Патент USA US2119142код для вставки
May 31, 1938. M. SHENK 2,119,142 WINDMILL Filed Oct. 16, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet l - INVENTOR. May 31, 1938. 2,119,142 M. SHENK WINDMILL Filed Oct. 16, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 24 19 44— 9 s7 19 68 19; I9 24 $ 6 = 38 lm/en/an MM 2,119,142 Patented May 31, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,119,142 WINDMILL Mendel Shenk, Brooklyn, N. Y. Application October 16, 1933, Serial No. 693,701 10 Claims. (Cl. 170—23) This application is in the large part a substitute for the abandoned application, of March 24, 1931, Serial Number 524,988. My invention relates to windmills of the rotary 5 type. The main object of my invention is to provide a windmill, that is capable of developing con siderable more power, than the power developed by existing windmills. Another object .of my invention is to provide 10 towers utilized for holding a connection or span, and the connecting ‘means between the towers arranged to hold the upper bearing of a vertical shaft. A further object of my invention is to provide a vertically arranged shaft carrying a framework of multangular formation, adapted to pivot a multiple of independent vanes, and means for automatically ‘maintaining the vanes in certain illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and described hereinafter, wherein similar numerals refer to like parts throughout the several views, and in some ?gures only one or two of similar parts are numbered, in which: , '5 Figure 1 is an elevation of the whole structure of the windmill, and shows the different positions of the vanes. ‘ Figure 2 isv a plan of the whole structure of the windmill, and shows the different positions of all 10 the vanes. , Figure 3, a plan view of Figure 4, is a detail illustrating the means of connecting the spokes and the outer supporting wires with the frame ring or hoop, and is the basis for some other ‘15 I things, as set forth. Figure 4 is a side elevation of Figure 3. vFigurer5 is a side elevation of Figures 6 and 7, fastened together, for holding the inner support angular positionsfor the rotation of the mill. A still further object of my invention is to pro ing wires, tie wires, spokes, the take-ups of the 20 vide a windmill with vanes so pivoted, ‘that they will position themselves quickly, and bring to a providing the tubular pivots for the bearings‘of minimum counter-balancing of all kinds. One feature of my invention consists in a wind mill with a vertically driven shaft carrying a Figure 6 is a plan of the bottom part of Figure 5, which is a'means for holding the inner supporting 25 wires and all the other wires, which intersect means, utilized for controlling the vanes, and the vanes. plurality of concentrically arranged, vertically at this point. pivoted vanes, and a plurality of superimposed horizontally pivoted and axially arranged vanes. Another feature of my invention consists in the arrangement of the vanes pivoted in spaced rela Figure 7 is a top view of the upper half fastened to that of Figure 6. Figure 8 is a side elevation of the vertical vanes. ‘30 Figure 9 is a front elevational view of one of tion to each other, in such a ‘manner as to enable the vanes to utilize the full energy of the wind. the vertical vanes. One unique feature of my invention consists in the provision of a windmill having a vertically driven rotor, that is suitably connected to shaft ing adapted to drive mechanisms heavier, than that of the existing windmills. One of the advantages of my invention consists 40 in the unique arrangement of the framework of the rotor, and the arrangement of the vanes piv oted thereon. Another advantage of my invention consists in the arrangement and means utilized for auto “ matically controlling the position of the vertically pivoted vanes. Still another advantage of my invention con sists in the means utilized for holding the ‘frame work, tie rods or wires, securely, and their con nections to the rotating shaft. One of ‘the most important ‘advantages of my invention consists in providing a windmill having a vertically driven shaft with a unique form of "stopping means. ' p I attain these objects preferably ‘by ‘the means Figure 10 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the means utilized for balancing the folded hori zontal vanes 12 and the means for taking up the '35 slack of their vane controllers. Figure 11 is a plan of a folded vane controller. Figure 12 is a diagrammatic view of the stop ping mechanism No. 1. Figure 13 is a plan illustrating, how the con- 40 necting ropes are connected to the spool. ' Figure 14 shows the connection of the hori zontally pivoted vanes 14, with the spool of Fig ure 13. . Figure 15 is a modi?ed diagrammatic View 45 illustrating the different positions of the verti cal vanes during the operation of the device on :a miniature size. . ' ‘ Figure 16 is a diagrammatic plan, illustrating the means utilized for taking up the slack of ‘the ‘50 vane controllers during thev movement of the vanes I6. 