close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2119169

код для вставки
May 31, 1938.
H. LAUF
2,119,169
GAS OPERATED GUN LOADING DEVICE
Filed Sept. 16, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
HANS LAUF
„7m/enfer:
Attovnçqs.'
May 31,1938.
H, LAUF
2,119,169
GAS OPERATED GUN LOADING DEVICE
Filed Sept. 16, 1936
2 Shee‘bS-Shee‘l‘l 2
HANS LAUF
135mg@ .
Nin/TEW I
Patented May 31, 1938l
Y
_UNITED sTATi-:s
2,119,169
PATENT OFFICE'
' 2,119,169
GAs-orEBArED GUN LoAnnvG DEvrcE
l _ Hans Lauf, Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany, as
signor to Knorr-Bremse Aktiengesellschaft,
Berlin-Lichtenberg, Germany
Application September 16, 1936, Serial No. 101,160
In Germany September 19, 1935- ~
This‘invention relates to a device for transmit
ting the gas pressure in gas-operated gun loaders
so as to utilize in a particularly» effective manner
the gas pressure developing in the barrel during
5
discharge of a projectile. for actuating the
breech.
-
>
‘
It was the usual practice hitherto to draw off
the gas pressure in gas-operated gun loaders at a
point located more or less closely to the breech
10 by spot drilling the barrel within the riñed por
tion thereof. As this tapping point was, how
ever, particularly exposed to the action of the
powder gases, it could become easily clogged and
thus cause jamming of the loader. In other in
15 stances, the tap opening was burnt out and there
by enlarged, which had an unfavorable influence
upon the motion of the projectile, or solid residue
of combustion settled on the opening with the re
sult that the jacket of the projectile was dam
20 aged and the ballistic properties of the latter were
detrimentally affected. In all such cases the
weapon equipped with a gas-operated loader dis
closed already after a very short time consider
able dispersion and consequently low accuracy of
25
sighting.
vention 'as a cylinder open on one side, which
overlaps a sleeve disposed in the outlet end of the
nozzle. Owing to this arrangement, considerable
pressure is exerted upon the weapon in forward
direction in the manner of a muzzle gland, so that
not only the recoil during discharge is reduced
to a very great extent but rising of the muzzle
during continual firing completely eliminated.
The invention further provides for arranging
around the outlet end of the nozzle a casing which 10
serves also as carrier for the front sight. On its
side facing the muzzle the casing possesses out
let openings through which the gases can escape
when the gas piston has been thrown forward, in
consequence whereof the breech is relieved of 15
counter-pressure and can return to firing posi
tion and during return of the gas piston residue
of combustion and particles of dirt together with
the gases of explosion are ejected through the
openings.
Soiling is thus eifectively prevented 20
which, as experience shows, easily leads to com
plete failure in such gas-operated. loaders.
The device according to the invention may be
used also for guns of larger caliber, such as anti
aircraft guns, etc.
By Way of example, one form of the invention is 25
Compared with the known art, the invention
does not resort to drilling the barrel within the illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in ~
riñed portion thereof to discharge the gases but which Figure l is a section of the front part of
collects them in front of the muzzle by means of the barrel with the device according to the in
vention attached thereto, the position of the gas
30 a nozzle of special construction, so that gases piston corresponding to the ñring position of the 30
that can be utilized for driving the projectile are
not consumed ‘any more for loading motions and breech; Fig. 2 shows the device with the gas pis
the initial velocity of the projectile is not reduced Aton in a position corresponding to the opening
position of the breech; Fig. 3 is a longitudinal
accordingly.
section of the nozzle at the muzzle; Fig. 4, a view 35
`Until
the
projectile
leaves
the
barrel
motions
of
35
the parts and displacements of weight connected of the nozzle seen from the left; Fig. 5, a view of
the nozzle seen from the right; Fig. 6. an external
therewith do not occur within the weapon, where
by the eñectiveness of the gun is increased and view of the nozzle; Fig. 7, a longitudinal section
soiling- of the opening members by unburnt grains of the casing at the outlet end of the nozzle; and
40
40 of powder prevented». As the gas channel in the Fig. 8, a front view thereof.
riñed portion of the barrel is dispensed with, it
cannot become clogged and thereby cause cessa
tion of ñring or vary the speed of firing owing to
burning out. The new arrangement further pre
45 vents damage to the jackets of projectiles and
thus enhances security of iiring.
