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Патент USA US2119153

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May 31‘, 1938.
w. DALLEN'BACH
2,119,153
.REGULATION OF STATE VALUES
Filed July 27, 1934
Ti
Nhg‘
5 Sheets-Sheét 1
May 31, 1938.
2,119,153
W DALLENBACH
‘REGULATI‘QN OF STATE. VALUES
Flled July 27
1934
3 Sheets—Sheet 2.
gm
5/
I7%;
h/
91%
" 2,119,153‘
‘Patented May ‘31, 1938 -.
UNITED STATES PATENT orrlcs j
BEGUMTION OF STATE‘ VALUES
Walter Dillenhach, Berlin-Charlottenhurg, Ger
many, accignor to N. V. Machinerieen-en Ap
paraten Fabrleken "Meaf’f, Utrecht, Nether
I lands
Application July 2'1, 1934, Serial No. 737,298
I
~
In Germany June 20, 1933
(01. 236-1)
11 Claims.
This invention relates to a method and device
for regulating state values.
_
and ‘providing for the quantitative regulation of at
least one of these media.
A further object of the invention is to cause
‘
The invention deals?‘ enerally with the regula
tion of state values, s ch as temperature, pres-l the medium which heats or cools the expansion
‘5 sure, height of liquids, number of revolutions, member to ful?ll its two tasks, namely, the estab
the intensity of a process causing an increase in
lishment of a force transmitting connection ‘be
tween the expansion member and the regulator
the value of a state, as for instance, the supply
of heat, gas, liquid, the increase in voltage, or the
10. like, occurs intermittently between an upper and
lower limit value, which process will be referred
and the deformation of the expansion member
chie?y, at different times.
A still-further object of the invention is to
establish the force transmitting connection be
electric‘ currents, voltages, or the like, in which
regulation"; and has for its special object the
tween the regulator and the expansion member '
by means of the medium which heats or cools the .
“secondary regulation".
possessing great thermal expansion, is firmly con-v
’ to throughout the specification as. "primary
automatic alteration of atrleast one of the two .. latter inasuch a way that the expansion mem
15 . limit values, which is referred to below as her, as for instance, a tube made of material
,
_
'
The invention is of special importance for auto
matic heating. barticl?arly of railroad cars. and
also for plant hot houses and the like.” -
20
‘
nected with another member showing a lesser
degree of thermal expansion, as for instance, an
other tube, and that an expansion ‘member made
A further ,object of the invention is to render , of material possessing great thermal expansion 20
the secondary regulation dependent upon the
_ velocity of change in the value of the state, i. e.,
and being ?rmly connected for a. time, with the
regulator holds‘ or releases the tube capable of
the temperature, the pressure of the height of less thermal expansion by its deformation fol- 5
the liquid, or the like, in time intervals during lowing temperature. ‘
By way of example, the invention is illus
which the process, owing to primary regulation, .4
is at the one intensity stage, particularly the' trated in the accompanying drawings, in which
lower one.
‘
Figure 1 is a view of a heating plant with com
.
bined primary and secondary regulation; Fig. 2,
regulation directly dependent upon the length of ' a diagrammatic view of an arrangement of
the time intervals during which the regulating . secondary regulation adapted particularly for
process, owing to primary regulation, is at the railroad cars; Fig. 3, a detail view of a slide valve;
A further object is to render‘the secondary
lower or upper intensity stage.
.
A further object of the invention is to arrange
‘the secondary regulation so that the time in
s tervals of the intermittent primary regulation are
as much as possible alike.
A further object of the invention is to in?uence
secondary regulation in dependence upon the
mean value in time of the position of the primary
40 regulator or regulators, or to make it dependent
30
Fig. 4, a diagrammatic view of a special type of
‘secondary regulation by means of expansion
members.
Further detailsyof the‘ invention are fully de
35
scribed below.
It is assumed that the following conditions pre
vail:. A room is heated by .a plurality of heating
elements, some of which are capable of being dis
connected. Now if some of the heating elements
are disconnected by temperature regulators such
Another, object of the invention is to maintain as bimetal strips or thermostats, the degree of
the mean time value ofprimary regulation by efficiency of the apparatus will be less‘ when there
‘means of media which possess inertia or friction, . is less demand for heating energy. If, however,
45 such ,as inert masses, oil‘ brakes, or the like, for the temperature regulator is caused to act on the
thereupon.
~
'
.
preventing rapid motion of the regulatin'gqrmem
ber.
'
,/<~ \
' “mi”?
.
Another object of the invention is to in?uence
a single joint secondary regulationby means of a
plurality of primary regulators.
.
Another object of the invention is to control
secondary‘ regulation by an expansion member
whose expansion according to its temperature is
varied by positioning the member in the ?ow of
55 at least one medium of high or low temperature
heat‘ producer, this'takes place only ‘slowly owing
to its great inertia; Moreover, this system is im- practicable when a number of rooms with a vary
ing demand-for heating energy have to be heated. _
, The system according\ to the present inven 50
tion regulates the room temperature by connect
ing and disconnecting heating elements (primary
regulation) and in?uences the steam producer in
accordance with the entire demand for heating
energy (secondary regulation). This regulation
2,119,153
2
may be effected by increasing the heat production
continuously or intermittently when the intervals
of disconnections are short as compared with the
heating duration (static regulation) or it may be
attracts the core I‘! and thus the rod l8 against
the action of the spring I9. As, owing to the
great inertia of the oil brake 20 connected with
the rod I8, all impulses of the force of the mag
e?ected in that the secondary regulation is
adapted to keep the intervals of disconnection
constant (astatic regulation). Members operat
net l6 are united over several time intervals'to a
mean force which increases with the maintenance
ing with inertia or friction may be provided in
the regulator such as an oil cataract which
value of this time interval will be associated with
a certain position of the rod I8. Each position
of the rod I8 is associated with a certain value of 10
10 equalize sudden changes of load.
In the case of
static regulation, there is associated with each
time difference between cooling and heating in
terval a certain adjustment of the secondary
regulator but a certain rate of change of the
15 secondary regulator in the case of astatic regula
tion. The system is obviously applicable to the
heating of several rooms, the regulation being
made dependent on the relative number of simul
taneously heated rooms. If the demand for
20 heating energy for the rooms varies, it is advisable
to combine the action of the temperature regu
lator on the secondary regulator with a weight.
It, is obvious that this regulating method is
not limited to temperature, heat supply and heat
25 ing but can be generally applied wherever a state
value is to be kept within certain limits by inter
mittent changing of a process and where for any
reason the intensity stages between which the
intermittently varying‘ process is to be changed
30 over are to be subjected to an additional regu
lation. As an example, the regulation of a hot
' water heating system will be described below
(see Figure 1).
,
Referring to Fig: 1, in the room I to be heated,
85 two heating elements 2 and 3 are installed which
are supplied with hot water from the boiler 4.
Thelatter is ?red with a mixture of oil and air
which is produced when the compressor 6 driven
by the motor 5 blows air through a nozzle ‘I into
the combustion space 8 and the air, by its in
jector effect, draws in the oil required for com
bustion from the vessel 9.
The room I contains, also a thermostat l0 pro
vided‘with a rocking lever II which functions so
45 that, when a certain temperature has been
of heating at the upper intensity stage, each
the resistance 2| switched into the circuit 23 of
the motor 5 by the contact 22, and thus with a
certain motor output, a certain compressor out
put, a corresponding heating of the boiler 4 and
a certain intensity of‘the heat supply.
15
There exists, therefore, a direct static connec
tion between the length of the heating intervals
(upper intensity stage) and the degree of heating.
In the example described, the secondary regu
lation alters both intensity stages of the heat 20
supply, ina constant manner.
As a further example the regulation of a steam
heating system for railroad cars will be described
with reference to Fig. 2.