1 Figure 17 is an elevation ‘of a shield forlthe :pulley of Figure 16. - ' . The ‘windmill, as illustrated in Figures 1 ‘and 2, ‘55 2 2,119,142 “consists of a pair of structural towers A and A1, having a cross framework or bridge B with a safe passageway near the top, and a building C between the towers. The bridge B carries a system of rollers I, into which the upper end of the rotatable shaft E is ?tted, and the lower end of the shaft passing through an opening in the top of the building C, is ?tted into a floating bearing 2. Upon this shaft, preferably of a tubular for mation, are arranged a plurality of discs 3, adapted to hold a plurality of wires or spokes 4 of su?icient strength that are connected to a plurality of connectors 5, as shown detailed in 15 the enlarged Figures 3 and 4, which in their turn connect a plurality of tubular elements 6, shown in Figure 2, forming a multangular hoop of the rotor D. Said wires or spokes 4 are arranged in pairs. 20 One end of each wire is fastened to‘ the opposite sides of the periphery of the disc 3, and the other ends of both the wires are fastened to one con nector 5, thus giving this frame the stability of a wheel, and allowing, besides, a considerable in 25 crease of its diameter. (Figure 2.) Such multangular frames are arranged hori zontally, and are ?ve in number, shown in Fig ure 1, one above the other; but they can be more or less, if desired. 30 As this number of multangular frames makes the shaft E unusually long, and this shaft can not be made too thick and heavy, therefore, at both ends of the shaft E additional discs 'I and ‘I1 are set up, which are connected with strong 35 stay wires 8 and 81 to the connectors 5 of the outer two multangular frames, at the top and bottom of the rotor D. These connectors in their turn are intercon nected with the aligned connectors 5 of all the inner multangular frames, by vertical reinforc ing or supporting wires 9 of su?icient strength, thussecuring the shaft E against dangerous vi ' brations, which may result in its bending or even breaking, and at the same time it protects also 45 the frames of the rotor against dangerous Vi brations, especially during a storm, which may twist and even break parts of the rotor structure. Additonal stay wires may connect the con nectors 5 and the discs 3 higher up if desired. Within these multangular frames, the tie wires I8 are connected together to the carrier spokes or wires 4, by means of connectors II, shown in Figures 5 to 7 inclusive, hereinafter referred to. Another set of vertical supporting wires, indi 55 cated by the dot-and-dash lines I I) of Figure 1, join the stay wires 8 and 81 and all the inner connectors II of all the other multangular frames, which they meet on their way. However, the number of these inner vertical 60 supporting wires I0 is just half of the number of the outer vertical supporting wires 9. These rods or wires, tightened in a manner to be described hereinafter, make this framework of the rotor D strong and solid. The upper portion of this rotor-structure car ries a series of outer double vanes I2, I2a, I21 and I2a1, and inner double vanes I3, I3a, I31 and I3a1. The next lower portion of the rotor-structure -70 carries a series of outer vanes I 4 and I41, and. inner vanes I5 and I51, consisting of single vane only. ' . 'All of these vanes are pivoted horizontally on, or about, every other spoke 4- and its extension These spokes are carrier spokes, The re 75 41. mainder of the rotor-structure carries a series of outer vanes I 6, I61, and inner vanes I‘! and I11, of still another type, (see Figures 8 and 9), which are pivoted vertically on the pivotal parts of the connectors 5 and II, respectively, see Figures 1 to 5. As shown in Figure 2, the number of the inner vanes is just half the number of the outer vanes. In case a third set of inner vanes is desired, then their number must be half of the vanes of the 10 second set. By this arrangement the vanes, by a su?icient distance between each other, receive the highest effect of the windpower. The vane controller I9 keeps the vane in the desired angular positions, and consists preferably 15 of two or more linked wires, or of other metallic links, one end of which is connected with the vane, and the other end is connected with the connector, 5 or II, of the following angle of the same ring-formation, as shown in Figure 2. 