthwise and diagonally to :the vane frame,
so that the vane may be stiffened to withstand
the highest wind pressure.
v10
to another set of vanes, and so on.
‘Thelower arm of the bellcrank 32 is connected
by a wire 35 to the upper‘ arm of the bellcrank
3211, that is attached to the end of the half-vane 125
l2, of the second set, and the lower arm of the bell
crank 3211 is connected with a Wire 351, that can
:be connected further 'to ‘another set of vanes, or
is connected with a rope 38, which is fastened to
the tubular element .39, that is adapted .to bring -.30
these vanes :in an inoperative position, (see Fig
ures 12 ‘and Y13).
Figure '11 is a plan of a folded vane-controller,
preferably adapted for the vanes I6 and H, but
could be used also for the other vanes, wherein .35
. l9a is a frame, through which a plunger 36 is run
ning.
This plunger'has a head with a prolongation 31
on oneside, slidable upon the frame [9a, one'side
of which is provided with a ring 231, pivoted upon.
:the boss 23 of the connector 5 or H, and the hole‘ '
of the plunger-head 361 is journaled to a corner
of the vane H5 or H, see Figures 4 and 5.
' The frame l9a may be covered. in any suitable
manner to protect it against exposure, or wholly 1.:
consist of ‘a tubing.
Figure 12 is a side ‘view, and Figure 13 is a
plan, which both illustrate the means used to
stop the movement of the rotor D for repairs.
The rotor shaft 'E, near its passage through "15,0
the building top C, carries between two ?xed rings ‘
“c” a spool 39, rotatable around the shaft.
The spool 39 has a slanted and wider rim
above, and a straight and ‘smaller rim beneath,
which has a projection 391 below.
The ropes 38, one end of which are connected .5 '
with the vanes, pass through suitable pulleys and
aretied to the spool 39.
To the top of the building C at a point 40, is
‘pivoted a lever“ , bent at '42 toward the spool 39.
When the lever v4| is pulled by its ‘handle 43
'to the left,-the upper end engages the projection
391 and stops the spool from movement; but the
shaft E, continuing ‘to rotate, coils around the
spool the ropes .38, which pull with their other
ends the vanes, bringing them in an inoperative
position, and the rotor stops, ‘see Figures 10
and 14.
'
‘When'the ‘lever ‘handle 43 is pulled the other
Iway, ‘the upper part of the lever releases the
spool, and the wind gradually brings the vanes in
the operative position again.
Figure 14, diagrammatically illustrates the
connection of the vanes of ' the second ‘type “l4
and 135,:with the spool .3_9,repeat_ed in‘threesu- ,_
4
2,119,142
perimposed sets, wherein 6 are the tubular hoops
of the rotor; 9 are the vertical supporting wires;
I4 are the vanes pivoted just at the angle, where
6 and 9 coincide; I9 are the linked vane-con
trollers, which are tied with one end to the long
er half of the vane, and with the other end tied
to the opposite connector 5, which occupies the
other corner of 6 and 9, not shown.
The longer halves of the vane M, keeping al
ways down, bring the vanes in a vertical position,
and the vane-controller is then stretched. The
wind pushes the vane together with the rotor D
so far, that the vane is turned to the wind with
its other side, and the wind brings the vane in
15 a horizontal position. (Figures 1 and 2).
The wire 44 connects the shorter ends of 'the
aligned vanes, and the longer end of the bottom
vane is connected with the rope 38, which goes
through a system of pulleys, and'is tied to the
20 spool 39, (see Figures 12 and 13), which by pull
ing these ropes, brings the vanes in a horizontal
position, and the rotor stops.
The vanes l6 and I‘! are stopped by bringing
in any suitable way nine outer and four inner
25 vanes parallel to each other in one direction and
the other vanes in the opposite direction.
The slack of the vane-controllers of the vanes
of the first type l2 and I3 is taken in this way:
As these vanes consist of two halves (Figure
30 10), therefore, the upper vane-controller at the
top of the rotor, linked at I91, is suspended by a
wire to some part of the upper structure of the
rotor; the upper vane-controller of the second
set is connected with the lower vane-controller
35 of the ?rst set by a rope or linked wires I911;
the upper vane-controller of the third set is
connected with the lower vane-controller of the
second set, and so on. And the lower vane-con
troller of the last set can be left alone, as there
40 is nothing to come in contact with it.
All of
these connections and suspensions are shown by
dotted lines in Figure 10.
Figure 15 is a modi?ed diagrammatic view
illustrating the relative positions of the vanes,
45 shown diagrammatically mounted on the tub
ing 31, pivoted by the pivot 311 at 61, upon the
handle E1 of a miniature size. The spoke 4 and
supporting wire 9 of Figure 1 consist here of one
elbowed wire 4.
A part of the vane on two sides are bent to
50
wards each other, and serve as bearings 26. The
cuts like 261 of such vanes, preventing the vanes
to commit more than half a turn, serve as vane
controllers, and some thickening of the end of
55 the wires 4 keeps the vane in place.
. Figure 16 illustrates the means of taking away
the slack of the vane-controllers of the third
type vane I6, whereby vane I6 is pivoted upon
the vertical supporting wire 9, which is connect
60 ed with the tubular elements 6 of the multangu
lar frames of the rotor, see Figures 1 and 2.
The vane-controllers l9, consisting of wires
linked at I 91, are’ connected with one end to
the corners of the vane l6, and with the other
65 end to the take-ups 24, pivoted to the support
ing wire 9a.
The upper vane-controller I9 carries a pulley
67, and to the lower linking place I91 a wire 68
is connected, which goes up to the point 681,
70 where it is connected with a rope or chain 6811,
turned over the pulley 67, and is tied to a weight
69, which slides upon the wire 68.
As long as the vane-controller I9 is stretched,
the weight 69 is near the pulley 61, but when the
76 vane is in the position shown in Figure 25, the
weight 69 slides down, and brings both the vane
controllers I 9 in the position shown in this ?gure,
depriving them of a free swinging around. ‘
Figure 17 represents a square bell-like cover
671, within which the pulley 61 of Figure 16 is 5
placed for protection against exposure.
Remarks and supplements
Where the power supply of one windmill is not
suf?cient, two mills or more may be built, and
because of their height they need not be very far
apart.
.
One of the towers A is provided with a ladder,
stairs or lift, enabling anybody to reach the
bridge B for repairing, for greasing of the upper 15
bearing of the shaft E, and for other purposes.
Figures 1 and 2 show two towers, but there can
be three or four of them, if desired.
Both the towers are of triangular cross-forma
tion, vertical toward each other and slanting on 20
the other sides, their tops are fastened to the
ground by strong cables c. See Figures 1 and 2.
The bridge B is constructed of a system of
cables and strong wires, with cross-cables “a” at 25
its bottom and other cables b suspending the
middle of the bridge to the tops of the towers,
in order to eliminate horizontal vibrations and
to avoid a lowering of the middle-part of the
bridge. The bridge B is provided with railings 30
on both sides for a safe passage, as seen in Fig
ure 1.
The dotted lines 4a on the top of the rotor
(Figure 1) is preferably constructed like the mul
tangular frames, and is supported by forked tub 35
ings upon the upper regular multangular frame.
In case the vanes of the ?rst two types are not
used, this structure is not necessary at all.
The stay wires 8 and 81 do not align with the
spokes 4 (Figure 1), therefore, each inner con 40
nector l I of the outer rotor frames is fastened
to two stay wires by two links, a longer and a
shorter one.
There is no necessity to use all the three types
of vanes in any one rotor, and repeat them in 45
all the views here, as one or two types may be
selected, and the rotor adapted accordingly.
When only the vanes l6 and I‘! are used, the
stay wires 8 and B1 and their nearest discs 3 may
be omitted, but these spokes 4 attached to the
50
discs 1 and 11 at the same slant, as the stay wires
8 and 81. See Figure 1.
The slack is taken up in Figure 16 by the weight
69. This is not a necessity, for it can be done also
with a spring.
65
As seen from Figure 25, the vanes of the third
type l6 and I‘! have two vane-controllers, one on
the top, and one at the foot of the vane.
Having thus illustrated and described the pre
ferred embodiment of my invention, I do not 60
wish to limit myself to the exact construction and
arrangement of the parts shown, since it is evi
dent, that modi?cations may be made therein,
without departing from the spirit of the invention
or scope of the claims.
65
What I claim, and wish to cover by Letters
Patent is:
'
'
1. In a windmill of ‘the character described, in
cluding a vertically arranged rotor carrying a plu
rality of radially arranged vertically pivoted vanes 70
each provided with top and bottom vane con
trollers, a pulley attached to each top vane-con
troller and a wire attached to each bottom vane
controller, said wire passing loosely through a
weight, is connected to a ?exible element, which 75
5
2,119,142
is turned over the said pulley and attached to
said weight, thereby keeping the lower vane
controller loosely lifted and at the same time pre
venting both the vane-controllers from swinging
around, when the vane changes its positions.
2. In a windmill of the character described, a
rotor comprising: a vertical shaft; a plurality of
superimposed hoops surrounding said shaft, each
hoop consisting of straight tubular sections con
nected together by connectors; spaced discs on
said shaft, one for each hoop; wires connecting
each connector with two laterally spaced points
on one of said discs, thereby forming spokes for
said hoops; vertical supporting wires connecting
15 corresponding connectors on said hoops, wind
vanes having bearing means pivotally engaging
corresponding connectors of certain adjacent
hoops, said bearing means being offset to one side
of the plane of the vanes to accommodate said
vertical supporting wires; and a vane control
ler consisting of linked wires connecting a free
edge of each of said vanes with an adjacent con
nector, whereby each of said vanes is free to align
with the wind when on the side of the rotor which
25 is advancing into the wind, but is restrained to a
transverse position to the wind by said vane con
troller when on the side of the rotor which is
moving with the wind.
3. The structure set out in claim 2 further char
30 acterized in that said shaft is provided with ad
ditional discs, one above the uppermost hoop and
one below the lowermost hoop, slanting connect
ing wires between the connectors of the upper
most hoop and the ?rst mentioned additional
35 disc and between connectors of the lowermost
are also adapted to be arranged in pairs and corn
structed of two similar Vane-halves, one vane
half pivoted at its lower edge and located above
its spoke and extension and the other vane-half
pivoted at its upper edge and located below its
spoke and extension; a pulley fastened on said
rotor; and ?exible means passing through said
pulley and fastened at its ends to said respec—
tive vane-halves adjacent the free ends thereof
to thereby counterbalance the weight of one i!
vane~half by the weight of the other correspond
ing vane-half.
7. In a windmill of the character described, a
vertical rotor, a building and a structure sup—
porting said rotor, said structure consisting of two iii
three-based structural steel towers, triangular in
cross section, vertical on the sides facing the rotor
and slanting on the other sides, said towers being
connected together near their upper ends with a
bridge consisting of a system of cables and wires,
and extending above the connecting cables and
wires, the middle of said system of cables and
wires being slantingly braced to the tops of the
tower-extensions and horizontally braced to the
tower sides, protecting thereby the middle of said 25
cables supporting the upper end of the rotor
shaft against collapse and against vibrations.
8. In a windmill of the character described, in
cluding a vertical pivoted rotor, connectors posi
tioned in said rotor and carrying a plurality of
eccentrically and vertically pivoted vanes and
vane-controllers for controlling the positions of
hoop and the second mentioned additional disc,
each of the vanes comprising linked elements,
one of said linked elements being connected to
the longer end of the vane and the other linked
element being pivotally mounted upon the con—
whereby said rotor is braced against its own
nector of an adjacent vane, said last named
weight and against vibrations.
linked element being heavier built, longer and
4. The structure set out in claim 2 further char
40 acterized in that the spokes of each of said hoops
at joints intermediate their ends are provided
with connectors, tie wires joining the last named
connectors of each hoop and additional vertical
wires connecting all these aligned connectors
45 with said top and bottom slanting wires to thereby
additionally brace said rotor, additional wind
vanes to the number of substantially one-half of
the number of ?rst mentioned wind vanes piv
otally secured to the last named connectors.
5. In a windmill of the character described, a
50
rotor comprising: a vertical shaft; a plurality of
superimposed hoops surrounding said shaft, each
hoop consisting of straight tubular sections con
nected together by connectors; spaced discs on
55 said shaft, one for each hoop; a spoke connect
ing each connector with one of said discs; out
wardly radiating extensions attached to said
hoop by said connectors, vertical supporting wires
connecting corresponding connectors on said
hoops, wind vanes on said rotor, each horizontal
ly pivoted at one of its ends to one of said spokes
and at its other end to one of said radial exten
sions, whereby said vanes project outwardly from
the hoops, and a vane controller, connected to a
free edge of each of said vanes and to said rotor
to limit the swinging motion of the vane in one
direction only, whereby each of said vanes is free
to align with the wind when on the side of the
rotor which is advancing into the wind, but is
70 restrained to a transverse position to the wind
by said vane controllers when on the side of the
rotor which is moving with the wind.
6. The structure set out in claim 5 further
characterized in that the aforementioned vanes
telescopically connected to the ?rst mentioned
linked element and thereby preventing the corner 40
of the last named vane from coming in contact
with the vane-controller, allowing thereby the
vane a swing of 180 degrees of a circle and ex
posing the operative vane perpendicularly with
the wind just at that time when the center of 45
the vane is swung farthest from the axis of the
rotor.
9. In a windmill of the character described, in
cluding a vertically pivoted rotor, connectors po
sitioned in said rotor and carrying a plurality of 50
eccentrically and vertically pivoted vanes and
means for controlling the positions of each of
said vanes comprising a headed plunger con
nected to the longer end of the vane, a frame
slidably receiving the head of the plunger there 55
in and pivoted to the connector associated with
an adjacent vane at a point to one side of the
frame, thereby allowing the vane a swing up
to 180 degrees of a circle and exposing the op
erative vane perpendicularly with the wind just
at that time when the center of the vane is
swung farthest from the axis of the rotor.
10. In a windmill of the character described, a
plurality of vertically pivoted vanes of miniature
size, a handle, a tubular element loosely mounted 65
on the top of said handle, a series of wires radiat
ing from said tubular element and bent down to
serve as axles for the vanes which are exposed
to the wind coming from any direction, said vanes
when they are running with the wind being
adapted to work with their entire surfaces from
whichever side the wind comes.
MENDEL SI-I'ENK.
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