To make possible the collection of the gases in
front of the muzzle the invention provides for
extending the length of the barrel and fitting the
50 extension with a larger bore than the actual bar
rel, the extension having the larger bore being
either integral with the barrel or a separate mem
‘ber that may be screwed to the barrel. To the
extension a nozzle is attached which is provided
55 with a channel which serves for drawing od and
passing on the gases of explosion. The outlet end
of the nozzle cooperates with a gas piston which
transmits its motion to the breech for instance by
tubular rods. To insure proper initial guiding of
the piston it is constructed according to the in
The barrel l is provided with the usual spiral
grooves la and has an extension or muzzle por
tion 2 extending from the mouth of the rifled
part, the internal diameter of which is somewhat
greater than the part provided with the spiral 45
grooves. The tubular part of a nozzle 3 is slid on
the barrel extension 2. Nozzle 3 contains a chan
nel 4 which, at its outlet end, is extended parallel
to the bore of the barrel I, said channel having a
somewhat turbine blade-like curve in the tubular
part of the nozzle and having its inlet end
bifurcated to extend to two diametrically opposite,
lateral openings Il in the muzzle portion 2 of the
barrel. As shown on Figs. 1, 2, and 3, the chan
nel 4 is shaped in the vicinity of the perforations
Il so that the gas passing through the barrel
from the rear forwardly is not subjected to an
abrupt deviation on passing into the passage 4 of
nozzle 3, but is diverted in a. curved path from
anales
5
its original direction of now, whereby the forma
the extension 2, as considerable powder'gas resi->
tion of eddy currents is prevented. The curved
path also allows the gas to retain its kinetic
energy which is ultimately expended against a
due can collect, after prolonged nring oi' the gun,
around the openings Il without building up sut
Piston.
and thus deiieot it from its true course.
As shown on Figs. 1 and 2, the mouth of the
channel l, disposed parallel with the barrel I,
can be constructed as a sleeve 4b screwed at 4a
into the nozzle l, which, however. is not an in
dispensable requirement. Sleeve lb extends into
the cylindrical tube l2, in which the gas pressure
piston l is located, which, by means oi the tubu
lar transmission I, actuates the lock or loading
mechanism of the weapon. Piston 5 is construct
15 ed as a hollow cylinder at 5a so that, in the po
sition shown on Fig. l, it telescopically engages
sleeve lb which is the mouth o! channel l, and
thus promotes the required powerful gas action
on the piston 5. Attached to the front end of the
20 cylindrical tube I2 is the housing 1 encompassing
the nozzle 3, said housing> 1 serving at the same
time as a support for a part of the sighting de
vice, namely the ijoresight 8. The inner` cham
ber of this housing is conically enlarged at 'la in
25 the direction toward the muzzle of barrel i, and
its front closure wall has a plurality of large gas
outlet openings il (see Figs. 7 and 8). 'I'hese out
let openings provide an easy egress for the gas
which has acted to throw back the piston. Be
30 cause of openings 9 the powder residue contained
in the gas has no opportunity, as in known weap
ons, to deposit in the piston chamber in large
amounts in a very short period of time to such
extent that the- effectiveness of the weapon is
reduced. The chamber Il), which corresponds to
the stroke volume of the rear surface 5a of piston
r5, exerts a damping action on the movement oi.’
the latter.
In order that the gas can pass oi! through all
40 the outlet openings il with the minimum of ex
ternal resistance, the part of the nozzle housing
3 which is in front of one or more of the open
ings .0 is tapered conically toward the openings 9.