»
In each compartment a thermostat l8L of known 25
type is disposed which closes the contact 23 when
the temperature is too low, so that the magnet
coil 3“ will open the valve 4“, with the result that
the heater 5a is supplied with steam by the main
piping 6“ of the car, steam being supplied to 30
the piping 6“ by means of the main relay ‘Ia
representing the steam supplier that has to be
‘regulated secondarily by the pipe 8“.
The more
thermostats I“ simultaneously touch their con
tacts 2 and the more compartments will there
35
fore be heated simultaneously and require heating
steam,the more current flows from the train light
ing battery 9'1 through the magnet coil [0“ and
the, more forcefully will this coil attract the slide
rod l2a against the action of the spring ll'_1 and
the farther will the slide [3“ open the channel l4“. .
The farther the cross section of the channel
Mn is opened, the more quickly will the controlling
medium, e. g., steam, compressed air, or the like,
?ow from the supply I55 into the cylinder l6“
reached, it will be pressed by the spring l3 against and the more forcefully will the servo-piston I‘!3
the contact I! and remain in this position until be depressed, the control steam already present
at a certain change in temperature the thermo-: in the other half of .the cylinder escaping through
stat ID has turned to the left to such an extent the duct l8“. Corresponding to the piston mo
that the spring l3 can draw the lever II to the tion, the cross sections uncovered by the valve
right against the stop I‘. When the room tem- ‘ discs 20*’- in the main valve ‘In will be enlarged
perature has reached its lower limit, it is assumed by means of the rod I9“, and more heating steam
in this example that the lever II will strike the will be supplied. The temperature in the com
contact I! to close the circuit of battery l5 and partments will rise, reach the upper limit in some
to openthe magnetically actuated valve l6’ so of them, and their thermostats will open the. 55
that both heating elements become effective. contacts 211. As a result, the current in the coil
This upperintensity stage of heating will prevail Ill“ will decrease and the spring I I“L depress the
until the upper temperature limit is attained in slide l3“ to such an extent that the channel M“
will be shut oil‘ and the control steam flow
the room I and the rocking lever ll of the ther
mostat I0 interrupts the current and thus closes through the duct l8‘ into the cylinder l6“ and 60
the valve l6’ and renders the heater 2 inoperative push up the piston I‘!at until, owing to the throt
whereby heating is brought to its lower intensity tled heat supply, the temperature in the com
stage (primary regulation).
partment has droppedso far that some thermo
A measure for the demand for heating energy stats will operate again. At uniform operating
05 is furnished by the cooling speed as well as by condition, that is, when the cooling and heating 05
the heating speed, or by the time interval during intervals have the same length and, correspond
which heating is at the lower intensity stage and . ingly, there is always the same number of open
by the time interval during which heating is at and closed contacts 2*‘, the slide I3a will remain
the upper intensity stage. This interval is used in middle position and close both channels Hu
70 in the present instance for regulating the heating and I 8“ so as to hold the piston I‘!a in the posi 70
of the hot water boiler l and thus for regulating tion which insures the supply of the desired
the heating energy supplied (secondary'regula
tion) in the following manner: As long as the
amount of heat.
or
The speed of regulation and the quantity of
upper intensity stage is maintained, the circuit. of xi heating energy supplied per time unit increase
76 the battery "is closed and the magnet coil I‘ \Wlth the numberof simultaneously closed con 76
"2,119,153? _
tacts 2a and vice versa decrease when the num
ber. of simultaneously closed contacts decreases.
This has been termed above the astatic regulation
or secondary regulation of the upper intensit
stage of the heat supply.
.
-
Since in view of the relatively small'number of
compartments and the widely varying external
approximately the central position with respect
to‘the passages Na and 18“, the valve 'IIL will.
as a matter of fact, be‘ opened to a greater de- '
gree as more‘thermoswitches are closed. On the
contrary, it is different with the case referred
to *in case (2) above wherein, as a result of
the stimulation of nearly all the thermostats
influences on the state of heat it cannot be ex
I“, 21*, slide l3“ is'completely raised.
pected that the resultant-electric current of ‘the
case the lower closure member of the slide l3‘
.1 o control system represents at each instance a
mean free from peak values, a retarding member
33 is interposed between the magnet coil Illa actu
' ated by the current, and‘ the member 1“. The 4
retarding member comprises, as stated, the slide
15 I'3“, the cylinder I61 and piston "Hand the
‘channels Ma-and I8“ which connect‘the slides
In this i
vis-approximately exactly 'between the two open 10
ings of the passages l58 and I8“. The passage
IBS‘ is then completely free, that is,’ connected
with the atmosphere, while steam can pass into
passage MB for displacing pistonll“. It‘, now,’
some of the heat switches la, 2“ are opened,_ 15
the current subsides in coil Ill“ and slide l3‘L
and cylinders are so constructed at the slide face _ moves downwardly somewhat. Valve 1‘ itself
that with ‘the increasing deviation of the slide ‘ is, however, not shifted thereby, as the connec
from its middle position the passage of the con-~ tion between the steam passage I5‘ and the
20 trol steam and thus the heat supplied to the steam passage I8“ is not yet established, and
compartments will be progressively altered, which as a result steam cannot pass below piston l1‘
is effected by having the channels 14“ and I8’3 and raise it. Only when substantially half of
increase in width from the center'of the slide all the thermostats . la, 2il is again opened and
slide l3“ begins to pass beyond its central posi
towards the outside, as indicated in Fig. 3. ‘ At
25 slight deviations oi? the slide from central posi ‘ tion is communication between the passages l5‘ 25
tion the amount of control steam ?owing‘ into
the cylinder will, therefore, be so small that it
and i8*1 reestablished; and then only can valve
can move the piston only after the slide has re
mained for a long time in the same position or
If rooms of di?erent size have to be heated
30 frequently repeated the same deviation, whereas
in case of considerable deflections of the slide.
e. g., during heating of the car‘ when all thermo
stats hold their contacts closed, a large or the
full cross section or the channel it“ will receive
control steam and thus instantly cause the piston
l'la to open the member 1iL to a large extent, or
completely,
I
In connection with the regulating process de
scribed the following two limiting cases‘ are
40
possible:_
_
.
(1) At relatively high outer temperature the
main piping 6“, which is also passed through
the compartments, can supply the car with more
heat than required. In all compartments the
thermostats I‘1 will then open the contact 2“
and close the valve 4“. The coil Illm will become,
currentless, the spring lla will guide the slide
l3a into the lowermost position and the member
‘IE will be completely shut oil’ and remain so
until in the cooling car more than one-half of
- the thermostats‘ have closed the circuit again.
(2) At a very low outer temperature thecross
sections of the steam supply may not su?ice for
supplying enough steam for the intermittent
heating of the compartments. _A1l thermostats
will then make contact and the magnet ll) of
the main regulator will draw ‘the slide I3Finto
‘extreme position whereby the member 1“ will
be fully opened. As all individual valves will
be open also, heating will not ,be intermittent
1“ be shifted or displaced.
'
, ’
_
or rooms require di?erent temperaturea?corre- '
sponding resistances may be provided in the 30
branch circuits, so that when the various thermo
stats make contact the currents will differ in
intensity'and in?uence the main regulator dif
ferently.
_
.
-
Electric heating is carried out with the same
fundamental arrangement, with the difference.
however, that the steam valves are supplanted
by electric switches.
.
In addition to railroad heating, the invention
may be applied to the heating of houses and 40’
rooms of all kinds, and can also be pro?tably
used for regulating compressed air plants, gas
and water supply, speeds, electric quantities, and
the like.‘
;
'
-
The advantages of the above-described method 45
with respect to the construction shown in Fig; 2
are
as
follows: ’
>
.
'
A main regulator automatically supplies the
entire car with exactly the amount of heat which
is actually required.
50
Control 01' the main regulator is e?ected with
out the interposition of measuring instruments
and thus avoids all sources of error‘ connected
therewith.
.
e
“
Regulation is independent of the magnitude 55
of the output to be supplied and of'the height 7
of temperature, in so far as the limits imposed
bycross sections, de?ection of thermostats, are
not exceeded.
'
‘
I
The main regulator is neither mechanically 60
any more but continuous and, within the same ‘stressed by small peaks nor unnecessarily in
?uenced in its motion.
.
time, the double quantity of steam will be avail
Y The speed of regulation increases with demand.
able as in average operation for which the plant
The regulation is capable of supplyingheat
is intended.
'
When the upper temperature limit will then to rooms differing in operating conditions, such 65
05
‘ be reached in some compartments, the individual
. thermostats alone will operate, and only after
more than one-half of all thermostats have closed
the circuit, will the main regulator ‘Ia become
70
active.
'
It is to be understood that the current in the
coil H1“ is the stronger and thus the control
slide l3a is shifted to a greater degree the greater
' the number of thermoswitches la, 28 are closed.
76 If, as shown on Fig. '2, the control slide assumes
as different heat requirements and‘ different
temperatures. _
‘
A further important example will be described
with reference to‘Fig. 4.
-
As large forces are required-for regulating the 70
steam supply according to the relatively high
pressures up to 4 atmospheres, it appears to be
most appropriate to cause the motion by thermal
expansion, e. g., of a metal tube. If low pres- .
sure steam is used for heating the tube, its, 75
2,119,158
quantity can be controlled by a simple valve
through pipe 6“ and passes to the valve 31’, where
~ that can be operated with slight forces and
electromagnetically controlled from the com
the injector stream of the nozzle 4” again carries‘
‘it into the heating circuit. The branch pipe 2"
partments.
I
~
.
-
.
,
-
contains a nozzle ‘Ih which permits some fully
expanded steam to ?ow through the pipe 8” into
>
The other task of the valve is to insure full
utilization of the heating steam, vand this 'is ef
fected by a small valve controlled by overpres
The position of the control mem
ber lob in the slide 91’ is in?uenced by means of
' the slide 9°.
sure or the temperature of the steam (steam-air
the rods lib and l2b and the magnet core l3b .
mixture), which permits part of the steam to
10
by the windings of the coil l4b through which
?ow into'an expansion "pipe of the steam supply
regulation and thereby in?uences the valve in
the current of the compartment regulators 34 10
?ows and which'acts against the pressurelof the
the same way as if in normal operation the live
15
spring-ISM For example, if it is‘ too cold in the
steam supply had to be throttled owing to ex- ' compartments, the cooling intervals, as described
cessive temperatures in the compartments. '
in connection with the intermittent heating ac
In the examples described static and Vastatic ' cording to Figs. 1 and 2, will be shorter than the
regulation was possible; ‘In case of static‘ regu
lation each demand for energy would be asso
ciated with a certain" opening of the control
steam piping, ‘regardless of the considerably
'20 ?uctuating steam’ pressure in railroad heating.
Itgis, therefore, advisable as} a.- rule to adopt
astatic regulation which associates each change
in the demand‘for energy with a certain speed
of change of the regulator and in?uences it until,
independently of steam pressure, temperature,
‘and the like, the necessary amount of heat is
supplied.
f
'
-
»
This regulating method is .of course not re
stricted to heating, but can be applied for regu
30 lating the supply of all media'that are capable .
- of flowing.‘
,
One of the objects of‘ the invention is there
an expansion member, the expansion of which,
according to the invention, ‘is varied correspond
ing to its temperature by the‘ arrangement of
The steam passes then slowly through the
small holes in the plate 20” into the large alu
minum pipe 22'” and heats it also. The pipe 22“
q _ fore the regulation of the supply of‘ a ?owing .
.medium by means of a regulator controlled by
‘heating intervals, so v‘that the current ?owing
through the coil M" will be, on the average, quite
strong, attract the core Iiib and the rods l2b
and llb against the action of the spring l5b and
thus turn the control member l?b in the direc 20
tion of the arrow. The controlmember lob will
?rst close the pipe 8b and then open it again to
guide the steam through the pipe l‘lb and cut
off the pipe IS". The pipe l'lb passes the steam
through the wheel-like expansion member l8b 25
?rmly keyed to the rod l8b into a space formed
.by the member ‘I!!!’ and the plate 20” and heats
it to such an extent that it will quickly expand
to a considerable degree ,and hug the invar pipe
is ?rmly arranged with its left-hand end in the
frame 131' and expands therefore to the right.
During its expansion the pipe 22”, being rigidly 85
connected with the invar pipe 2|”, takes along
the latter as well as the expansion member l9“
the member in the ?ow of at.leest one medium - pressed thereon and the rod i8b made of a ma
of high or low temperature, one of which media ' terial having a low thermal expansion coe?lcient,
40 .at least is regulatable as to qu'antity.'
According to the invention‘, regulation is car
especially invar. :By means of a lever 20* dis
posed in the frame 23b‘the motion of the rod.
ried out so as to cause two expansion members _ I8!1 is increased and transmitted by the spindle
ofsame type to act on the regulator alternately
and in opposite directions. For this purpose, the
‘two members are positively coupled
. porarily with the ‘regulator.
only tem
Coupling and uncoupling is effected, according
to theinvention, by other expansion members.
which are surroundedby the same medium that
full in?uences the first members, the two diil’erent
expansion members forming a system and being
» in?uenced at different times.
25" to the valve 3'’ which thus enlarges its steam
supply passage and admits more heating steam.
The cooled steam is drawn oil’ from the pipe 22”
by means'of the nozzle‘!b and the pipes 6b and'
When su'?icient steam supply has thus been.
provided, the control currentlwill drop to its
mean value, adjust the control member Illh to
middle position and cut off the regulating steam.
' To prevent the valve 3“ from being closed again
. ‘The medium in?uencing the expansion mem by thecooling of» the pipe 22", it represents a
bers is controlled according to the invention in - relatively large mass and is insulated as at '38
.such a way that only one‘ of the expansion mem
against heat, whereas the very light“expansion
bers actuating the regulator is coupled there
member i9" is provided with large cooling sur
with at a time and adjusts it according to defor
faces 28", so that it will cool off quickly and dis
mation. This control takes place only in media fsolve its connection with the pipe 22'’ before the
having almost atmospheric pressure and can latterhas been essentially shortenedu
,
60 thus be e?’ected with feeble forces.
The excess pressure valve Z'l'i-makes it im‘
As an example, the regulation of train heating possible for the pressure in the pipe 8'’ to rise
with reference to Fig. ‘4 will be described below. while the control member I0‘7 is in middle posi
From the steam piping lb passing along the en-_
‘ tire train each car receives through the branch
As the expansion members will not hold the
pipe 2b the amount of live steam adjusted by the 'v valve rods when in cooled condition, a friction
~valve' 3b, which will be fully expanded on .com
brake 26b. is arranged on thevvalve spindle 25b
' ing out oi’ the nozzle 4'’ and ?ow into the heat
to prevent any adjusting effect 'of vibrations, or
ing piping 5b of the car. The heating medium the like.
l ,->
'
?ows from the nozzle 4'' into the main heat pas- '
Small deviations of the control member l0b
sage’ of the railway vehicle and from there from its middle position do not in?uence the reg 70
through the valve 34 controlled according to the ulation, as considerable deviations are required
tion.
compartment temperature through thermostat 36
into the heat'pipe 35 of the individual-car com
partments,‘ where it gives oi! its heat to great
75 degree. The uneonsumed steam flows further
/
-
'
beforethe pipe 8'’ will be opened by the broad
end of the member I0".
I '
,
If for any reason too much-‘Heating energy is
supplied, the magnet Mb will push the control
2,119,153.
member iOb into the position shown. in Fig‘. 4; I -a room according to claim 1, a braking member,
‘in the second-expansion pipe the same process said secondary ‘regulator being coupled to said
goes on as in the ?rst pipe, and, the valve 3“ braking member and being delayed thereby to
cause the admission of an increasing amount oi.‘
is closed by the expansion thereof.
,
The elements in the second expansion pipe 22b’ ' heating medium into said line in accordance with
correspond to the elements in the ?rst expansion, an increasing frequency-and duration of opera
pipe 22'“, and are separately indicated by the tion of said primary regulator as in?uenced by
the temperature of said space per time unit.
prime mark on the letter b'after the correspond
3. In an arrangement for regulating the tem- .
ing numerals. ‘
'
Should, during sudden temperature jumps, an perature of a plurality of enclosed spaces, com 10
10
, expansion member be heated with steam before,
prising a main supply line, at-least one heat .
radiating member in each space, a. plurality of
lines for conducting a ?owing heating medium
other expansion pipe, damage to the ,rods will be ' connected to said members and said‘ main sup
15 prevented by the spring 32*’ which connects the ply line, a primary regulator consisting of ‘ther 15
mostats subject to thetemperature of said spaces,
second control rod l8!” with the lever 24“.
To prevent excess pressure in the heating sys "valve means in each of said lines adjacent said.
tem, particularly when cold cars are heated by heat radiating members for increasing or re
' too much live steam, the pipe 61' contains a relief tarding the how of the medium, means connect—
in the other system, the expansion member Iiib
can-cool oif and sever its connection with the
20 valve 30‘) which guides the steam through the
ing each of said thermostats to said valve means. 20
pipes" 3|b and iiib to the'expansion pipe which" in the respective lines whereby the latter is re
. sponslve to changes in vthe former ‘and a. single
throttles the steam supply by its elongation.
This regulating method affords ‘the following secondary regulator adapted to control continu- I
ously the quantity of heat delivered to said main
25 ‘Without employing sensitive mechanical parts supply line, said secondary regulator being re 25"
sponsive to, the combined action of any number
or measuring instruments, the supply of a heat
advantages:
“
v
,
‘
ing medium can be controlled‘both as to the
so
temperature of the room to be heated and its
variation (statics and astatic regulation). The
possibility of astatic regulation involves the
special advantage of adapting the steam supplied
to the heating elements to the demand only,
‘regardless of pressure and temperature, which is
of primary regulators.
‘
4. In an arrangement for regulating a room
temperature at least one heating element to
which a heating agent is supplied through a pipe. 30,
an intermittently operating primary regulator
sensitive to the’: room temperature and adapted
to vary the heat supplied to the heating element
effected by causing the control member I01’ to _ between an upper and a lower stage, "a secondary ,
regulator adapted to vary continuously the heat 35
occupy its middle position as soon as, on the
supplied to the primary regulator and the' heat
average, the heating time in the compartments
is equal to the cooling time, whereby the re
sultant current of all thermostats in?uences the
ing element, and means for displacing the sec
member lob with its mean value.. This middle
the primary regulator.
40 position is therefore independent of the kind of
in?owing steam, as it can be brought about at
any position of the regulator.
Furthermore, this method makes it possible to
control regulators in 'high pressure pipings,
which require great forces for their adjustment,
by a very feeble force, as the'controlling parts
move approximately at atmospheric pressure.
The regulating method described may-be ap
plied where hot liquids, steam or gases are to
.be supplied 'in regulatable quantities, particularly
in the chemical industries, or where relatively
' cold media are concerned, as in the refrigerating
ondary regulator according to the operation of
'
'
'
5. In an arrangement for regulating a‘room '
temperature at least one heating element to
which ‘a heating agent is supplied through a,
pipe, a valve in the heating agent feed which per
mits variation of the heat supplied to the heat
ing element intermittently between an upper and
a lower value, a primary regulator consistingof
a thermostat sensitive to the room temperature
and means for actuating said valve dependent
on the operation of the thermostat,‘ a secondary
regulator for displacing a main, valve which is
adapted to vary continuously the heat supplied
to the valve of the primary regulator through
the pipes, and'means for continuously actuating
Where ‘hot liquids or vapors are available it the secondary regulator dependent on the num
the operations of the
inQ1 might further be economical to regulate with . bar and the duration of
‘
.
i
their aid the supply of media which are capable primary regulator.
6. An arrangement for regulating a room tem
of ?owing, especially when they are‘ under high
pressure, no matter what temperature they may perature comprising at least one heating element
supplied with a heating medium by a pipe, a valve
in
i said pipe intermittently controlling the‘
',
I
claim:—
_
60
1. In anarrangement for heating an enclosed amount of heating medium supplied-to- said heat
‘ ; ‘space comprising a heating medium ?owing in a ing element, a primary regulator consisting of a
thermostat actuated by the room‘ternperature
line through said space, a primary regulator con
and an electromagnet actuating said valve, said
sisting of a thermostat subjectto the tempera
ture of said space, valve means in said line for electromagnet having an ‘exciting circuit con
increasing or retarding the ?ow of said medium,. trolled by said‘thermostat, a secondary regulator
~means connecting said thermostat and said.valve adapted to control continuously the amount of
means whereby the latter is responsive to changes heating medium supplied to said'ipipe, an electro
in the former, continually operating means for magnet controlling said secondary regulator, and
heating said medium, a secondary regulator said electromagnet of the secondary regulator 70
adapted to increase or diminish the speed of having an exciting circuit electrically connected
to said {exciting circuit of said electromagnet of
heating of said medium per time 'unit, said sec
‘
ondary regulator being controlled within limits the primary regulator.
industry.
have
themselves.
.
,
_
v
-
above zero by said primary regulator. >
2.’ Arrangement for regulating the heating of
7. In an arrangement according tociaim' 3,_
an electromagnet connected to' ‘said valve means,
t
_
t
_
2,119,153
an exciting coil for said ‘magnet controlled by I low coefficient of expansion,. said metal pieces
said means connecting each oif said magnets with
being adapted upon heating thereof to press
tightly against the inner walls or said tubes, and
said valve mea'ns,' an electromagnet connected
to said secondary regulator, said second named
magnet having an exciting coil, an electrical
means connecting the exciting coil of the sec
ondary regulator with said exciting coil oi! each
, valve means.
8. In an arrangement for regulating a room
10 temperature, at least one heating element sup~
plied with steam through a pipe,'an intermit
tently operating primary regulator responsive to
room temperature controlling valve means reg
ulating the amount of steam supplied to said,
15 heating element, a secondary regulator control
ling the amount of steam supplied to said-pipe
to be loosed theretrom immediately upon cooling.
_
l0.-An arrangement for regulating a r03
temperature according to claim 8, an exha .,
pipe connected to said heating element, an je'x- -
cessv pressure valve in said exhaust pipe and con~
nected to one of said expansion pipes, said pres
sure valve being adapted to allow the exhaust" 10
steam to pass at an increased pressure into said
expansion pipe, said expansion pipe being re
sponsive to said exhaust steam to close said. sec
ond valve,
‘
'
.
11. In an arrangement for regulating the tem
perature of a plurality of enciosedspaces pro
by” actuation of a second valve in said pipe, said vided with individual heating elements heated
\ secondary regulator comprising an electromagnet by steam passing through a supply pipe into said
responsive to said primary regulator, two ex
heating elements, a primary regulator in each
panslon members coupled to said second valve, ~space, means controlled by said primary reg
and an ‘auxiliarytvalve controlled by said electro
ulator to change the supply of steam to said
magnet of‘ said'second‘ary regulator, said aux
heating elements, a single secondary regulator
15'
I iliary valve being adapted and arranged to con- _, for allot-said spaces, a throttle valve responsive
duct said'steam either into one or the other oi’ to said primary regulator and positioned in said.
said expansion pipes. »
I
'9. An arrangement for regulating a‘ room tem
perature‘ according to‘ claim 8, rod means con
necting said second valve with said expansion
supply pipe and continuously controlling the 25
amount of. steam ?owing through said supply
pipe, said throttle valve comprising a piston ac
tuated by steam from said pipe and a control
members, said expansion members comprising - slide actuated by‘ said secondary-remator.
cylindrical metal pieces having a large coe?lcient
oi’ expansion positioned within tubes having a
WALTER DKLLENBACH.
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