20 The bottom end of the vertical rotor shaft E carries a, bevelled gear 20, that is connected with a system of gears and a stopping device. The vanes of all types are not pivoted end wise, as in other constructions, but the ?rst type is pivoted in or near the middle, and the other two types are pivoted about one quarter or one third the distance from one edge, and three quarters, or two-thirds from the opposite edge. This arrangement enables the vanes to change 30 their position much quicker, takes away some of the strain of the vane-controller I9, allows the vane-controller to- be shorter, and lessens the shock at the connection-points of the vane-con troller. . 35 From the connectors 5 of the'upper two mul tangular frames, a tubular piece 41 is extended outwardly in the line of the carrier spoke 4. The outer end of each extension 41 is tied by wires 411 to the nearest connectors 5, right and left 40 on the same frame, see Figure 2. For a better stability, the outer end of the ex tension 41 can also be tied to the connector 5 of the above frame. It is not indicated here in order to avoid crowding. 45 The vanes I2, I3, I4 and I5, are pivoted with one end to the carrier-spoke 4 and with the other end to the corresponding extension 41. This arrangement makes the size of the mul tangular hoops smaller, and brings the point of 50 support of the vane-controller, the opposite con nector 5,’ against the middle of the foregoing vane, what is advantageous in many respects, as seen in Figures 1 and 2. The vertically pivoted vanes do not need any extensions beyond the multangular hoops. The upper vanes I2 and I3 consist of two halves each, hinged directly or indirectly, to a spoke 4 and to its extension 41, and can easily be folded and unfolded, (this will be explained with Fig 60 ure 10). Each free end of these halves is pro vided with a vane-controller I9 or two of them, the other ends of which are fastened to the (dotted) ears 51 of one connector 5 or II, so that both halves cannot move beyond a desired dis tance. The vane-controllers I9 of all the other vanes are fastened to the longer ends of the vanes, and the other ends of the vane-controllers are fas tened to their respective connectors. 70 No matter from which side the wind comes, it unfolds automatically the vanes I 2 and I3, pushes away the longer halves of the vanes I4, I5, I6, and I1, thus bringing them in a resisting, and there fore, operative position on one side, and in an 75 3 ‘2,119,142 inoperative position on the other sideof the-rotor D, which makes the rotor revolve always in one direction, as is seen from the Figures land 2, in accordance with the arrows at the ‘foot of Fig ure'2. The vanes like 12 and 14 may differ insize, vshaperand in other minor particulars, but are constructed in the same way, as the vanes l6 and ' Figure '10 illustrates a means for balancing the ' - The enlarged =outer connector 5, illustrated in ‘horizontal vanes l2 and I3, repeatedin twosuper the two views of Figures 3 and 4, .is preferably imposed sets. ‘ These vanes are made of two parts l2 and 12a; the part 12 is provided with a bell comprised of an inner'portion'5, that is threaded at both ends ‘to engage ‘the tubings F6, and'jhas crank 32, that :has the upperarm connected by two holes, to receive the spokes '4 near the cen~ means of .a rope or chain 33 to a pulley 34-, at .tral part. tached :to the structure 4a, which is built at the vtop of the rotor D, (Figure ‘1). This rope or To each side of this central portion 5, are riv eted vor screwed through-the holes v2 l, two portions 22 and 2-21. The connectors of the outer frames of the rotor D have only one portion 22. The part 22 is provided with a boss 23, in the centre of which the supporting wire 9 is ?xed, v20 is connected to the upper arm of another bell rank 9.21, which is connected to the lowerhalf .15 vane I211. The other arm .of this bellcrank 3|1 is con nected by the wire 331 to the upper arm of the ner. bellcrank 323, attached to ‘the end of the half Upon the boss 23, is loosely journaled or pivoted the vane-controller l9a, or the take-up 24, to the vane :l2a,-of the second set, and the other‘ arm of this bellcrank may be connected further down multangular frame of the rotor D. The inner connector H, shown in Figures 5, 6 and 7, is preferably comprised of a can-like box H, to which the upper portion H1 is screwed through the holes 2|. Both parts are provided withbosses 23, that centrally carry the supporting wires l9 secured, either in the way shown, or in 40 any other suitable manner. ' Upon these bosses 23, the vane-controllers [9a or the take-ups of the vane-controllers 24 are loosely journalled or pivoted; over them the nuts 25 are ?xed, and over the nuts the vane-‘bearings 26 are pivoted. All of the parts on the other side are alike, but set up'in a reversedorder, sub stantially as shown in Figure 4. The part II, (Figure 6), has a can-like form with a bottom beneath. The outside of the bot tom has a boss 23, and in the centre is a hole for the end of the supporting wire 19. The wall of this part II is thicker in four places 21. Through these thicker places are holes to receive the spoke-ends 4 and the tie-wires l8, which all are secured and tightened by nuts like 28 within the part II. And the part II1 (Figure '7) is screwed on the top of part II, through the holes 2|, and lying 60 ehainpassesoverianother pulley 341,~and the end either by screwing or in any othersuitable man outer end of which the vane-controller I9 is se cured, see Figures 11 and 25. Part 26 is the bearing of the third type vane 25 l6; between 24 and 26 is tightly set up or screwed a nut 25, but this nut does not press on the part 24, nor on the part 26, and allows them a free movement around the'boss v23. The portion 221 has the same parts, as portion 30 22, but in a reversed order, and is destined for another vane l6, and another vane-controller 19 or l9a to be used on the other side of the same snugly upon the nuts, secures them in place. For those multangular frames (Figures 1 and 2), which are adapted for the vanes of the ?rst two types l2 and M, the connectors 5 and ii are somewhat simpli?ed, but remain substantially the same, as the connectors just described. Figures 8 and 9 illustrate ‘the form of construc tion of the vanes l6 and H, which consist of a -metal frame of tubular or L formation, covered with a. one-piece suitable material. The vane is. provided with bearings 26, through which the supporting wire 9 or it passes. The vane is further provided with ribs 29, bosses 39 and suitable bracing wires 3| on both sides lengthwise and diagonally to :the vane frame, so that the vane may be stiffened to withstand the highest wind pressure. v10 to another set of vanes, and so on. ‘Thelower arm of the bellcrank 32 is connected by a wire 35 to the upper‘ arm of the bellcrank 3211, that is attached to the end of the half-vane 125 l2, of the second set, and the lower arm of the bell crank 3211 is connected with a Wire 351, that can :be connected further 'to ‘another set of vanes, or is connected with a rope 38, which is fastened to the tubular element .39, that is adapted .to bring -.30 these vanes :in an inoperative position, (see Fig ures 12 ‘and Y13). Figure '11 is a plan of a folded vane-controller, preferably adapted for the vanes I6 and H, but could be used also for the other vanes, wherein .35 . l9a is a frame, through which a plunger 36 is run ning. This plunger'has a head with a prolongation 31 on oneside, slidable upon the frame [9a, one'side of which is provided with a ring 231, pivoted upon. :the boss 23 of the connector 5 or H, and the hole‘ ' of the plunger-head 361 is journaled to a corner of the vane H5 or H, see Figures 4 and 5. ' The frame l9a may be covered. in any suitable manner to protect it against exposure, or wholly 1.: consist of ‘a tubing. Figure 12 is a side ‘view, and Figure 13 is a plan, which both illustrate the means used to stop the movement of the rotor D for repairs. The rotor shaft 'E, near its passage through "15,0 the building top C, carries between two ?xed rings ‘ “c” a spool 39, rotatable around the shaft. The spool 39 has a slanted and wider rim above, and a straight and ‘smaller rim beneath, which has a projection 391 below. The ropes 38, one end of which are connected .5 ' with the vanes, pass through suitable pulleys and aretied to the spool 39. To the top of the building C at a point 40, is ‘pivoted a lever“ , bent at '42 toward the spool 39. When the lever v4| is pulled by its ‘handle 43 'to the left,-the upper end engages the projection 391 and stops the spool from movement; but the shaft E, continuing ‘to rotate, coils around the spool the ropes .38, which pull with their other ends the vanes, bringing them in an inoperative position, and the rotor stops, ‘see Figures 10 and 14. ' ‘When'the ‘lever ‘handle 43 is pulled the other Iway, ‘the upper part of the lever releases the spool, and the wind gradually brings the vanes in the operative position again. Figure 14, diagrammatically illustrates the connection of the vanes of ' the second ‘type “l4 and 135,:with the spool .3_9,repeat_ed in‘threesu- ,_ 4 2,119,142 perimposed sets, wherein 6 are the tubular hoops of the rotor; 9 are the vertical supporting wires; I4 are the vanes pivoted just at the angle, where 6 and 9 coincide; I9 are the linked vane-con trollers, which are tied with one end to the long er half of the vane, and with the other end tied to the opposite connector 5, which occupies the other corner of 6 and 9, not shown. The longer halves of the vane M, keeping al ways down, bring the vanes in a vertical position, and the vane-controller is then stretched. The wind pushes the vane together with the rotor D so far, that the vane is turned to the wind with its other side, and the wind brings the vane in 15 a horizontal position. (Figures 1 and 2). The wire 44 connects the shorter ends of 'the aligned vanes, and the longer end of the bottom vane is connected with the rope 38, which goes through a system of pulleys, and'is tied to the 20 spool 39, (see Figures 12 and 13), which by pull ing these ropes, brings the vanes in a horizontal position, and the rotor stops. The vanes l6 and I‘! are stopped by bringing in any suitable way nine outer and four inner 25 vanes parallel to each other in one direction and the other vanes in the opposite direction. The slack of the vane-controllers of the vanes of the first type l2 and I3 is taken in this way: As these vanes consist of two halves (Figure 30 10), therefore, the upper vane-controller at the top of the rotor, linked at I91, is suspended by a wire to some part of the upper structure of the rotor; the upper vane-controller of the second set is connected with the lower vane-controller 35 of the ?rst set by a rope or linked wires I911; the upper vane-controller of the third set is connected with the lower vane-controller of the second set, and so on. And the lower vane-con troller of the last set can be left alone, as there 40 is nothing to come in contact with it. All of these connections and suspensions are shown by dotted lines in Figure 10. Figure 15 is a modi?ed diagrammatic view illustrating the relative positions of the vanes, 45 shown diagrammatically mounted on the tub ing 31, pivoted by the pivot 311 at 61, upon the handle E1 of a miniature size. The spoke 4 and supporting wire 9 of Figure 1 consist here of one elbowed wire 4. A part of the vane on two sides are bent to 50 wards each other, and serve as bearings 26. The cuts like 261 of such vanes, preventing the vanes to commit more than half a turn, serve as vane controllers, and some thickening of the end of 55 the wires 4 keeps the vane in place. . Figure 16 illustrates the means of taking away the slack of the vane-controllers of the third type vane I6, whereby vane I6 is pivoted upon the vertical supporting wire 9, which is connect 60 ed with the tubular elements 6 of the multangu lar frames of the rotor, see Figures 1 and 2. The vane-controllers l9, consisting of wires linked at I 91, are’ connected with one end to the corners of the vane l6, and with the other 65 end to the take-ups 24, pivoted to the support ing wire 9a. The upper vane-controller I9 carries a pulley 67, and to the lower linking place I91 a wire 68 is connected, which goes up to the point 681, 70 where it is connected with a rope or chain 6811, turned over the pulley 67, and is tied to a weight 69, which slides upon the wire 68. As long as the vane-controller I9 is stretched, the weight 69 is near the pulley 61, but when the 76 vane is in the position shown in Figure 25, the weight 69 slides down, and brings both the vane controllers I 9 in the position shown in this ?gure, depriving them of a free swinging around. ‘ Figure 17 represents a square bell-like cover 671, within which the pulley 61 of Figure 16 is 5 placed for protection against exposure. Remarks and supplements Where the power supply of one windmill is not suf?cient, two mills or more may be built, and because of their height they need not be very far apart. . One of the towers A is provided with a ladder, stairs or lift, enabling anybody to reach the bridge B for repairing, for greasing of the upper 15 bearing of the shaft E, and for other purposes. Figures 1 and 2 show two towers, but there can be three or four of them, if desired. Both the towers are of triangular cross-forma tion, vertical toward each other and slanting on 20 the other sides, their tops are fastened to the ground by strong cables c. See Figures 1 and 2. The bridge B is constructed of a system of cables and strong wires, with cross-cables “a” at 25 its bottom and other cables b suspending the middle of the bridge to the tops of the towers, in order to eliminate horizontal vibrations and to avoid a lowering of the middle-part of the bridge. The bridge B is provided with railings 30 on both sides for a safe passage, as seen in Fig ure 1. The dotted lines 4a on the top of the rotor (Figure 1) is preferably constructed like the mul tangular frames, and is supported by forked tub 35 ings upon the upper regular multangular frame. In case the vanes of the ?rst two types are not used, this structure is not necessary at all. The stay wires 8 and 81 do not align with the spokes 4 (Figure 1), therefore, each inner con 40 nector l I of the outer rotor frames is fastened to two stay wires by two links, a longer and a shorter one. There is no necessity to use all the three types of vanes in any one rotor, and repeat them in 45 all the views here, as one or two types may be selected, and the rotor adapted accordingly. When only the vanes l6 and I‘! are used, the stay wires 8 and B1 and their nearest discs 3 may be omitted, but these spokes 4 attached to the 50 discs 1 and 11 at the same slant, as the stay wires 8 and 81. See Figure 1. The slack is taken up in Figure 16 by the weight 69. This is not a necessity, for it can be done also with a spring. 65 As seen from Figure 25, the vanes of the third type l6 and I‘! have two vane-controllers, one on the top, and one at the foot of the vane. Having thus illustrated and described the pre ferred embodiment of my invention, I do not 60 wish to limit myself to the exact construction and arrangement of the parts shown, since it is evi dent, that modi?cations may be made therein, without departing from the spirit of the invention or scope of the claims. 65 What I claim, and wish to cover by Letters Patent is: ' ' 1. In a windmill of ‘the character described, in cluding a vertically arranged rotor carrying a plu rality of radially arranged vertically pivoted vanes 70 each provided with top and bottom vane con trollers, a pulley attached to each top vane-con troller and a wire attached to each bottom vane controller, said wire passing loosely through a weight, is connected to a ?exible element, which 75 5 2,119,142 is turned over the said pulley and attached to said weight, thereby keeping the lower vane controller loosely lifted and at the same time pre venting both the vane-controllers from swinging around, when the vane changes its positions. 2. In a windmill of the character described, a rotor comprising: a vertical shaft; a plurality of superimposed hoops surrounding said shaft, each hoop consisting of straight tubular sections con nected together by connectors; spaced discs on said shaft, one for each hoop; wires connecting each connector with two laterally spaced points on one of said discs, thereby forming spokes for said hoops; vertical supporting wires connecting 15 corresponding connectors on said hoops, wind vanes having bearing means pivotally engaging corresponding connectors of certain adjacent hoops, said bearing means being offset to one side of the plane of the vanes to accommodate said vertical supporting wires; and a vane control ler consisting of linked wires connecting a free edge of each of said vanes with an adjacent con nector, whereby each of said vanes is free to align with the wind when on the side of the rotor which 25 is advancing into the wind, but is restrained to a transverse position to the wind by said vane con troller when on the side of the rotor which is moving with the wind. 3. The structure set out in claim 2 further char 30 acterized in that said shaft is provided with ad ditional discs, one above the uppermost hoop and one below the lowermost hoop, slanting connect ing wires between the connectors of the upper most hoop and the ?rst mentioned additional 35 disc and between connectors of the lowermost are also adapted to be arranged in pairs and corn structed of two similar Vane-halves, one vane half pivoted at its lower edge and located above its spoke and extension and the other vane-half pivoted at its upper edge and located below its spoke and extension; a pulley fastened on said rotor; and ?exible means passing through said pulley and fastened at its ends to said respec— tive vane-halves adjacent the free ends thereof to thereby counterbalance the weight of one i! vane~half by the weight of the other correspond ing vane-half. 7. In a windmill of the character described, a vertical rotor, a building and a structure sup— porting said rotor, said structure consisting of two iii three-based structural steel towers, triangular in cross section, vertical on the sides facing the rotor and slanting on the other sides, said towers being connected together near their upper ends with a bridge consisting of a system of cables and wires, and extending above the connecting cables and wires, the middle of said system of cables and wires being slantingly braced to the tops of the tower-extensions and horizontally braced to the tower sides, protecting thereby the middle of said 25 cables supporting the upper end of the rotor shaft against collapse and against vibrations. 8. In a windmill of the character described, in cluding a vertical pivoted rotor, connectors posi tioned in said rotor and carrying a plurality of eccentrically and vertically pivoted vanes and vane-controllers for controlling the positions of hoop and the second mentioned additional disc, each of the vanes comprising linked elements, one of said linked elements being connected to the longer end of the vane and the other linked element being pivotally mounted upon the con— whereby said rotor is braced against its own nector of an adjacent vane, said last named weight and against vibrations. linked element being heavier built, longer and 4. The structure set out in claim 2 further char 40 acterized in that the spokes of each of said hoops at joints intermediate their ends are provided with connectors, tie wires joining the last named connectors of each hoop and additional vertical wires connecting all these aligned connectors 45 with said top and bottom slanting wires to thereby additionally brace said rotor, additional wind vanes to the number of substantially one-half of the number of ?rst mentioned wind vanes piv otally secured to the last named connectors. 5. In a windmill of the character described, a 50 rotor comprising: a vertical shaft; a plurality of superimposed hoops surrounding said shaft, each hoop consisting of straight tubular sections con nected together by connectors; spaced discs on 55 said shaft, one for each hoop; a spoke connect ing each connector with one of said discs; out wardly radiating extensions attached to said hoop by said connectors, vertical supporting wires connecting corresponding connectors on said hoops, wind vanes on said rotor, each horizontal ly pivoted at one of its ends to one of said spokes and at its other end to one of said radial exten sions, whereby said vanes project outwardly from the hoops, and a vane controller, connected to a free edge of each of said vanes and to said rotor to limit the swinging motion of the vane in one direction only, whereby each of said vanes is free to align with the wind when on the side of the rotor which is advancing into the wind, but is 70 restrained to a transverse position to the wind by said vane controllers when on the side of the rotor which is moving with the wind. 6. The structure set out in claim 5 further characterized in that the aforementioned vanes telescopically connected to the ?rst mentioned linked element and thereby preventing the corner 40 of the last named vane from coming in contact with the vane-controller, allowing thereby the vane a swing of 180 degrees of a circle and ex posing the operative vane perpendicularly with the wind just at that time when the center of 45 the vane is swung farthest from the axis of the rotor. 9. In a windmill of the character described, in cluding a vertically pivoted rotor, connectors po sitioned in said rotor and carrying a plurality of 50 eccentrically and vertically pivoted vanes and means for controlling the positions of each of said vanes comprising a headed plunger con nected to the longer end of the vane, a frame slidably receiving the head of the plunger there 55 in and pivoted to the connector associated with an adjacent vane at a point to one side of the frame, thereby allowing the vane a swing up to 180 degrees of a circle and exposing the op erative vane perpendicularly with the wind just at that time when the center of the vane is swung farthest from the axis of the rotor. 10. In a windmill of the character described, a plurality of vertically pivoted vanes of miniature size, a handle, a tubular element loosely mounted 65 on the top of said handle, a series of wires radiat ing from said tubular element and bent down to serve as axles for the vanes which are exposed to the wind coming from any direction, said vanes when they are running with the wind being adapted to work with their entire surfaces from whichever side the wind comes. MENDEL SI-I'ENK.