This conical taper is designated by the numeral
45 I3.
The new device functions as follows:
When the projectile passes through the ex
panded portion of the muzzle, the gases of ex
plosion enter the nozzle 3 and thereby exert
50 considerable pressure upon the gas piston 5 which
is thrown to the right and thus causes the with
drawal of the breech, not shown. As can be clear
ly observed from the open cylindrical construction
5a of the piston 5 as shown in the drawings,
the gases expand within the cylindrical piston
until the piston has moved sumciently so that it
no longer telescopically engages the sleeve 4b.
The gases can then escape through the openings
9 to relieve the piston 5 of pressure, and the
60 movement of the piston is damped by the air
cushion within the chamber I0. When the
breech is advanced again, the gas piston 5 is
moved to the left and ejects the remaining gases
of explosion as well as particles of dirt and resi
65 due on combustion if any through the openings 9.
These motions of the piston 5 are continued until
it occupies again the position shown in Fig. 1.
An advantage is obtained in forming the ex
tension 2 as an integral part of the barrel I in
70 asmuch as a warping, due to heat developed in
iiring the gun, of the extension relativeto the
riiied portion of the barrel is prevented. Conse
quently the true movement of the projectile is
not affected by heating oi' the parts. Another
75 advantage is obtained from the enlarged bore of
nciently to intercept the path of the projectile.
I claimz-
`
1. A gas pressure operated gun comprising a
barrel, a barrel casing, a gas pressurecylinder
and a piston movable therein adapted to actuate
a loading mechanism, the muzzle portion ofthe 10
barrel having an enlarged bore, two oppositely
arranged outlet openings for combustion gases
in said bore, a nozzle attachment surrounding
said muzzle portion and containing a channel
which communicates with said outlet openings,
and a housing on said pressure cylinder having
apertures directed towards the muzzle end of
said barrel, the interior of said housing being
shaped like a funnel opening towards said aper
ures.
20
2. A pressure operated gun comprising a' bar
rel, a barrel casing, a gas pressure cylinder and
a piston movable therein adapted to, actuate a
loading mechanism, said piston having a hollow
cylindrical end section, the muzzle portion oi.' 25
the barrel having an enlarged bore, two zippo--~
sitely arranged outlet openings for combustion
gases in said bore, a nozzle attachment surround
ing said muzzle portion and containing a chan
nel which communicates with said outlet open
ings, the outlet end oi' said nozzle attachment
being formed as a guideway for the cylindrical
end of said piston, and a housing on said pres
sure cylinder having apertures directed towards
the muzzle end of said barrel, the interior of said 35
housing being shaped like a funnel opening to
wards said apertures.
3. A pressure operated gun comprising a bar
rel, a barrel casing, a gas pressure cylinder and
a piston movable therein adapted to actuate a 40
loading mechanism, said piston having a hollow
cylindrical end portion, the muzzle portion of the
barrel having an enlarged bore, two oppositely
arranged outlet openings for combustion gases in
said bore, a nozzle attachment surrounding said 45
muzzlevportion and containing a channel which
communicates with said outlet openings, a sleeve
secured to the outlet end of said nozzle attach
ment and being formed as a guideway for the
cylindrical end of said piston, and a housing on 50
said pressure cylinder having apertures directed
towards the muzzle end of said barrel, the in
terior of said housing being shaped like a funnel
opening towards said apertures.
4. A pressure operated gun comprising a bar 55
rel, a barrel casing, a gas pressure cylinder and
a piston movable therein adapted to actuate a
loading mechanism, said piston having a hollow
cylindrical end section, the muzzle portion of the
barrel having an enlarged bore, two oppositely 60
arranged outlet openings for combustion gases
in said bore, a nozzle attachment surrounding
said muzzle portion and containing a channel
which communicates with said outlet openings,
a sleeve secured to the outlet end of said nozzle 65
attachment, said sleeve being formed as a guide
way for the cylindrical end of said piston, and
a housing on said pressure cylinder having aper-"
tures directed towards the muzzle end of said
barrel, the interior of said casing being shaped 70
like a funnel opening towards said apertures, the
wall of said nozzle attachment facing said aper
tures being wedge-shaped.
HANS LAUF.
75
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
402 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа